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Vol. 8 (i) 


First Published 1904 
Tliis series 1987 

Published by 
' .2fl:S.-tosari Road, Daryaganj 
New Deihi-110002 (India) 


The Purana which describes the occurrences of the 

The sahject-matter. 

Isana Kalpa and was related by Agni to 
Vasistha, is called Agneya. It consists 

of sixteen thousand stanzas distributed in three hundred 

and eighty-three chapters. The Puranas have obtained the 
name of Panchalakshana because their contents generally 
embrace five topics namely (i) Primary creation, or cosmo- 
gony, (2) secondary creation, (3) genealogy of gods and 
patriarchs, (4) reigns of the Manus, (5) history ot the solar 
and lunar dynasties. The definition does not however neces- 
sarily signify that the Puranas exclusively deal with these 
topics only. On the contrary, every Purana dwells at length 
on one or more particular subjects and in some, these five 
primary topics occupy a very subordinate position. Our re- 
mark is particularly applicable to Agni Purana more than 
three-fourths of which have no connection however with 
the five principal topics. In the introduction Suta describes 
the subjects of knowledge, and therefore, the subject matter 
of this Purana, is two-fold— namely Pardvidya, sacred 
knowledge or theology and Apari Vedya, profane know*- 
ledge or the arts and sciences known to the people, The 
subject matter of the Agni Purana is thus described in the 

ASNI said Vishnu is the fire of universal dissolution 
and I am Rudra- 1 will communicate unto thee the essence of 
learnings, the Purana, that is. the cream of all sciences and 
the cause of all ; (13) [Containing an account of] creation 
and dissolution, of various families, periods of Manu and 
genealogies. The Lord Tishnu assumes the forms of fish, 
tortoise &. There ate two sciences, superior and inferior. 
O twice-bom one, the Vedas, Rik, Yayusb, Saman and 

[ ii ] 

Athamn, tlie six auxilliaries of the Vedas, namely (SikshS), 
the science of proper articulation and pronounciation 
(Kalpa) ritual or ceremonial, (Vyakarana) grammar 
(Nirukla) etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words 
Oyotish) astronomy, (Chhandas) science of prosody, 
(Abbidb5na) lexicon, Mimansh, Dharma Sastras, Pura- 
nakas, Nyaya, medical science, musical science, the science 
of archery and Political economy— these ail are the inferior 
sciences. The superior science is that by which Brahma is 
comprehended {14— 17). I will describe unto thee the great 
Pur3».a, Agni, containing the great and eternal science of 
Brat na, that which is invisible, incomprehensible, stable and 
eter;.i!j and is the cause of fish and other forms, recounted 
onto me by Vishnu and unto the celestials in the days of yore 
by B ahmi (i8 — 19). 

Ir. the general treatment of the subjects the author, how- 

Thf jBaetal character. fi’f* principal 

topics which should constitute a Purana 
He even loses sight of the two-fold knowledge, divine and 
secular set forth by him originally in the introduction. He 
has introduced a number of topics, useful to men, without 
any system or method. His work is more like an Encyclo- 
^la, containing a varilty of useful topics bearing on later 
Sansknt learning for Vedic rituals arc seen no where in the 

Tfie contents of this Parana clearly show that it has no 

and q't ‘mpartially treats of Vaishnava, Saiva, 

indSaktafortns of worship. It is more a compendium of 

particular form 

ditisiM Ifth P 

the ffeneni cL “^*”**’ Wilson thus remarks on 

the general character of this Parana. 

^oentll^ h * works ; that conse- 

9««tl, ha. no claim in it«u to any great antiquity, 

[ ui 3 

although from tha absence any exotic materials, it might be 
pronounced earlier, with perhaps a few exceptions, than the 
Mahomedan invasion. From the absence also of a control 
versial or sectarial spirit, it is probably anterior to the 
struggles that took place in 8th and 9th centuries of our era 
between the followers of Siva and Vishnu. As a mere com- 
pilation however, its date is of little importance, except as 
furnishing a testimony to that of the materials of which it is 
composed. Many of these may pretend no doubt to con- 
siderable antiquity, particularly the legendary accounts of 
the Avataras, the section on regal policy and judicature and 
genealogical chapters, how far the rest may be ancient is 
perhaps questionable, for there can be little doubt that the 
Purana, and comprehending such incongruous admixtures^ 
is not the entire work as it at first stood* It is not unlikely 
that many chapters were arbitarily supplied about 8 or 9 
centuries ago, and a few perhaps even later, to fill up the 
chasms which time ^nd accident had made in the original 
Agneya Parana/* 

He again remarks in his introduction to the Vishnu 

The cyclopsedicai character of the Agni Purana, as it is 
now described, excludes it from any legitimate claims to be 
regarded as a Purana, and proves that its origin cannot be 
very remote. It is subsequent to the Itihasas, to the chief 
work on grammar, rhetoric, and medicine, and to the intro- 
duction of the Tantrik worship of Devi. When this tatter 
took place, is yet far from determined ; but there is every 
probability that it dates long after the beginning of our era. 

The materials of the Agni Purana are, however, no doubt, 
of some antiquity. The medicine of Susruta is considerably 
older than the ninth century; and the grammar of Panint 
probably precedes Christianity. The chapters on archery 
and arms, and on regal administration, are also distinguished 
by an entirely Hindu character, and must have beea written 

i ] 

long anterior to the Mahomedan invasion. So far the Agni 
Parana is valuable, as embodying and preserving relics of 
antiquity, although compiled at a more recent dale. 

Professor Wilson gives the following summary of the 
contents of this Parana which will give 
SoBunaiy. readers some idea of the numerous 

subjects treated of in this work. 

The early chapters of this Purana describe the Avataras, 
and in those of R^ma and Krishna, avowedly follow the 
Ramayaoa and Mahabharata. A considerable portion is 
uppropriated to instructions for the performance of religious 
ceremonies^ many of which belong to the Tantrik rituals 
and are apparently transcribed from the principal authorities 
of that system. Some belong to mystical forms of Saiva 
worship, little known in Hindusthan, though perhaps, still 
practised in the south. One of these is the Diksha or inita* 
tioD ot a novice : by which with numerous ceremonies and 
mvocation, in which the mysterious monosyllables of Tantras 
are constantly repeated, the disciple is transformed into a 
liviag personation of Siva, and receives, in that capacity, 
Ae homage of his Guru. Interspersed with these are chapters 
descriptive of the earth and of the universe, which are 
same as those of the Vishnu Purana ; and Mahatmyas or 
legeods of the holy places, particularly of Gaya. Chapters 
m the duties of kings and on the art of war then occur, 
wUch have the appearance of being extracted from some 
older work, as is, undobtedly, the chapter on judicature, 
which fdtaws them, and which is the same as he text of the 
Mkaki^ra. Subsequent to these we have an account of the 
Auftmtion and arrangement of the Vedas and Puranas and, 
in a chapter on gifts, we have a description of the Puranas, 
wUA k precisely the same and in the tame situation, as the 
siaMiar subject in the Matsya Purana. The genealogical 
ch^^ers are meagre lists, differing, in a few respects, from 
thorn ammaalf received, as hereafter noticed, but un- 

C V ] 

accompanied by any particulars such as those recorded or 
invented in the Markandeya. The next subject is medicine^ 
compiled, avowedly, but injudiciously, from the Susruta. A 
series of chapters on the mystic worship of Siva and Devi 
follows ; and the work winds up with a treatise on rhetoric, 
prosody, and grammar according to the Sutras of Pingala 
and Panini. 

It is extremely difficult to find out exactly the period 
when this cyclopaedic work was written. 

Date. t , 1 r 

It was undoubtedly written long before 
the Mahomedan invasion. '*The chapters, twelfth to fifteenth, 
in which a synopsis of the Ramayana and Mahabharata is 
given, conclusively prove that the work was written long after 
Ramayana and the Mahabharata and at a time when those 
works had become very old and abstracts of them, were 
likely to be prized by the general readers/ This is the view 
of Dr. Rajendra Lala Mitra. Besides many mystic rites, 
mantras and ceremonies, with which this Purana teems and 
many of which are entirely obsolete now and thoroughly 
inexplicable clearly prove its antiquity* The mantras are 
generally of the Tantric type. It may be that this work 
might have been written after Tantric form of worship had 
been introduced in this country. The likely inference is that 
this work was written after the Tantric period and as the 
author wanted to make a compilation of the history, mytho- 
logy, rites, ceremonials, &c., of the Hindus for the informa- 
tion of the general readers be gave an account of many 
obsolete rites and mantrams that were in vogue in very 
ancient time. 

The nuoiberless obsolete rites, ceremonials and mantrams 

, ^ . described in this Parana, are of no in- 

important topics . ^ ^ 

terest to a general reader. But the 

chapters on medicine, materia medica and pharmacy as wdl 

as those on the treatment of elephants and horse diseases 

are highly interesting. Besides an exhaustive account of 

[ Vi ] 

Para*Vidya and the science of Brahma occurs in this 
Purana. It is a very interesting account and will prove, 
without doubt, highly useful. to the readers. The chapters on 
Law-Courts, Judicial Officers, evidences, inheritance, boun- 
dary and other disputes, &c., may not be very useful to those 
who are .familiar with the law literature of the Hindus codi- 
fied by Manu, Mitakarshara &c., but they will afford a very 
profitable and interesting study to the general readers who 
have not the time and patience to go through those volumi- 
nous treatises. The subject of training in the use of arms and 
armour is treated in tour chapters; of these archery is prin- 
cipally dealt with. These chapters are highly interesting 
and their abstracts will be found in Dr. Wilson’s ** essay on 
the Art of War as known to the Hindus.” Dr. Rajendra 
Laia Mitra thus writes on the subject of Gaja Ayurveda 
and the veterinary art treated of in this Purana. 

‘*The subject is named Gaja Ayurjveda and is explained 
by one called PSIakapya and the latter, instead of addressing 
Susruta, makes Lomapada, king of Anga, the receiver of 
his instructions. At the close of chapter 291 Agni dis- 
tinctly says that the instructions regarding horses had been 
imparted by Salihotra to Susruta and those regarding ele- 
phants had been communicated by Palakapya to the king of 
Anga; “the obvious inference is that the two names indicate 
not the same but two different persons. 

In the next chapters Dhanwantari again takes up the 
thread of the discourse and dwells at some length on the 
value of the horse as a vehicle, and proper times and modes 
of using the animal. He concludes by saying that he would 
quote the words of Salihotra on the good and bad points of 
horses and on the veterinary art. Accordingly chapcet 288th 
is devoted to the quotation in question. Salihotra is said 
to have been a Rishi of great renown who had acquired 
the veterinary art from the celestial horse doctors the two 
Aswins and had written the first book on the subject for 

C vii ] 

human use. His work has not yet been met with, but an 
abridgment of it by Nakula, the fourth of the Pandu brothers, 
is still current and veterinary art is in India indicated by 
the name of the Rishi, The vernacular form in northern India 
and also in Bengal is Saluteri and the practitioner of the art 
Salt* ter. In the reign of Gliiasuddin Muhammad Shah GhtU 
zai, A. H. 783-A.B. 1381, a Sanskrit work, styled Salotar 
appeared in a Persian dress under the name of Kurrat*ul^ 
fnulk and extended to 41 pages. Even before that, an Aarabic 
version had appeared under the name of Kitabul Baitarat, 
and subsequently in the reign of Shah Jahan a Persian trans- 
lation was prepared of a Sanskrit work named Salotorai 
which extended to 16,000 slokas. There is nothing however 
to show whether the original of any of these three versions 
was the work of Salihotra or a later compilation on farrjery. 
Seeing that the word Saloteri is now become a commotr 
noun for farriery, I am of opinion, that the Persian versions 
were not taken from the original, work of Salihotra, but froin 
a later compilation, and this is confirmed by the fact of the 
originals of the three veisions having been of very unequal 
lengths. It is doubtful if the verses quoted in the Agni 
Purana retain the ipsissitna verba of Salihotra or are para* 


Chapter I, '^Customary Salutation* Conference between Suta and 
Sanaka. Suta volunteers a narration of the A^nipuraiiain* as disclosed 
to him by the holy Vyasai who in his turn learned it from Vashista. 
Enumeration of the different branches of learning'" dealt with in the 
present Puranam ... ... ... ... ... i-*- 9 

Chapter U. — The Fire-God narrates to the holy Vashistha^ all 
about the Fish-manifestation of the Supreme Vishnu ... 9 — 13 

Chapter III.— The God of Fire describes the Tortoise incarnation 
of Vishnu, and the inr'*dents of his life on earth ... ... 13— ao 

Chapter IV* — The same continued ... ... 20— ^>5 

Chapter V. — The Fire-God gives a summary of the Ramayanam. 
The preparation of the sacrificial Payasha — The birth of Ram and 
his four brothers— The sending out of Ram and Lakshmana by their 
lather to defend the sacrifice of the holy Vishvamitra against depre^ 
dations by Rakshascs— Rama destroys the monstress Tadaka-** 
Rama and Lakshmana accompany the holy sage Vishvamitra to the 
bow-sacrifice of Janaka, the king of Mithila, — Rama breaks in twain 
the redoubtable bow — Marriage of Rama and his brothers with the 
princesses of that principality.*^Their return’ to Ayodhya with their 
newly married brides ... ... ... 25—34 

Chapter Vl.—Narada takes up the thread of the narrative.— Pro** 
posed installation of Rama on the throne of Ayodhya. — The necessary 
preparation for the inaugaration ceremony— Conference between the 
queen Kaikeyi and her hand-maid Manthara— The evil counsels of 
the latter— Kaikeyi asks Dasaratha to proclairp her son Bharata as the 
crown-prince of the realm — Dasaratha is forced to comply with her 
request as bound by a previous oath — Rama, Lakshmana and Sita 
are sent in exile — Dasaratha reiates to Koushalya the incident of his 
killing a Muni's son in the forest, and of his curse. — The death of Dasa- 
ratha — Bharat returns to Ayodhya — His expostulations with Rama in 
the forest to tesume his birth-right — Rama's refusal— Bharata's stay at 
Nandigram as the proconsul of Rama ... ... ... 34— 

Chapter VI L — Narada proceeds with the story — Rama receives 
celestial weapons from the holy sage Agastya — He leaves the berinit-* 
age of the latter, and repairs to the forest of Dandaka — The monstres« 
Surpanakha meets Rama in the forest and courts his love — Her desire 
to devour Lakshmana and the beautiful Sita — Disfigurement of her 
person by Lakshmana — Surpanakha secs her brother Khara in her 
disgrace— Khara attacks Rama with his Rakshases, and is killed— 
Surpanakha plans revenge with her brother Havana, who sends Martcha 
to entice away Rama from the cottage, in the form of a golden deer— 
Havana carries awaya Sita in his island home in the The bird* 

Iring-Jatayu fights Havana on the way, and is killed— Rama killi 
isayandiia, who freed of curse, advises him to make a common cAuse 
WUtfSugrivr ... ... ... 



Chaptkr VI!l*-~Rama’s lamentation on the banks of the Pampa— ' 
His meeting with Sugriva— Rama pierces the seven Tala trees with a 
single shaft, and kills Dundhuvi— Rama kills Vali and confers his wife 
Tara and the kingdom of Kiskinda on Sugriva— The latter sends out 
soldiers in ail directions in quest of Sita—The monkey soldiers return 
and disclose to Rama and Sugriva all they have gathered from Jatayu, 

about the whereabouts of the beautiful Sita ... ... 

Cn^^PTfiR IX.— Hanumana leaps over to Lanka, and finds her out 
in the forest of Ashoka — Conference between Hanumana and Sita, who 
gives him a jewel as a memento— Hanumana sees Havana and per* 
^trates heavy damages to the city and her mango-groves — Hanumana 
crosses over to India and communicates the news to Rama, with 
Angada and others— Rama repairs. to the ocean-shore, gets a bridge 
constructed with the advice the Ocean-God, makes friend with Bibhi- 
shana, and enters Lanka with his troops ... 42 — ^47 

Chapter X. — Rama sends Angada to Havana demanding the sur* 
render of Sita — Havana declares war — The war described — Havana, 
in hi^ disaster arouses his brother Kiimbhukarna out of sleep — The fail 
of the Rakshasa-generals in succession — Havana meets Rama in a sii^Ie 
combat* The fall of Havana and the meeting of Rama and Sita — The 
installation of Bibhishana on the throne of Lanka — Rama’s return 
ia Ayodhya. with Sita and Laksbmana in the aerial car, Fushpaka 


Chapter XL — Agastya sees Hama and narrates to him a history 
of the birth of Havana and his brothers. Lakshmana sUys the monster 
Lavana — Bharata slays the Gandharbha Shailashu — The exile of Sita— 
The birth of the two sons of Rama — His accession to heaven ... 50— 5 1 

Chapter XII. — The God of Fire describes the birth of Krishna in 
the womb of Devaki, — Krishna exchanged with the daughter of 
Yoshada for fear of Kansa — The prophecy relates to Kansa about the 
growth of his future destroyer — Kansa sends Putana, a she-demon to 
kill children all round— The childish freaks of Krishna and Valarama 
in Gokul — Incidents illustrating the early prowess of Krishna — Krishna 
destroys Putana, the serpent Kaliya, the demons Dhenuka, Gardhava^ 
etc. Krishna revives the Vedtc sacrifices— goes over to Mathura in 
the company of Valarama-at the instance of the pious Akrura — Krishna 
kills Kansa in a single combat> deteats jarasandha, and annexes his 
ki^dom with the domain of.Vasudeva — Krishna founds the city of 
'Smrika, and marries sixteen thousand wives— Krishna forcibly car- 
ries away from heaven the mountain of gems, and the Parijata tree, 
and plants them in the garden of Satyabhama. — Receives lessons from 
the holy sage Sandipani, and brings back to life the son cf the latter — 
List of sons begot ten by Krishna and Valadeva— The marriage of (Jsha 
and Anintddha— The battle between Hari and Shiva— Balabhadra 
draws to him the river Yam'una by force— The happy life ot Krishna 
and Rukmini — Innumerable progeny of Krishna ... ... 52—57 

Chapter XIIL— The God of Fire gives a geneology of the sever- - 
^ Moon— The birth of the Kurus and Pandavas 

—The early and wicked stratagems of Duryndhana — The marriage 
of Draupadi— Arjuna receives a car and celestial weapons.from the 
Fire-God— The burning down of the forest of Khandava — The conquest 
of new kti^dc^s by the Pandavas— Vudhisthira performs a Ra jasuya 
sacrifice— The jealousy of Duriodhana— -The playing of a game of 



ciice^Vadhisth if a stakes every thing in the play, and loses all, and 
goes in exile— Yudhisthira with his brother and wife, lives tncogntia 
in the house of Vtrata — Bhima kills Kichaka for insulting the modesty 
of Droupadi, — Arjuna defeats the Kurus attempting to lift the cattle 
of Virat — Abhimanyu, a son of Arjuna, rnarries Uttara, the daughter 
of Virat.— Yudhisthira levies soldiers — The embassy of Krishna— 
Krishna counsels war ... ... ... ... 57—60 

Chapter XI V.— The armies of the Kurus and the Pandus meet in 
the memorable field of Rurukshetra. — Krishna exhorts Arjuna to do his 
duty by fighting out his consanguinous enemies. — The battle ensues with 
varied.resuUs to both the parties — The fall of Duryodhana — The assasi- 
nation of the five sons of Oroupadi by Ashvattiainan — .Arjuna's retalia- 
tion...«.Cessation of hostilities — The survivors retire from the field of 
strife — Yudhisthira performs obsequies to his deceased agnates ; and 
receives advice from Bhisiima as to the duties of a king, and those 
leading to Salvation— Yudiiisthira confers his crowq on the infant 
Parikshit ... ... ... ... ... 6i — 63 

Chapter XV. — The story continued— Ohritarastra takes to the 
life of a hermit — Death of Vidura. — The annihilation of all the Kurus 
and the Jadavas, the monsters incarnate — Death of Krishna and 
Valadeva — Cowherds carry away the wives of Krishna — Arjuna 
breaks the news of Krishna*s death to Yudhisthira — Yudhisthira is 
translated to heaven in the car of Indra ... ... 64-^69 

Chapter XVI. — The God of Fire describes the incidents in the 
life of the Buddha incarnation of Vishnu — Buddha, an incarnation of 
illusion and nescience — The mission of his life was to wean the hearts 
of demons, incarnate as men, from the true faith as revealed in the 
Vedas — All distinction of caste will ce;jse in^heendof Kali Yoga — 
Kalki, the last incarnation of Vishnu — The merit of perusing the life 
histories of the divine incarnations ... ... ... 70—75 

Chapter XVII. — The God of Fire describes the creation of the 
universe — Brahma is unmanifest and self-existent — Creation of the 
subtler principles of Mahat, Ahankara, ether, Mind, etc., — Water is the 

first material element created, in which the Egg of Brahma was afloat 

Creation of Ofeated time, speech, and mental propulsions with their 
counterparts— Creation of the physical forces, Saddhyas, Devas, and 
of the seven immortal sages — The splitting of the body of Brahma 
(animated cosmic matter) into two— Origin of sex ... ... 75 3l 

Chapter XVI 11. — The God of Fire describes the ancestry and 
birth of Dhruva — Dhruva, metamorphosed into a star— The sons and 
progeny of Dhruva — Birth of Prithu, the founder of the race of 
Kslratriyas— Milching of the Earth by Prithu— The sons and progeny 
of Prithu — The birth of Daksha, the mind-born — Daksha's daughter 
married to Dharma— The progeny of Dharma— The birth of stars— 
The eight Vasus and their progeny— The birth of the Kudras—Maha- 
deva begets sons on Sati ... ... ... 81—86 

Chapter XIX*— The sons of Kashyapa— The birth of the twelve 
Adilyas— The sons of Kashyapa by his wife Diti— Hiranyakashipe 
Pralhada, Virochana, Vali— The sons of H iranyaksha— The birth of 
serins— The MariUs— Appointment of different gods to preside over 
different things and beings ... ... ...86— S9 



Chapter XX. — ^The successive orders of cresiion, such as these el 
Mahat, Tanmatra, etc,,— The creation of the ^nsibles and the senses— 
The Nitya, Naimittika, and Datnandina Creations — The sons of Bhrigu 
— The progeny of hell and vice— The marriage of Sati in her second 
incarnation ... ... ... ... ... 89 — 91 

Chapter XXi.— The procedure of Vishnu-worship ... 91—94 

Chapter XXII.— The rile of ceremonial ablution to be performed 
before undertaking any sort of religious rite ... ... 94 -95 

Chapter XXII I. — Narada describes the mode of worshipping the 
god Vishnu— The rile of purification of the material principles of the 
body of the votary, is described— The postures to be assumed in the 
course of the worship — The Mantras and the articles, of worship— The 
worship of the weapons and ornaments of the god -^The rites of invo- 
cation and farewell — The peGuItarities of the worship known as the 
Nava-Vyuha Archanam ... ... ... ... 96—98 

Chapter XXIV. — The rite of fire — Dimensions and structure of 
the firepit — The sacrificial spoon and laddie — Their dimensions— The 
adjustment of the vesseb and utensils around tlie sacred fire-pit — Their 
purification — The rite of Garbadhanam to be done unto the infant (newly 
kindled) Fire-god — ^The subsequent post-natal rites to the same — Pour- 
ing of libations of clarified butter on the fire — The sacrifice of the 
sacrificial animal — ^The rite of the worship of Vishvaksena ... 99 — 103 

Cbaptbr XXV.— Narada enumerates the Mantras, respectively 
held sacred to the different manifestations of Vasudeva, such as San- 
karshana etc., — ^The rites of Nyasa in connection with each of the Man- 
tras — The sacrifice of Vishvak^na ... ... ... 103 — 107 

Chapter XXVI. — ^Thc Mudras (the postures of the hands and 
fingers) enjoined to be used in the course of 4 worship— Their structures 
and merit ... ... ... ... ... 107—108 

Chapter XXVII. — The rite of initiatibn.— The preparation and 
purification of the sacrificial ground — The special procedure of the 
worship described— The prayer for the release, and spiritualization of 
the animal propensities of bis desciples — The transference of pure 
spiritual principles into the body of his disciple, by the preceptor— The 
rke of Adhtvasa— Hfee mode of completing the ceremony — The 
Mantras to be used on the occasion — The mode of completing the 
rite of initiation — The process of pouring out the final libation — The 
mode of holding in perpeiual check the animal propensities of the 
disciple — ^The rite of SaKala Diksha ... ... 108—116 

Chapter 5^VI1I. — ^I'he rke of Abhisheka, preparatory to the 
attainment of Siddhis— The merit of erecting Pitakas ... ltd 

Chapter XXIX. — ^The practice 01 Mantra in a temple, subsequent 
to a worship of the God Hari— Delineation of the mystic diagram 
on the ground — Adjustment of the different Vijas in the chambers 
of the diagram— The worship of Para-Bramha (the Supreme Being) 
and of the Boar manifestatkm of Vasudeva,' in the first lotus— Division 
d! the altar into a number of chambers ... 117 — 120 

Chapter XXX. — ^Thc mode of worsmpping the different deities 
and spiritual beings in the differerent parts of the tnystic diagram— The 
vrorshtp of Vasudeva and the presiding deities the ten organs of 
sense-^The worship of the twenty-six torms of Punishottama in thd 



plane of the mystic diagram— The rite of Bajapata— Colouring 
of the petals and causeways of the mystic lotus-shaped diagram.— 
The Mantras of purification, etc., and the number of limes they arc 
to be repeated on the occasion — The rite of Purvasiva — The rite of 
Mantra- Puraschara and the monthly Vratas — The rite of Dhyanam 
{meditation)— The forms of the God Hari, the gross, the Param (subtle) 
and the Virat (universal) — The Vija sacred to the god, supposed to be 
implanted in the heart in the form of a Kadamva tree — Dhyanam 
means an unison of the thinking soul with the absolute spirit (Hari}.~ 
Attainment of Siddhis, such as. Anima, etc. ... ... 120—123 

Chapter , XXXI.— The rite of Marjana (purification),— its pro- 
cess— The Mantras and the prayer to be practised and recited in 
connection with the rite ... ... ... ... 123— lad 

Chapter XXXI L— The forty-eight Sanaskaras, such as ;Garbha- 
danam, etc., the seven Vratas, the eight Parvana-Shraddhas, the seven 
Hari-yajanas — the seven Somasanstha, such as Agnisthoma, Hira- 
nyamitra, etc., — The practice of eight cardinal virtues, — Number of ticnes 
the principal Mantras, such as the Soura, elc., to be repeated... 127 — 128 

Chapter XXX! I L — ^Thc right of Pavitrarohana (investing the image 
of the God Hari with the holy thread) — Its season and the characteristic 
features of the holy thread— The prayer to be repeated on the occasbn. 
The Gayatri sacred to the god — The mode of offering the articles of 
worship to the deity, and the Mantras speciBcaily enjoined to be re« 
peated on the occasion of restraining, by the votary, each of his twenty- 
five* subtle principles of taste, sound, etc. — The rite of subsequent 
Nyasa, and the purification of the body, — Prayer, the worship and the 
Angapuja, the Bnal in vesture, the rite of Homa, and the completion el 
the ceremony ... ... ... ... ... 128—13^ 

Chapter XXXIV. — Decoration and puriBcation of the saori* 
fictai Mandala — The rite of Dvara Yajna (sacriBcial rites performed 
at the doors of the Mandala) — Planting of different trees at the 
different gatesr— The rites of Nyasa, puriBcation, and protection against 
evil spirits, and the worship of the guardian deities of the skies,— the 
adjustment of Sacrificial pitchers, the worship of Hari, and the rite of 
final Homa ... ... ... ... ... 133—137 

Chapter XXXV*— The rite of the Pavitradhivasanam — Consecra- 
tion of the sacrificiai pitchers, and the articles of worship, placed on 
the different sides of the votary, through the energy of the different 
manifestations of Vishnu— The worship of Vishnu, the concluding 
prayer ... ... ... „. ... 137—139 

Chapter XXXVI. — ^The rite of Pavitrarohana m, sacred to Vishnu. 
Collection of the offerings by the votary made by him on the previous 
day^The preliminary rites— The Namictika worship — Consecration 
o| the pitchers and the Vardhini— The rite of self-protection— The 
offerings made to the minor gods — ^Thc final libations — The Praytr, 
the Vtsarjanam, and payment of Oakshina to the Preceptor ... 139— 141 

Chapter XXXVIl, — A summary of the procedure to be adopted 
in all rites of Pavitrarohanam— The rite of purifying the articles of 
worship— The Invocation— The rite of formal in vesture — The same 
done unto the minor deiti^ ... ... 141 14a 

Cr AFTER XXXVIII.— The merit of building and consecrating 
temples to 4 he gods— V«ma eubgises the merit of such endcV.nentSt, 



and exhorts men to fdithftdly c ar r y out his injuficttons. The merit 
of building golden temples ... ... ... i42-~-i46 

Chapt.».R XXX! X. — Consecration of divine images — The Pun- 
charatra school of philosophy — QualiBcations of a priest officiating 
at such a consecration ceremony — The position of the divine images 
at the time*— Location of temples, dedicated to the different gods 
in the different quarters of the town—The rules to be observed in build.* 
ing temples on grounds contiguous to each other— The rite of Bhupari- 
graha (taking possession of a plot for the purposes of a divine edifice)—* 
Puriiication of the site selected^ and the rite of the Bhutavali — The 
standard of linear measurement ... ... ... 146 — 149 

Chapter XL. — The procedure to be adopted in making Argha 
offerings to the God — The history of Vastu Purus ha — The construction 
of the mystic diagram (Mandala)— The process of worshipping the 
gods and the principles within its chambers — Description of offerings 
to be made to each of them — *THe location of Vardhini at the centre of 
the diagram— The offering of the final Argha — The excavation of the 
foundation of the would-be constructed temples — The rite of rt;itioving 
the Shalyo (charmed bone or metal) from underneath its site... 150— 15^ 

Chapter XLI. — Rules to be observed in laying down the foundi* 
tion of a divine edifice — Religious ceremonies attending on the act, 
are described — The dimensions of the bricks or stone slabs to be used in 
the construction — Hynans to the bricks— Hymn to the Earth Goddess- 
Excavations and their measurements— The accompanying rke of Vastu* 
yaga— The merit of building a temple — Doors and windows of temples 
are to open on different quarters of the sky according to their 
varied sites #*• ••• 15*— *56 

Chapter XLIl. — The structure of a divine temple or edifice. The 
plan of the ground-floor, the dimensions of the plinth, wall and the 
cornices— The rules to be observed in constructing entrance halls 
(Mukha Mandapas) and posterior chambers (Paschat Mandapas.)— 
Dimensions of a temple, built according to the size of an idol to be 
installed therein— The construction of the vault, dome, top platforms, 
and the ornamental appendages of a temple — Construction of Gopuras 
—Proportionate measures of an idol and its pedestal— The Garuda 
Mandap with its eight pinnacles ... ... ... 157—159 

^ Chapter XLIIL — ^The rite installtng an idol in a temple— Des- 
cription of temples of different structures in which the images of 
different deities are to be installed — Construction of a stone-image of 
Vishnu — ^Thc rite of Sinha-Homa — T^e size of a stone-slab — Religious 
ceremonies to be performed in the wood before sculpturing the image. 


Chapter XLIV. — ^The eMential points In an image of the god Vasu- 
deva or of any other deity — Rules to be observed in sculpturing such,an 
image. The measures of its different limbs and parts ... i6z— 167 

Chapter XLV. — ^The essential points of a divine pedestal (Pindika) 
and its dimensions ... ... ... 167—168 

CHAPTER. XL VL— The characteristic traits of the diffenent classes 
ei Shalagrama stone ... ... ... 169—170 

Chapter XLVIL«»Thc prscess of worili%pmg a Shslagrama, 




Cbaftsr XLVIII.— Hymn to the twtnty-foor manifestations of the 
God Vishnu ... ... ... ... 173—176 

ChaWer XLIX.~The ten incarnations of Vishnu, the charac- 
teristic features of their* images ... ... 176 — i8i 

Chapter L. — Dimensions of the images of goddesses — their deco- 
rations, weapons and accompaniments ... ... i8j>~i87 

Chapter LI.— Ali image of the sun -god, with those of his com- 
panion deities— The different epithets of the luminary as he progresses 
from one to the other sign of the Zodiac— The colours of the goddesses * 
who represent the energy of the sun— The images of the regents of the 
planets, and their characteristic features, and equipments— The gods of 
wind, fire and other elements, and the animals they ride upon — Des- 
cription of Kshetrapa las and other minor gods ... 187 — 189 

Chapter LI I. — The Yoginis and the characteristic features of their 
images — The names of the Yoginis who preside over the different 
quarters of the heaven — An image ef Krittivasa and its distinctive 
traits. Images of the Matrikes ... ... 189 — 191 

Chapter LIII.— The essential points of a phallic emblem — Mode of 
sculpturing a phallic emblem— Its dimensions — The different classes 
of the emblem and their measures. The dimensions of the Peetha and 
its peculiarities ... ... ... ... 191 — 1^3 

Chapter LI V.— The merit of worshipping phallic emblems made of 
different substances— The different classes of phallic emblems, and their 
dimensions described in detail, — phallic emblems made of precious 
stones, their dimensions, and the mode of chiselling them ... 194 — 195 

Chapter LV.— Pedestals of images — Their dimensions — Mode of 
carving water passages into the pedestal — The region of halo and its 
characteristics— The measures laid down in connection with the images 
of Vishnu and Lakshmi, are to hold good in the Case of all other gods 
and goddesses ... ... ... igC^igy 

Chapter LVL — ^Thc rite of Dtkpala Yoga — The five divisions of 
the ceremony — The mythical significance of putting an image on its 
pedetui — The decoration of the doors of the sacrificial shed with the 
twigs of trees, and the. disposition of priests at each of them— The 
Mantras and rites of the sacrifice— The invocations and obeisances. 


Chapter LVIL— The rite of taking possession of the sacrificial 
ground (Bhu-pangraha}*^ts Mantras and rituals— Consecration of 
sacrificial pitchers ... ... ... 200 — 203 

Chapter LVIIL — The rite of consecratory ablution — The triumphal 
leadin^f of the ^ol from the sculpture's shed to the sacrificial chambers. 
—The installation of the image in the Mandapa accompanied by repett* 
tiM of the proper Mantras— Rituals in connection with the divine 
toilette— The ceremonraJ ablution of the image — Its consecration— ofifer- 
(ngs of fruits, flowers, perfumes and wearing apparels, etc., to the 
installed and imaged divinity. Exhibition of the divine insignia. 
Such as umbrella, etc*, by the Priest — ^The repose of tlm god in bed. 

203— soy 

ChaPtvr UX.— The rite of Ao'hivasanam (act of sitting close}— 
Thu rite of mergjtig by an act of spiritual abstraction, the fundamental 
principJea of the universe one mta the other— The origin of the soul and 
uoivgrse dc$cnbed*«Thc origio of tha seascSi oad m eoumerattoii of 



the names of the god* who respectively preside over them — The format 
tron of the materiaJ body of a man, and an enumeration of the Mantras 
which represent tnose material principles— The rites of Nvasa in con- 
nection with the Adhivasanam ceremony — ^The worship of Keshava and 
the different manifestations of the God Vishnu— Offerings to the minor 
deities — The rite of Horn a— Rites completing the ceremony 208 — 215 

Cbaptsr lx.— R ile of installation of the pedestal of a divine image 
— Insertion of gems and bits of gold-into the bodycf the same— The rlU 
of Homa— Cleansing of the image with Mantras and religious rites— 
The construction of a Sthandila (sand cushion for the sacrificial fire)— 
The stowing of the sacrificial pitchers into their places— The rite of 
subsequent Homa,— Sprinkling of the water of peace over the head of 
the image— Women and Bramhanas are to pour out the contents of the 
sacrificial pitchers over its head— The formal placing of the image 
upon its pedestal— Washing of the idol with different substances— 
Worship and invocation— The rite of Sannidhyakaranarn (the act of 
making the deity reside in the image)— The sul^quent rites of wor- 
shipping the companion deities of the god — Nature of remuneration 
to be paid to the Priest officiating at «thc ceremony— The merit of 
installing and consecrating an image of Vishnu ... 215 — 220. 

Cbaptxr LXL— The rite of Avabhritha Snanam)— The rite of 
first Homa and worshipping of the spiritual preceptor — Worship of 
Lakshmi and other divinities — Consecration of a temple with doors 
previously consecrated— The rites of festooning and decorating^ ^e 
temple — The merit of planting a banner on the top of a divine 
temple — Rods and streamers are but the symbols of God and Nature, 
and a temple is but the body of Vishnu — Analogy between a temple 
and a human body— The rite of consecrating a temple by hoisiii^ a 
a flag from its top— The characteristic features of the flag— The 
placing of Chakras (discus) and Kaiasas (conical ornaments) over 
the top pinnacle of a temple — The rites completing the ceremony. 


Cbaftzr LXII.— Rite of consecration of divine images in general. 


Ckaptir LXIH.— The rite of consecrating an image of Garuda, 
of Bramha, of Narasinha, etc.— The Mantra sacred to each of them 
should be used in the ceremony — The Mantras peculiar to the above* 
said gods— The Patklaksha Mantra sacred to the Narasinha mani- 
festation of Vishnu— The characteristic features of an image of Garuda, 
and the Mantra to be used in consecrating such an image— C^emontes 
attendant on consecration of books, and the mode of writing them— 
The merit of giving a book to a Bramhana— The merit of presenting 
books of the dfeerent schools of philosophy and sacred literature. 


Cbaptsr LXIV.— Consecration of tanks and poods— The religious 
ceremony^ attendant on such an act, described— Remunerations to 
be made to the Pri^t— Nature of offerings to be . made to the God 
Varuna— The Adhivata ceremony in the night— The invocation and 
the rite of Homa, and the Mantras to be recited in pouring down the 
libations— The driving of the sacrificial post (Yupa) into the centre 
of the bed of the tank— The Prayer to all created beings to confer 
ble&fing on its water^The merk of consecrating a tank or a pond. 




Chaftik LXV.«— The mode of buildiogr Goparas, etc.— The selec- 
tion of site and the performance of the sacrifice of the Homstead. inci- 
dental thereto — The models after which the Halls are to be built— 
The objectionable sites — The merit of such an endowment — The way 
of constructing a Saptavoum Hall sacred to the god Hari (which is 
similar to that of constructing a royal palace)— -The dimensions and 
characteristics of such edifices — The religious rites amending on the 
first entrance into such a /Mansion — Invocation to the earth goddess 
to bless the mansion ... ... ... 207 2';a 

Chap^i^r LXVL— Cohsecration of the images of gods and spiritual 
beings, suclras the supi etc.^ — The construction of ihe principal Mantras, 
sacred to each of them — The ypw' of thirty days fast — The rite of 
accompanying Homa— The subsequent- rite of worshipping the gods 
Bramha, Vishnu,, and Isa— Libations to, be offered to the souls of 
mountains, rivers, and oceans— Gifts at the close of the ceremony— 
Anpi^ther sort of pehancej described — Endowment and consecration of 
cat^ pAths, pasturages and fruit gardens— Their merit — The merit 
of oa^^^ttcting mohAsteries* and buildings for the use of public in 
... ••• ... ... 239—243 

ChaptXR LXVII.— The rite of Girnoddharam (repairing an..old 
image or replaring a disfigured idol by anew one^ — The merit of per^ 
forming such a ceremony, as’ well a$ those of dredging or re-excavating 
old wells, tanks, and reservoirs of water in general ... ... 244 

Chapter LXyi 11 . — Descri^ption of the feasts and the parrading 
of an idol, etc., that are to be celebrated and made at the close of a 
consecration ceremony — The time of their celebration — ^Religious rites 
preceding such a Yatrotasavam (parrading) — The parrade and its 
goal described — *|'he merit of attending and getting up such a pageant 
—The immersion of ti e idol iii a river and taking it back to the temple. 


Chapter LXIX. — The rite of Avabriiha Suanam and its rules— 
Filling up of the sacrificial pitchers wjth difTei^ent substances and wheel- 
ing them into their proper positions in^ the\ shed of ablution— The 
Homa, in connection with the ceremony, after the anointment of tlie 
pitchers with clarified butter— The bathing of the god — I'lie feast follow- 
ing close upon the ceremony, and the merit of its performance — The 
subsequent worship of^tlie goddess of Gouri ... ... 247 — 249 

Chapter LXX. — The rite of consecrating trees and fruit -gaSdens— 
The merit of such a performance ... • ... 250 — 251 

Chapter LXXI.— The worship of tlie god Ganesha ... 251 

Chapter LXXII. — The rrtes ofnd.iilv ablution and olteringf of IU)a 
lions of water to the gods and picesp^ors — The sous of ablution — 
1 heir process — The ulcs of Mala-SniJn^km. V.ishma-Snanatn and Vidhi 
Snanann, Agneya-Snanam and Mahcndia-Snanam — Occasions on which 
they are to be performed — The dilicient foiins of SnitdKya and the 
Manlr;i5 with which they are to be performed— The rites of Sakali' 
karanam and Frnnayama — The image "of tiie goddess of Sandhy:#,. 

Chapter LXXIII. — -The worship of the Sun — Its religious merit. 

25$ — 260 

Chapter LXXIV. — The wor^ip of the god" Shiva-^Evocation of 
his spiritual eye-sight by the votary j^evious to the, worship *tfie scaring 



^ sway of evil spirits inh^feUinc* tlie tippermost layer of thp earth's 
crust — The mode in which the votary would have his ahlufion pre- 
Ttminary to the worship — 'I'he rites of Snm'tdlu-Kafanam (invor K ion). 
Nyasa and Pranavama fcoiurotiin^; of respiration) 2()o — 272 

Chai‘TER L^^V. — 'rhe rite of kindlingr the sacrificial fire (Vanhi- 
Sthapanaiu) at tne close of the prccedinij worship ... 273 — 2S0 

Chapter LXXVI. — The method of worshipping the image of 
Shiva ... ; ... ... ... ... 281 

Chapter LkxVII. — The process of worshipping the cow 

KapiU ... ' ... ... ... ... 284 

Chapter.s LXXVIIXto LXXX. — The process of investing a divine 
Image wnh the holy thread ... ... ... 286 

Chapter CXXXI. — The rite of spiritual initiation ... ^02 

Chapter LXXXf L— Sankskaradiksha or the rite of purifying 
initiation - ... ... ... ... 314 

Chapter LXXXIH and LXXXIV.— The process of illumi- 
ning ... ... ... ... 3f3 

Chapter LXXXV, — The union of the too fundamental principles of 
the universe ... ... ... 3^^ 

^ Cn.\PTER LXXXVI.— The union of the Vidya-Kala and Prachina- 

_ - ' 340 

Chapter LXXXVI I. — The union of a beatific knowledge and abso- 
lute peace ... ... ... 

Chapter LXXXVIIL— The beatific principle of Shantyatra 
Kafa ... ... ... ... ... 347 

Chapter LXXXIX — The spiritual initiation of Tattviki 

Chapter XC. — Hie rite of Abbisheka ... 

Chapter XCI.- 

Chapter. XCn.— The installation of a phalic emblem 

Chapter XCIfl.— The construction of tl\e divine edifice. 

Chapter XCIV. — The worship of Charaki 

•The worship of Vishnu, the sun and 

and her 



- 357 
... 358 
... 366 


^ ... 372 

Chapter XCV and VI. — The installation of the phalic emb- 

;• , *■* - ... 373 

Chapter XCVIL— The purification of the component principles of 
Ike body ... ... ... .... ... ^ 30 

Chapter XCVIII. — ^The process of installing the image of 

... 407 

process of installing an image of the 


- Chapter XCIX* — The 
Sun-God ... 

Chapter C.-rThe rite of cons^ration ... 

Chapter Cl. — The process of consecrating a divine edifice 
Ckafckr Cll.— T he coiisceratiit of the pinnacle and banner . 
Ckapixr cnifc 

emblem ... 

-I'tHB process^ oC repairing or replacing a 

. 409 

. 410 

. 411 
• 413 

. 416 


ChAP'^vw civ.— T he genera! characferislics of a divine edi- 
fice ... ... ... ... ... ... 419 

Chapter CV. — The worship of the god of the homestead .. 423 

Chapter CVI. — The foandation of a city and the rite of worsliip- 

plng the Vasui - ... ... ... ... 429 

Chapter CVI I. — The different continents )»f the terrestrial ^iobe. 


Chapter CVIII. — The seven great island^ ... ... 434 

Chapter CIX. — The greatness of the sacrec Is and places 437 

Chapter CX. — The sanctity of the river Ganges ... 440 

Chapter CXI. — The sanctity of the confluence of the rivers Ganges 
and Yamuna at Prayag ... ... ... ... 441 

Chapter CXII. — The sanctity of Benares ... ... 443 

Chapter CXI 1 1 . — The glory of the sacred stream of Narmada 444 

Chapters CXIV, CXV and CXVI. — The glory of the sacred 
pilgrimage of Gya ... ... ... ... ... 445 

Chapter CXVII. — The process of performing the Sraddlia cere- 
mony at Gya ... ... ... ... ... 45^ 

Chapter CXVIH. — The topography of Bha rata varsha ... 473 
Chapter CXIX. — The topography of Jamvudwipa ,,, 474 

Chapter CXX. — The extent of the surface of the glob^ ... ^7*7 

Chaptei* CXXI. — The Science of Astrology ... ... ^ 

Chapter CXXII. — ^*rhe STfarodaya'Cftfikra by which the success 
or failure of a particular undertaking should be first determined ... 492 

Chapter CXXII 1 . — Synopsis of the Science of Astrology ... 498 

Chapter CXXIV. — The means of bringing about the death of 
one's own enemy ... ... ... ... ... 302 

Chapter CXXV. — The combination of good and evil asterisms 510 
Chapter CXXVI. — The description ol good and evil hours ... 514 

Chapter CXX VII.— -The contrivance of astrological counting known 
as the Kostlia Cliakra ... ... ... ... 317 

Chapter CXXVIIL — The collection ol food-grams during the ap- 
pearance of portends ... ... ... ^ig 

Chapter CXX IX. — Physical phenuinena taking place under the 
influence of the different asterisms ... ... ... 520 

Chapter CXXX. — The Astrological Wheel by which victories or 
reverses in war can be foretold ... ... ... 322. 

Chapter CXXXI. — ^The Astrological Diagram for taking the nature 
and amount of services one would get from his relation ... 524 

Chapter CXXXI i. — The differentiating traits in the character of 
an infant ... ... ... ... ... ... 328 

Chapter CXXXI II.— The Mantra which is irresistible in the three 
worlds / ... ... ... ... .. .. 334 

Chapter CXXXI V. — ^The incant'*tioii for obtaining victor^ in the 
three worlds ... ... ... . 336 



Chapter CXXXV.— The Astrokpkid ler i&teminin^ the 






i or failure of a journey 

Chapter CXXXV I. — rhe death or pestilence-bringingjcharm 
Chapter CXXXVII.— The six &wh,s ot charms ... 

Chapter CXXXV II I. — The sixty different Samvatswras and 
good or evil results thereof ... ... ... 

Chapter CXXXIX.— The drugs and article of mysterious virtues 


Chapter CXL. — The names of the thirty-six} polyglot medicinal 

*“gs ... ... ... ... ... ... 551 

Chapter CXLI. — The medicinal or curative incantations 553 

Chapters CXLH and CXLIII.— The process of worshipping the 

goddess Kuvjika 

Chapter CXLIV.-:rThe rites of Shodanyasa 
Chapter CLXV. — Tokhandi Mantras 

Chapter CXLVII.- -The rite of Shadanga Nyasa ,,, 

Chapter CXL-VIII.— The’penance which grants victory in war 
Chapter CXLIX. — The different Manus and their periods 







Chapter CL -—The tenets of faith and the laws of conduct during 
different Manwantgt&S . ... ... ... 386 

Chapter CLI --T 4 'ft.$:onduct of a Brahmana ... ,,, 389 

Chapter CLII. — fl^^CTjfes and ceremonies of a house-holder 590 
Chapter CLlll. — ^The various forms of marriage... ,,, 

Ch.apter CLIV. — ^The various daily rites ... ,,, 393 

Chapter CLV.— The substances for purifying house-hold}goods 598 
Chapters CLVI and CLVII. — The nature and period of impurity. 


Chapter CLVI 1 1 . —The period of "impurity upon a miscarriage of 

Chapter CLIX. — The condition of a person after death 
Chapter CLX.— -The duties of a Yati ... 

Chapter CLXL— The characteristic features 'of the life 

.. 615 
... 617 
a Yati. 

Chapter CLXII. — The various Codes of DhaF4i^!iastras ... 622 
Chapter CLXIII. — ^Sraddha Kalpa ,,, ^24 

Chapters CLXIV and CLXV.— SacriBpn. in. tieiiof’ of the guardian 


deities of the planets 

Chapter CLXVL — ^The five virtues of men ^ 

Chapter CLXVII —The process of performing Gridta-Yaina 
Ceufter CLXVIH. — Interdicted rites and foods ... 

Chapter clxix.— The atonement for sins .. 

Chapter cltx.— The penances for deadly sinners 

piathw The .nost mysterious of the sin ex- 

® — — ... ... ... 054 








Chapter cxxrni.— The different acts of atonement ... 659 

Chapter olxxiv. — T fie atonement for a sin due to an omission of 
worshipping an idol ... ... ... ... 665 

Chapter clxxv. — T he fasts, cerei^oiiies;artd penances ... 668 

Chapter clxxvi.— T he Vratas wwicn siiould be performed duringr 
the first phase of the Moon’s wane or increase ... ... 675 

Chapter clxxvii — The Vratas to be performed on the day of the 
second phase of the Moon's wane or increase ... ... 677 

Chapter crxxviii.— The Vratas which should be performed on days 
of the third phase of the Moon’s wane or increase ... ... 679 

Chapter clxxxx — 'I'he Vratas of the fourth phase ... 684 

Chapter clxxx.— T he Panchami^Vrata ... ... 685 

Chapter clxxxi, — T he Shasthi- Vraia^ ... ... 686 

Chapter clxxxii.— T he Saptami-Vrata ... ... 687 

Chapter clxxxiii. — ^T he Asthami Vrata ... ... 687 

Chapter clxxxiV. — T he worship of the Eight Matris on the eighth 
day ... ... ... . ... . ... ... 689 • 

Chapter clxxxv.— T he Vratas to be performed on the ninth ph»^ 


Chapter clxxxti.— T he Dashami Vratas ... ... 694 

Chapter clxxxvii.— T he Vratas to be performed days of the 
eleventh phase ... ... .. ... ... 695 

Chapter clxxxviii. — T he Vratas to be performed? days of the 
twelfth phase ... ... ... ... ... 696 

Chapter CLXKXIX. — ^liie Shravana Ovadashi Vrata ... 699 

Chapter CXC. — The Vrata which is complementary to all other 
Vratas ... ... ... ... ... 701 

Chapter CXCI. — Trayodashi Vratas ... ... 702 

Chapter CXCII. — The Vratas to be performed ya days of the 
fourteenth phase ... ... ... ... 704 

Chapter CXC 1. 1 1. — ^The Shivaralri Vrata ... ... 705 

Chapter CXCI V. — ^The Ashoka Purniroa Vrata ... ... 706 

Chapter CXCV. — Vrat^ ander various aslerisms ... 707 

Chapter CX'CVI,-— The' ^shatra Vratas „ ... ... 709 

Chapter CXC VI I. — ^The Vratas (during day) ... 713 
Chapter CXCVIIT — Monthly vows ... ... ... 714 

Chapter CXCIX.-~Ritu Vratas or Season vows ... ... 716 

r'jHAPTBR CC.— The vow for illuminating a divine edifice ... 718 
yHAPTER CCI. — The nine-fold Propitiation ... ... 721 

Chapter CCtT. — The worship of Hari... ., ... 724 

V.HAPTER CCI 11. — ^The fruits acquired by a' man lor warsliipping 
ttari ... ... 727 

Chapter CCIV.— ^The vowof monthly fasting ... ... 730 

Chapter CCV»— The king of all the vows ... 732 



Chaptir CCVI.-rThe worship of ‘lie holy sage A^sCya ... 734 

Chaptir CCVII. — The practic^'of the Koumuda Vrata ... 736 

Chapter CCVIII.— The process of making gifts on the occasion 
of Vratas ... ... ... ... ... 737 

Chapter CCIX.-^The piety accrtiitig from making various 
Vratas ... ... ... ... 739 

Chapter CCX.— The sixteen great gifts ... ... 74®- 

Chapter CCXI. — The gift of cows and buffaloes... ... 75f^ 

Chapter CCXII. — The gifts made in different months ... 758 

Chapter CCXI I J. — The gift of the whole earth ... 763 

Chapter CCXIV. — Nadichafera or the system of veins, nerves, 
and arteries ... ... ... ... ... 765 

Chapter CCXV. — The Omkar Mantra ... ... 

Chapter CCXVI. — The Gayatri Mantra ... ... 775 

Chapter CCXVI I. — The use of the Gayatri Mantra for worship- 
ping the phalic emblem ... ... ... ... 777 

Chapter CCXVI II. — ^The duties incidental to a sovereignty... 779 

Chapter CCXIX. — The Mantras to be used on the occasion of the 
installation of a king ... ... ... ... 783 

Chapter CCXX. — The duties of a king ... ... 788 

Chapter CCXXI. — ^The duties of the servants of a king ... 793 

Chapter CCXXII. — The sites and consirtictfons of forts, 794 

CHA#rER t.'CXXllI. — system of administration ... 796 

Chafer CCXXI V.— ^The duties of a king in the female apart- 
ment ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 m 

Chapter CCXXV. — The duties of a kinp towards the roya* prinoea 

Chapter CCXXVI. — The acts of a man through the innate lercee 
of his nature ... ... ... .«• ... 807 

Chapter CCXXVII.— The Code of Criminal Lawn ... 810 

^ Chapter CCXXV 11 1 .—'fhe occasion for an expedhiojh 818 

Chapter CCXXIX.— The nature and signiBcanice qf' dreams 
Chapter CCXXX.— The auspicious signs for an expedition .« 0x3 
Chapter CCXXXI.— Birds unfolding the gooa or the evil fa)fc 825 
Chapter CCXXXIl. — Portends presaging danger to a bciaieging 

... .if* 8 ^ 

Chapter CCXXXIII.— -The conditions of journey 833 

Chapter CCXXX! V. —The nature of penalties ... .w- 836 

Chapter CCXXX V.— The daily duties of a king 839 

Chapter CCXXXVI. — The weekly duties preceding the day pf 
march ... ... ... ... ... ... 341 

Chapter CCXXXVIL— The prayer to Indra ... ... 848 

Chapter CCXXX VI II.— The Royal duties as disclosed by Rama 
to Lakshmaaa ... ... ... ... 851 



Chapter CCXXXIX. — Tl^ seven factors of government ... 853 

Chapter CCXL. — The baiance of power. How to treat with the 
neig(»k)ouring kings ... * ... ... ..o ... 858 

Chapter CCXLl.— The utility of diplomacy ... ... 863 

Chapter CCXLII. — The arrangement of the various divisions of 
the army... ... ... ... ... ... 871 

Chapter CCXLIII.— The art of divining the character and the 
good 01 the evil fate ... ... ... ... 880 

Chapter CCXLIV. — The characteristics of women ... 883 

Chapter CCXLV. — The formation of various roval implements 


Chapter CCXL VI. — The ch iracteristics of the different classes of 


Chapter CCXLV 1 1 . — The characteristics of a homestead 
Chapter CCXLVIII. — The realization of heart-felt desires 
Chapter CCXLIX. — The science of archery 
Chapter CCL. — The worship of arms 

Chapter CCLL — The use of arms on horse>back and 

Chapter CCLIL — The thirty- two sorts of military art 
Chapter CCLIII. — I'he institution of law-suits ... 

Chapter CCLIV.— -Debts and their repayment ... 

Chapter CCL.V. — I'he citing of witnesses in a legal matter 
Chapter CCLVl.— The partition of properties ... 

Chapter CCLVII.-— The settlement of boundary disputes 

Chapter CCLVHL — The punishment for abusing the deformed 
and for singing lampoons ... ... ... ... 

Chapter CCLIX.— The rites and ceremonier described in the 

. S89 

• B93 

• 894 
. 897 

• 899 
. 900 

• 902 
. 910 


. 92t 




Chapter CCLX.-~The verses of the Yajurveda and the rites where 
they are to be used ... ... ... gj.!. 

Chapter CCLXL— The rites and Mantras of theSama Veda 966 

Chapter CCLXH. — The rites and Mantras of the Atharvan 
Veda ... ... ... ... ... ... g68 

Chapter CGLXIII.— The Suktas as contained in each ol the 



Chapter CCLXIV.— How to ward off the dreadful visitations of 
Nature ... ... ... ... ... gyg 

Chapter CCLXV.— The ceremonial ablutions in general ... 979 

Chapter CCLXVI.— The ablution for exercising the malignant 
spirit Vinayaka ... ... ... ... ... 

Chapter CCLXVII.—Maheswara Ablution ... ... 984 

Chapter CCLXVI 1 1 , —The celebration of the king’s birth-day 987 


Chapter CCLXIX, — ^The Mantras for consecrating the royal 
Ainibrella ... * ... ... ... 991 

Chapter CCLXX. — The incantation of Vishnu Panjaram ... 995 
Chapter CCLXXL— The two divisions of the- Vedic Mantras 997 
Chapter CCLXXII. — An account of Brahma, Padma, and Varaha 
Puranams ... ... ... ..« ... 999 

Chapter CCLXXIIL — The dynasties of tiie Solar and lunar races 


Chapter CCLXXIV. — ^The names of kings who belonged to the 
Imiarrace ... ... ... ... ... 1006 

Chapter CCLXXV. — An account of Yadu's family ... 1009 

Chapter CCLXXVl.— An account of Krishna*^ family and deeds. 


Chapters CCLXXVII and CCLXXVIU.— The lunar race con- 
tinued ... ... . ... ... ... 1016 

Chapter CCLXXiX.-^The system of medicine propounded by the 
holy Dhaiuvantari ... ... ... 1 021 

Chapter CCLXXX.— Organic, Mental, Extraneous and Func- 
tional diseases ... ... ... ... 1028 

Chapter CCLXXXI. — Indian Pharmacopeia ... ... 1033 

Chapter CCLXXXII.— Hygenic effects of different trees and 
shrubs planted around the dwelling of a man ... ... X037 

Chapter CCLXXXI I I.-^Medicines for infantile dysentry or for all 
diseases brought about by the vitiated state of motl>er's milk ... 1038 

Chapter CCLXXXI V. — The Omkar Mantra giving longevity 1044 

Chapter CCLXXXV, — Infallible celestial medicines as disclosed 
by the Rishi Atreya ... ... ... J046 

Chapter CCLXXXVI.— Medicines .which can avert death, or in- 
crease the duration of life ... ... ... 

Chapter CCLXXXVIL— The excellence of elephants and the 
to which they are subject ... 1057 

Chapter CCLXXXVIII*. — Oiseases of horses and rules for manag- 
ing them, ...* ... ... .... ...1060 


Chapter CCLXXXIX. — The ominous marks in the body of a 
”• ••• ••• — ... ... 1065 

Chapter CCXC. — ^The religious rites which should be performed 

for the good of the stud 


Chapter CCXCI. The rite for bringing peace on elephants... 1072 

Chapter CCXCIL — ^The rite which is beneficial to the 

Chapter CCXCilL— -The Mantras which grant 

cows ... 1075 

all creature 
... loSi 

Chapter CQXCIV.— The different species of snakes : the time when 
poison increases Jn. them ... ... 

Ch^ter 'CCXC V.— T he mode pi treatment by incantations in a 
case of snake-biie ... ... ... 

COHTQim xvif 

CfiAPTXft CCXCVI. — The rUe of five groups of ceremonies caHecf 
Rudra Vidhanam ... ... ... ... 1093- 

Chaptbr CCXCVII. — The worship of Rudra ... ... 1100 

Chapter CCXCVII I.— The treatment of Gon^sa snake-bite... 1102 

Chapter CCXCIX. — ^The mystic rites which prevent the diseases 
imperilling the life of a child in the lying-in-Chamber ... 1105 

Chapter CCC. — The Mantras destroying the baneful influences 
of malignant stars ... ... ... ... ... II14 

Chapter CCCI. — The worship of the various Ganas iiai 

Chapter CCC 1 1 . — The principal Mantras sacred to the lord of 
heaven ... ... ... ... .... 1123 

CbCapter CCCIII. — The hour when the vital spark of a man would 
be extinguished ... ... ... ... ... 1127 

Chapter ccciv. — ^T he Mantras sacred to the God Shiva ... 1130 

Chapt^ cccv.— T he recitation of the fifty names of Vishnu... 1134 

Chapter cccvi. — T he incantations for stupefying the faculties of 
adversaries ... ... ... ... ... viyj 

Chapter cccvii. — T he Mantras by which the three worlds can be 
enchanted ... ... ... ... ... 1140 

Chapter cccviii. — T he Mantram sacred to the goddess of fortune 


Chapter cccix. — The Mantra for worshipping the goddess Tvarita 
who grants enjoyment of earthly comforts and salvation after death. 


Chapter cccx. — T he worship of the goddess Tvarita by which one 
can enjoy all comforts in this life ... ... ... 1153 

Chapter cccxi. — T he rite of initiation with a mystic diagram 1159 

Chapter cccxii.— The incantations by which one can acquire 
learning ... ... ... ... ... 1165 

Chapter cccxiii. — The process of worshipping the god Vinayaka. 


Chapter ceexiv.— The Mantras for the goddess Tvarita ... 1173 

Chapter ceexv. — The spells which stupefy the intellectual facul- 
ties of a man ... ... ... ... ... 1176 

Chapter ceexvi. — The Mantra for realizing one’s all desires ... 1179' 
Chapter cccxvii.-— The Prasada-Mantra of Shiva... ... 1180 

Chapter cccxviii.— The same Mantra continued ... ... 1184 

Chapter ceexvix. — The worship of the Goddess of Learning ... ii86* 

Chapter ceexx. — The mystic diagram of Sharvato-Ehadra Man- 
dalam ... ... ... ... ... 118S 

Chapter cccxxi. — The ceremony of Astra- Yajnam 1194 

Chapter cccxxii. — The bliss of the same Mantra ... ... 1196 

Chapter cccxxiii.— The Mantra for curing diseases and warding off 
death ... ... ... ... ... 1199 

Chapter cccxxiv,— The peace-giving rite of Shiva-Shanti 1204 



Chapter cccxxv. — The Rudraksha seeds 
Chapter cccxxvi. — The worship of the goddess Uma 
Chapter cccxxvii. — The worship of the regents of 

Ciiapter cccxxviii.— The Rules of Prosody 
Chapter cccxxix. — The metre of the Divine Gayatri 
Chapter cccxxx. — The metre Jagati ... 

Chapter cccXxxi.— The metre Utkriti ... 

Chapter cccxxxii.— Vrittas or metres regulated by 
position of syllables in each quarter 

Chapter cccxxxin.— Ardha-Sama Vrittam 

... i 2 og 
... 1212 
the religious 
... i2i;r 

... 1219 
... 1220 
... 1221 
... 1223 

the number and 
... 1226 
or half- equal metres. 


Chapter cccxxxiv. — Yati or the pause in reciting a verse ... 1229 
Chapter cccxxxv.^ — Miscellaneous metres ... ... 1233 

Chapter cccxxxvi.-— The science of pronounciation and laws of 
euphony ... ... ... ... ... 1234 

Chapters cccxxxvn. to cccxxxix — Rhetoric, or figure of speech 


Chapter cccxL'. — The four different styles ... ... 1249 

Chapter cccxli.— -The different parts and members of the body. 


Chapter cccxlii. — The characters and lessons of the drama ... 125! 
Chapter cccxLH I. — Anuprasa or a alliteration w. ... 1257 

Chapter cccxLiv. — The figure of speech which is related to the 
sense ... ... ... ... ... 1260 

Chapter cccxLV. — The artistic arrangement of words in a sen- 

tence ... ... ... ... 1270 

Chapter cccxlyi.— The point of excellence in a Poem ... 1272 

Chapter cccxLVii. — The defects of a literary composition ... 1275 

Chapter cccxlviii. — Lexicon of mono-syllabic words ... 1279 

Chapter cccxlix, — Different kinds of dissolution ... ... 1283 

Chapter cccl. — Spiritual dissolution ... ... 1287 

Chapter cccLi. — Physiology ... ... 1291 

Chapter cccui. — Hells and the passage of the soul described 1294 

Chapter cccLiii. — The eight auxiliary factors of Yoga ... 1299 
Chapter cccuv. — The process of Pranayama, &c., ... 1304 

Chapter CCCLV. — Dhyanam or meditation ... ... 1306 

Chapter CCCLTX.-^Dharana or the faculty of retaining in the mind. 


Chai^r CCCLVII. — ^Samadhi ... ... ... 1313 

Chapter <X3CLVin.— The knowledge of Brahma ... ... 1317 

Chapters CCCLIX k cccLi.— The atiributes of Brahma 1322 

Chapter cccxi.— Non-DuaHsm ... ... ... 1326 

Chapter ccctJtii. — The Synopsis of the Geeta ... ... 1333 

Chapter cccLxin.— The summary of Yama GeeU ... 1339 

Chapter cccLxiv.— An account of Agni Purmna ... 1342 



OiVi Salutation unto the Lord Vasudeva. 

Having saluted Narayana and Nara, the foremost of 
male beings as well as Sarasvvati (the goddess of learning) 
let us cry success. f 

^ It is a mystic name of the deity used at the commencecnent of all 
prayers and sacred writings of the Hindus; who believe that the word 
was in existence even at the beginning of the' world. It was first re- 
vealed to mankind by Brahma. His son again coininaiQiniic..ited it to 
Pippalada, Sanatkuma^ and Angiras, 

The Upanishadas, the gnostic portion of \he .Vedas^ nindcrstand the 
word Otn as being synonymous with one and expressive of the uady 
of the God- head. 

The Theological meaning of the word Om is : — The three Vedas, 
the Rik, Yayus and Saman ; the three gunas namely tihe qnzalities of 
goodness, darkness and ignorance ; the three worlds, heaven, the earth 
and the infernal regions; the three states of things — the creation; 
preservation and destruction, the three agencies of these personified 
as Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer; 
the three elemental forms, fire, wind and sun ; the three sacrificial fires 
called the Dakshinas. Garhapatya and Ahavanya ; thrcv-fold learning 
contained in the three Vedas. 

t This is a benedictory verse which occurs at the comraencement of 
every *^arvan of Mahabharata. 



I bow’ again and again unto Sree,* Saraswati, Gourit 
GaoeshaJ the lord Skandha,§ Brahma, Vanhi,|| Ind^-a and 
other celestials and Vasudeva (i). » 

Performing a sacrifice in honor of Hari, in (the forest of) 
Naimisha the Rishis Shounaka and others in the way of a 
conversation relating to a pilgrimage, welcomed Suta^[ and 
said to him (2). 

The Rishi said 

O Suta^, thou art adored hy us. Do thou communicate 
unto us (an account) of ttie Truest of the True,*^ by knowing 
which one acquires omniscience (3). 

SUTA said : — The lord Vishnu, endued with all spiritual 
powers, tt the ’Creator of the celestial region and others is 
the Truest of. the True.' By knowing that / am Bi-ahmaXX 
one acquires omniscience (4). Two Brahmas are to be 

■ * The goddess of riches, 
f Gouri the consort of Siva. 

X The son of Siva. He is considered as the most auspicious deity 
to whom adoration is offered at the beginning of every religious rite. 

§ Name of Kartikeya the generalissimo of the celestial host. It i^ 
also a name of Siva. 

II The Regent of Fire, 

The word signifies the offsring of a Kskairtjra by a Brahmh: 
woman. This mixed caste used to keep horses^ and drive cars in the 
days of yore. A particular family of this caste however became famous 
for its knowledge of Puranas and other sacred writings. 

♦♦ 'Ihis refers to the true knowledge of Brahma. According to the 
Aryan Rishis this is the knowledge which one aspires to acquire* 

tt word the text is Bkagavan which means one who is pos- 
sessed of or spiritual power which is of six sorts namely, domi- 
nion, might, glory splendour wisdom' and dispassion. 

Xt is a transcendental Vedic phrase meaning I am Brahma ; this 
is the highest aspiration of a Vedantin. By continued spiritual exercises 
a man arrives at a stage of culture when it becomes psychologically 
impossible for him to think himself separate from Brahma. Tiiis phrase 
IS thus explained in Panchadasi, Chapter V. 


known na.aely Savda Byahnid^' and Para Brahma^ and 
two branches of learninj^f are to be mastered namely rites and 
ceremonialst and Sruti§ (5). Headed by Suka and Paila 
I repaired to the hermitage of Badarika. Bowing tliere 
unto Vyasa we accosted him and he commjnnicated unto us 
the true Essence (of things) (6). 

Vyasa said : — 

Do thou, O Suta, headed by Suka and others, hear of the 
True Brahma, the greatest of the great, communicated 
unto me by Vashistha when he was accosted by the sages (7). 

VASHI3THA said : — Hear, O Vyasa followed by the entire 
world, I will describe to you two sciences (Vidya) which 
Agni, accompanied by the sages and celestials, communicated 
unto me in the days of yore (8). [I will describe unto thee] 
the Rik and the othfer Vedas in which is contained the 
knowledge of Para Brahma and which' gives satisfaction to 
all the celestials, as well as the Purana communicated by 
Agni and which is designated by Brahma as Agneya, It 

“ The phrase (Aham Bmhmasmi) I am Brahma cited in the Rrihad 
Aranyaka Upanishad of Yayur Veda is thus explained The Infinite 
Intelligence, the Supreme Self, residing in the body, composed of tlie 
five elements, by the inherent force pf Maya, but discovered as a 
witness by passivity, self-control and other means for attaining self- 
knowledge is the signification of {Aham,) 

Brahma refers to th<® self-existent, all pervading Supreme, Self. And 
(am) establishes the non-difference of the two intelligences expressed 
by I am (Brahma). If therefore the identity of the individual and 
universal intelligence be established, then the use of (1 am Brahma) 
by one liberated in life necessarily implies no contradiction, but an 
established truth, 

* The Vedas which is held in equal reverence with Brahma by the 
Hindus for its spiritual knowledge consisting in words. 

t The Supreme Being to whose eternal existence the Vedas testify. 
t Srimitts or the rules of riles and ceremonials. The word literally 
means that *mhich is femembered^ 

§ Tlie word literally means that whiu/i ts heard. It is the know- 
ledge -revealed in the Veda^. 


AGMI pur a NAM. 

grants heavenly enjoyments and salvation unio men wha 
read or hear it (9— lo). And accosted by sages lI will 
describe] Vishnu, in the form of the fire of dissolution, the 
Hrahma of li^ht, the greatest of the great adored through 
Jnana (knowledge) and Karma (religious rites) (ri). 

VaSHISTHa said: — Do thou communicate unto me Brahma, 
Iswara, the boat for crossing the ocean of the world — the 
cream of sciences, by learning which a man becomes 
omniscient (12). 

Agni said : — Vishnu is the fire of universal dissolution 
and I am Rudra. I will communicate unto thee the essence of 
learnings, the Purana, that is the cream of all sciences and 
the cause of all ; (13) [Containing an account of} creation 
and^ dissolution, of various families, periods of Mann and 
gene.alogies. The Lord Vishnu assumes the forms of fi-h, 
tortoise &. There are two sciences, superior and inferior. 
0 twice-born one, the Vedas, Rik, Yayush, Saman and 
Atharvan, the six auxilliaries of the Vedas, namely (Siksha), 
the science of proper articulation and pronounciation, 
(Kalpa) ritual or ceremonial, (Vyakarana) grammar, 
(Nirukta) etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words, 
(Jyotish) astronomy, (Chhandas) science of prosody, 
(Ahhidlnna) lexicon, Mimansa,* Dharma Sastras.f Pura- 

* One of the six, Darshanas or systems, of Indian philosophy. It 
was originally divided into two systems. Purvk-Mimansa or Karma 
Mimansa founded by Jaimini and Uttara Mimansa or Brahma 
Mimansa founded by Badrayana • but the two systems have very little 
in common with them, the first concerning itself chiefly with the secret 
interpretation of the ritiial of the Veda and the settlement of the dubious 
points in regard to Vedic texts ; and the latter dealing with the nature 
of Brahman or the Supreme Spirit. The first part is popularly known 
as Mimansa and the latter as Vedanta. 

t The General body of law comprehending achara (ritual) Vyavahara 
(civil acts and rules) and Prayaschiita (expiation) is denominated the 
Dharma Sasira^, 

The DJiarma Shastra is to be sought primarily in \.hs Sanhitas 
(collections or institutes) of the holy sages, whose number according to’ 



the list ^Mven by Jn^nyavalkya is twenty r namely, Manu, /Ain, 
Vishi'iU, Marita, Jagfnyavalkya or Yajnyaval'iya, Ushana, Angira, 
Jana or *' Yama, Apastamba, Samvarta, Katyayana, Vrihaspati, 
Parasara, Vyasa, Sankha, and Likhita, Dalcsha, Goiitama, Satata la 
and Vashisbtha — Parasara, whose name appears in the above list, 
enumerates also twenty select authors ; but instead of Jama, and Vyasa, 
he gives Kashyapa, Gargya, and Pracheta, — The Pndina-piirnna 
omitting the name of Atri which is found in Jagnyavalkya's list, 
completes the number of thirty-six b 3 ^ adding Marichi, Piilastya, 
Pracheta, Bhrigu, Narada, Kash^^apa, Vishwamitra, Devala, Rishya- 
sringa, Gargya, Boudhayana, Poithnashi, Jabali, Sumantu, Paraskara, 
Lokakshi, and Kuthumi. — Ram-krishna in his gloss to the or 

Grijhya~i>u4ras of Paraskara, mentions thirty-nine, of whom nine are 
not to be found in any of the above lists. These (nine) are Agni, 
Chy^avana, Chhagaleya, Jatukarana, Pitamaha, Prajapati, Buddhar 
Satayana, and Soma. 

Several Sanhitas are sometimes ascribed to one author : his greater 
or less institutes, {vrihat or laghu^) or a latter work of the author, when 
old {vriddha,) 

There appear to have been some more legislators, namely, 
Dhoumya, the priest of the and author of a commentary^ on 

the Jajiir-veda^ Ashwalayana, who wrote on the details of religious 
acts and ceremonies, Bhaguri, who is quoted as the author of a gfoss 
on the institutes of Manu, and Datta, the son of Atri. 

By Parasara, author of one of the Sanhitas, (referring to the Hindoo 
division of the world into four ages,) are assigned, as appropriate to the 
Krifa-yuga, or first age, the institutes of Manu, to the Treta or second, 
the ordinances o*^ Goutama, to the Dwapara or third, those of Sankha 
and Likhita, and to the Kali, or fourth, (the present sinful age as it is 
deemed,) his (Parasara’s) own ordinances. The distinction, however, 
does not seem ever to have been actually observed, the institutes of all 
and every one of the sages being respected as of equal authority next 
to those of Manu. 

The Manava ^Dhartna Sastya, or the Sauhita of Manu, is above aU 
of them : it is regarded by us Hindoos as next in snneitity to our scrip- 
tures, the Vedas, and is the oldest of the memorial laws. The author of 
the Manu-sanhita is that Munu, who is Sviayawhlinwa (sprung from the 
Self -Existent,) He is the grandson of Brahma and the first of the 
seven Manus who governed the world. It was he who produced the 
holy sages and the rest, and was not only the.oldcst but also the greatest 
of the' legislators. 



naka*^,* Nyaya,t medical science, m 

usical science, the science 

Besides the usual matters treated of in *a code of laws, the Laghii 
Sanhita of Maim, which comprises in all 2, 6S5 shlohas or couplets, and 
is divided into twelve chapters, comprehends a system of cosmogon)^ 

the doctrines of metaphysics, precepts regulating* the conduct, rules for 

religious and ceremonial duties, pious observances, and expiation, and 
abstinence, moral maxims, regulations concerning things political, 
military, and commercial, the doctrine of rewards and punishments 
after death, and tlie transmigration of souls together with the means of 
attaining eternal beatitude. 

Ihe other sages wrote Saiihitas on the same model, and they all 
cited Manu for authority, whose Sanhita must therefore be fairly 
considered to be the basis of all text-books on the system of Hindu 
jurisprudence. The law of Manu was so much revered even by the 
sages that no part of their codes was respected if it contradicted Manu. 
The sage Vrihaspati, now supposed to preside over the planet Jupiter, 
says in the law tract, that “ Manu held the first rank among legislators, 
because he had expressed in his code the whole se-nse of the Veda ; that 
no code was approved, which contradicted Manu ,* that other Shastras 
and treatises on grammar or logic retained splendour so long only as 
Manu, who taught the way to just wealth, to virtue, and to final happi- 
ness, was not seen in competition with them.’ Vyasa too, the son of 
Parasara before mentioned, has decided, that the Veda with its Angas 
or the six compositions deduced from it, the revealed system of medicine, 
the Pttranas or sacred histories, and the code of I^anu were four works 
of supreme authority, which ought never to be shaken by arguments 
merely human. Above all he is highly honored by name in the Veda 
itself where it is declared that what Manu pronounced was a medicine 
for the souk 

* Puranas. 

f It is the dialectic philosophy of Goutama dealing with the meta- 
ph3^ics of Logic- The text of Goutama’s Nyaya Sutras is a collection 
of Sutras in five books or lectures each divided into two daily lessons 
and these a^n are sub-divided into sections. 

Besides there are other important treatises namely (i) Nyaya 
Lilimati of BaHabha-acharya (2) Tarkabkasa of Kesava Misra (3) 
Toi^kaihasafrakasa of Govardhana Misra (4) Shavartha-dwiffika of: 
Gourikanta (5) Tarkabkasa sara Man jar i of Mahadeva (6) Nyaya 
Sangraha of Ramalingakriti. 



of archery and Political economy — these all are the inferior 
scient^es. The superior science is that by which Brahma is 

There is another compendious work on Indian Logic Padarthadipika 
by Konda-bhatta a noted grammarian. There are some metrical 
treatises the most important of which are Kusa7}ianjali and Syaya 

Doctrine , — ^The order ojjserved both by Gotama and Kanada, in 
delivering the precepts of the science which they engage to unfold is 
enunciation, definition and ij.westigation. Enunciation {Uddesa) is the 
mention of a thing by its name. Definition (^Lakshana) sets forth a 
peculiar property, constituting the essential character of a thing. In- 
vestigation (Pariksha) consists in disquisition upon the pertinence and 
Sufficiency of the definition. Consonantly to this the teachers of philo- 
sophy premise the terms of the science, proceed to the definition and 
then pass on to the examination of subjects so premised. 

In a logical arrangement the “predicaments” padariha or object 
of proof are six as they are enumerated by Kanada ,• viz substance, 
quality, action, community, particularity, and aggregate or intimate 
relation, to which a seventh is added by other authors ; privation or 
negation. These again compose a twofold arrangement ; positive and 
negative, Bhava and abhavaj the first comprising six and the latter one. 

According to the Buddhists this padartha or predicament i't know- 
ledge {ynana) and according to the Vedaniisis the predicament or 
object is Brahma the universal being in whom all exists. 

Gotama enumerate,^ sixteen heads or topics : among which, proof 
or evidence and that which is to be proven are chief ; the rest are 
subsidiary or accessory as contributing to kt^b-wledge and ascertainment 
of truth. They are (i) proof (2) that which" is to be known and proven 
(3) doubt (4) motive (^5) instance (6) demonstrated truth (7) member 
of a regular argument or Syllogism {8) reasoning by reduction to 
.absurdity (9) determination or ascertainment (10) determination or 
disquisition (ii) controversy (12) objecion (13) (fallacious reason 
(14) perversion (15) futility (16) confutation. . 

There is no discrepancy between these two arrangements. They 
are held to be reconciliable ; the one more ample, the other more suc- 
cint; but both leading to like results. 

as well as th^.Sa«Mjya concur with other schools of pfeychb- 
logy in promising beatitude and moska^ deliverance from the evil for 
the reward of a thorough knowledge of the principles which they teach. 



comj^rehe& led (^14—17). I will describe uuto thee great 
Purana, Ag^ni, containing the* great and eternal science of 

Scwl then is ih^t which to be known and proven. Gotama, how- 
ever, efnime^tes under this head, besides soul, it associate body, the 
external jsense^ intellect or understanding, mind of the internal organ, 
acdviljr, fault:, transmigration/ fruit* or consequence of deeds, pain or 
physical evil and lastly liberation, making tog:ither with soul twelve 
objects of pnx^, 

!- Evidence or proof by which these objects are known a. id demon- 
strated is of four kinds: — (i) perception (2) inference of three sorts 
(consequent, antecedent and analogous) (3) comparison ; and (4) affir- 
fuation (conprisiiig tradition and as well as revelation). 

II- — (u) The first and most important, of twelve objects of^ evidence 
or matters to be proven enumerated by Gotama, is soul. It, Is the site 
of knowledge or sentiment ; distinct from body and from the senses 
<£ffierent for each individual co-existent person, infinite eternal, 
perceived by the mental organ. This is the living soul yiuatnia or 
anhnatii^ spirit of an individual person. But the Supreme Soul or 
Paaramaima, is one, the seat of eternal knowledge ; demonstrated as the 
maker of aS things. The individual soul is infinite for wherever the 
bodjgoes there the soul too is present. It experiences the fruits of its 
deeds; pain or pleasure. 

c&) ITie second object of evidence is body. It is ^^e site of effort, 
of organs of sensation, and of sentiment of pain or pleasure. It is an 
ultimate compodnd; the seat of soul’s enjoyment. It is eartnly for the 
qualities of the earth are perceived in it. 

(c) Next among objects of proof are the organs of sensation. An 
Ofgan of sense is defined as an instrument of knowledge, conjoined to 
the body and impereeptible to the senses. 

There are five external organs ; smell, taste, sight, touch and hear- 
they are not modifications of consciousness (as the Sankliyas 
mamtaifi} but material, constituted of the elements, earth, water, light, 
air and ether respectively. 

Tte papa of tie eye is not the organ of sight, nor is the buter ear 

die eigaa of hearing. But a ray of light proceeding from the pnpil of 

the ^ tomds the objects viewed is the visual orgarf. Thus the ether 
ooMined n the cavity tlie ear and coramunibating by the inter- 
BM^Me ether nnth the object heard is the organ ^f hearing. 

«gah of vbion is lucid, the organ of hearing is etherial* 

> ***" *V»«»iis. that of feeling aerial and that of smelling 


Brahma, that which is invisible, incomprehensible, stable and 
eterj^^al ; and is the cause of fi<h and other forms, recounted 
unto me ^!>y Vishnu and unto the celestials in the days of yore 
by Brahma (i8 — ig). 

: 0 : 


V ASHISTHA said : — Do thou describe unto me the fisli and 
other incarnations of Vishnu the cause of creation & as well 
as the Agni Puranam as heard by thee from Vishnu in 
the days of yore (i). 

Agni said : — Hear, 0 Vashistha, I will describe the fish 
incarnation of Hari. The work of going through incarna* 

The site of the visual organ is the pupil of the eye, of the auditory 
organ, the orifice of the ear, of the olfactory organ, the nostril or tip of 
the nose ; of the taste, the tip of the tongue, of the feeling the skin. 

The objects, app,rehended by the senses, are odour, flavour, colour, 
touch, and sound. 

The existence of ^rgans of sense is proved by inference from the 
fact of the apprehension of those objects. For apprehension an 

instrument to effect it. 

The organs are six including an eternal organ, termed Manas or 
mind. It is the instrument which affects the apprehension of pain, 
pleasure or interior sensations, and by union with external senses, 
produces knowledge of exterior objects apprehended through them, as 
colour, etc. 

(d) Next in Gotama’s arrangement are the Artha) objects of sense ,* 
*5^at is ’of sense; that is of internal senses, and he enumerate^ odq^ur, 
^ste, colour, feel and sound^ which 
the elements resp^tively. 

^ 2 



tions is intended for the protection of the pious and destruc- 
tion of the wicked* (2). 

* c£. Ceeta* 

iramfii i5t ^ ii . 

For saving the pious, suppressing the wicked and protecting re- 
ligions, I incarnate my^self at every Yuga. 

These incarnations are ten, Fish, Tortoise, Boar, Man-iion, 

Dwarf, Rama, Parashu Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki. The fol- 
lowing account of incarnations occurs in the Bhagavat Puranam. 
Tliat Deity, first of all, bent upon the Celibate creation (of Sanat- 
kumar etc.), practised a severe and flawless vow of Brahmacharyya as 
a Brahmana. Next, for the deliverance of this world, the Lord of 
Sacrifice, assumed the form of a boar,.with the view of heaving up the 
earth sunk into the watery abyss. Thirdly, proceeding to the creation 
of sages, in the form of a divine sage, he propounded the science 
of devotion, which robs action of its binding power, * In the fourth — the 
creation of the Spiritual Half (wife) becoming two sages — Nara and 
Narayana, He performed austere penance, accompanied with self- 
control. The fifth emanation was Kapila, the prince of the potent, who 
revealed to Asura, the Sankhya Philosophy, wherein ascertained the 
whole body of essential entities. Sixthly, prayed to that o^eet by 
Anasuya, wife of Atri, He assumed his sonship, and revealed the true 
nature of the Soul to Alarka, Prahlada and others. In the seventh 
emanation, He was* born as Sacrifice, Akuti by Ruch, and in the 
company of his own offspring, the gods called Yamas, niled during the 
Sayambhuba cycle. In the eighth, the mighty Lord was born of 
Merudevi by Navi, and revealed to sages the path held in reverence by 
persons in all the various stages of life. Prayed to that effect by the 
sages, He assumed His ninth form as King Prithu and brought forth 
plant^ and ail other things out of the earth. Hence is this emanation, 
the fairest of all. On the occasion of the deluge at the end of the 
Ckakskusa cycle, He assumed the form of a fish and saved Vaivasvata 
Manq, by embarking him on a vessel, which was but Earth in disguise. 
In the ^enth incarnation, th? Lord, in the form of a tortoise, 
**^**®'^®^ ‘**6 •“onntain called Mandara, as' the gods and 

gknts,Mistorned the ocean- therewith. In His twelfth incarnation as ' 
and thu-teeiHlf as Nlohini, he regaled the Gods with 
. lights <rf nectar, infatuating th^r rivals with the -beauty 0 .' His 



At the end oC the past Kalpa* th§fe> ^ok fi^lace an* 
universal dissolution the instrumental cause of which was 
BrahmS. -There, O Muni, the earth and men were submerged 
under the rising ocean (3). At that time Manuf Vaivaswata 

person in the female incarnation. Assuming HTis fourteenth form as 
Narasingh, He tore with His nails the inflated lord of Demons, resting 
Him on his own hips, even as a maker of grass-screens tears grass 
devoid of knots. In Mis fifteenth incarnation, desirous of recovering 
the three worlds, He went to the ceremony inaugurated by Bali, 
disguised as a Dwarf, praying for three paces of earth. In the sixteenth 
incarnation, enraged at the sight of the kingly caste warring upon the 
priestly, He purged the world of Kshatriyas, as many times as three 
times seven. In the seventeenth, beholding the degeneracy of men*s 
intellects, he was born of Satyabati by Paracara, and divided into 
branches the tree of the Vedas. Next, to achieve the end of the gods, 
He assumed the form of Naradeva, and performed a great many feats 
of valour, such as the taming of the Sea. In the ninteenth and 
twentieth incarnations, having birth among the Vrishnis as Rama and 
Krishna, the Lord lightened the load of the Earth. Next, when .Kali' 
sets in, He will be born among the Kikatas as Buddha, son of Anjana, 
in order to delude the foes of the godsw Afterwards, in the twilight of 
Kalit when kings shall have mostly become robbers, the Lord will^be 
bom of Vishnuyasas, under the name of Kalki, 

* A day and night of Brahma, a period of 4,320,000,000, Solar- 
sydereal years or years of mortals measuring the duration of the world 
and as many, the intervals of its annihilation. 

f The name Manu is specially applied to fourteen successive mythical 
progenitors and sovereigns of the earth described in the Code of Manu 
and in the later mythology as creating and supporting this world of 
moving and stationery beings through successive Antaras or long periods 
of time. Swayambhuva, who sprang from Swayambhu, the self-born 
or Brahma, who according to one account divided himself into persons, 
male and female, whence was produced Vtraj and from him the first 
Manu. 'According to irthers Swayambhuva converfed himself into the 
first man called Swayambhuva Manu and the first woman called Shata<» 
Rupa. The first i^anu is the author of the Manu Samhita. He is 
sometimes called Prajapati, Hiranyagarbha and Prachetas. 'J'he next 
five Manus are mentioned in the following order 

Swarochisa, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivala, Chakshusha. The seventh 
Manu, called Vaivaswata, b tihe present Manu. 



prpctisea hard penances for attaining objects of enjoyment 
and salvation. Once while he was pouring libations un^der a 
cassia fistula tree tlJere arose from the water in hb paints a 
small fish and said to him who was about to throw it : — Pray, 
do not throw me away, 0 best of men, I fear very much the 
acquatic animals.” Hearing it (Manu) threw it into a vessel. 
Increasing there in size the fish again told him. ** Give me 
a bigger accomodation." Hearing its words the king threw 
it into a water-jar. Increasing there again in size it said 
to the King '*0 Manu, give me a bigger accomoda- 
tion” (4—7). 

Then thrown again into a tank it assumed proportions 
according to its size and said Give me a larger room'^ and 
the Manu accordingly threw it into the ocean (8). In no 
time it assumed a size extending over a hundred thousand 
Yojanas. Beholding such a wondrous fish Manu, filled with 
surprise, said -(p). 

** Who art thou but Vishnu ? 0 NSrayana, why dost 
thou, 0 Janarddana, overcome me wfth thy illusory 
power” ? (lO). 

Thus accosted by Manu the Fish said to him engaged in 
the work of protection I have incarnated myself . for the 
protection of the universe and destruction of the wicked 
(ii). In the seventh day the ocean will submerge the 
earth. When a boat will approach thee do thou take all 
the seeds of creation and encircled by the seven Rishis, 
spend on it Brahma's night, and bind this boat, with the 
huge serpent, to my born” (12—13). Having said this the 
Fish disappeared. The Manu awaited the appointed hour on 
the bark of the surging deep. He then got upon the boat. 
That fish had one bora of gold ten thousand Yojanas in 
length. He tied the ancient boat described by the fish to its 
horn (14—15). Kesliava killed the D^nava Hayagriva* 

^ m following account about the Matysa or the Fish Incarnation 
of Vishnu occurs m the Srimadhhagavatam^ 



who destroyed the Vedas of Brahma. And chanting with 
hymn'^ his glories he heard from the fish the Vedic mantrams 
and pres^Vved them. And when Var^ha Kalpa set in Hari 
assumed the Srm of a tortoise (i6 — 17). 


jAlGNI said: — 1 will now describe the tortoise incarnation 
(of Vishnu) destructive of sins as heard by me. Formerly in 
the war between the gods and demons* the former, in con- 

A powerful demon, by name Hayagriva, pilfered the Vedas from 
Brahma. Vishnu saw this sinful act of the demon and wanted to kill 
him. Satyavrata, a royal sage, attained the rank of Manu. While 
he was performing ablution, Vishnu assumed the form . of a small Fish 
and passed into his hands. The account then is the same as described 
in this chapter. The demon was killed after the deluge and the Vedas 
were restored t6 Brahma. 

A fuller account of this Incarnation occurs in the Matsya Furand^ 
There is however a divergent account to be met with in the Makabharata. 
It has no reference to Hayagriva as in the Bhagavat and other Puranas. 
In the Saipatha Brahmana of the Yayitr Veda a legend about fish 
occurs but there ft has no reference to any special deity. 

* The mythological account of this war between the 'gods and 
the demons or the Suras and Asuras is as follows : — 

Vishnu, the lord of the creation, wanted to make his favourites the 
gods, immortal and powerful. He asked them to churn the ocean of 
milk so that ambrosia might be provided. The demons offered their 
services to the gods which they did not decline. When ambrosia 
was produced Vishnu,' as^suming the form of a beautiful damsel, 
distributed the whole amongst the Suras. Hence the quafrel arose. It 
continued for thousands of years. The demons were very powerful 
and some of them became invindble and unconquerable by the grace 
of < their god Siva, Though they could not exterminate the god% yet 
they defeated them often, drove them from the, celestial region and took 
possession of it. 



sequence of an imprecation from 0ufvSs3l,^ were defeated 
by the latter and humiliated. Then chanting the gIor-5e$ of 
Vishnu who was lying in the ocean of milk they skid ** Save 
us from the Asuras'^ (t — 2 ). Hari then said to BrahmS and 
other gods “ Do ye make treaty with the Asuras for churning 
the ocean of milk and securing ambrosia for the well-being 
of the celestials. In the interest of an important work even 
the enemies should be overture/! fur peace. I will make you 
partake of the ambrosia and not the DStnavas ( 3 — 4 ). 

There were supposed to be thirty three millions gods and 
goddesses — but Indra was their king and Lord. After the defeat of 
the Danavas on the shore of the churned ocean the gods lived in 
happiness for several years till a great Danava was born, who was 
known by the name of Vitrasura. He collected all the demons under 
his banner and declared war against the Devas. It went on for years 
and the gods were greatly assailed. Indra then went to Brahma for 
help who advised him to go to Dadichi for Ins bones to make an weapon 
with them. Dadichi agreed and Indra drove the demons away with that 
dreadful weapon. 

Many years passed in peace when the demons again gathered round a 
leader named Taraka. Shiva helped them and the gods grew 
weakened gradually. The celestials, after holding a council, thought 
of arousing Shiva from his Yoga»SIeep through the help of Madana, 
the god of love. Mahadeva awoke and begat Kaitikeya or Uma, He 
became the commander- in -chief of the celestial army and defeated the 

Again the demons grew powerful under two Danava-chiefs named 
Shumbha and Nishumbha, At this time Durga went to the battle- 
field and destroyed the Danavas. ^ 

There is however a spiritual significance about the story. The 
war between the gods and demons going on eternally -means the struggle 
between good and evil that we find in this wc^rld. Tlie gods are the 
representatives of good spirit and the demons those of the evil. The 
triumph of the gods means the ultimate victory of good over evil 
in this wc^ld. ‘ . :r 

* A dre^id Rishi, who was of a yghly wrathful temperament. 
Every one stioci^ iiif direald of hb impreoaiion. 



Making the mount Manuara* * * § the churning rod and VSsukif 
the ri>pe do ye vigilantly churn, the ocean of milk with my 
help" (5). 

Then making the covenant as suggested by VTshnu the 
Daityas came to the ocean of milk. Then the celestials 
began to churn it where the tail (of the serpent) was (6). 
When the celestials were distressed with the sighs of the 
serpent they were consoled by Hari ; and when the oceait was 
thus churned the mountain could not support itself and 
entered into the water (7). Then assuming the form of a 
tortoisej Vishnu supported the mount .Mandara. From the 
churning of the ocean of milk (first) came out a^dreadful 
venom (S). Hara kept it in his throat and was (accordingly^ 
called blue-throated. Then arose the goddess Varui)i§ 
next Pirijatafl and then Kbustava 1 [ (jem) (9). Then came 
out celestial kine and nymphs and then Lakshmi** who went 
to the side of Hari. Beholding her and chanting her glories 
all the deities regained their (former) beauty (ro). Then 
came out Dhanyantari the founder of Ayurvedaff holding an 

* The first mountain of the world. 

f A serpent, the sovereign of snakes. In Mahabharata Vasuki is the 
king of a clan of barbarians called Nagas. 

J This is the Kurma or Tortoise incarnation ef Vishnu. 

§ A kind of wine which was a favourite drik of the celestials. 

II A kind of celestial flower a favourite of Sachi, the . queen of Indra, 

5 [ A jewel worn by Vishnu on his breast. 

** Goddess of prosperity the consort of Vishnu. 

ff The Hindu system of medical science the promulgator of which 
was Dhanwantari, 

The mythological account of the Hindus traces the origin of 
Ayurveda, their medical science, in the beginning of Kali yuga, 
when Brahma, taking compassion on man's weak, degenerate and 
suffering state, produced the Upaveda or commentary on the sacred 
Vedas, which consists of four treatises (i) the Dharmaskasira,^ the 
science of law (2) Dkanurveda, the science of the bow^ (3) Qandharva 
Veda, X\\t science of music, (4) the science of life.; Thus a 

sySlertiatic treatise on medical science is given by Brahma to mankind 



earthen pot full of ambrosia (ii). Taking ambrosia from 
his hands the Dait_vas gave half of it to the gods and went 

to teach them properly the manner of living- in the world by preventing 
and curing diseases. This sacred medical work of the Hindus 
resembles in form and style the fourth sacred Veda namely the Atharvan. 
It describes the means of keeping health, the causes of diseases and 
the ways of curing them. The original work was divided into eight 
• sections. 

They are 

(1) , Salya OT surgery; it deals with the method of removing 
external substances such as grass, wood, stones &c. accidently getting 
into the body : explains the method of removing dead child from the 
mother’s womb, of healing wounds and usmg various surgical instru- 
ments in operations. 

(2) . Salahya ; it deals with the description and treatment, of the 
external and organic diseases of the eyes, ears, mouth and nose &c. 

(3) Kaya Chikitsa or an account of the diseases affecting the whole 
body as fevers, consumption, mania, epilepsy, leprosy, diabetes and 
other diseases. 

(4) . Bhuia Vidya or the means of restoring the deranged faculties 
of the mind on’account of a man’s being possessed by devils. 

(5) . Kaumarabhritya or the treatment of infantile diseases. 

(^. Agada or the administration of poisons and their antedotes. . 

{7). Rasayana or an account of the medicines which cure all 
diseases, restore general health and youth. 

(8). Bajikarna or the means of restoring the^^ manhood and in- 
creasing the huti^an race. 

Thus we see that Ayurdeva is the first systemetic work on Hindu 
medicine which was revealed by Brahma who first instructed the 
patriarch Daksha. He wrote a book named Chikitsa- darshnna and 
communicated the medical science to the two Ashwinis or offspring of 
the sun* Others say that Brahma communicated the Avurveda to 
Stirya* The Ashwinis were the medical attendanfe of th^ godsend 
airthors of several treati^ on medicine one of which* was named 
Chihiisn'-rai^ianira, As the gods were ever youthful and healthy 
^suS^ng from no diseases they stood in no need of a physician. The 
Ash^kts however perform^ many surgical operations for the gods. 

cored rf ^ paralytic arm by the A^inisjndra learnt Ayurve,la 
from than. 


with the other half, Vishnu, the root of creation, then 
assumed Jhe form of a (beautiful) damsel (12). Br holding 

Thus it is evident that for a considerable time the knowledge of 
Ayurveda was confined amongst the gods. Sometime after this, how'- 
ever, with the prevalence of wickedness and iniquity, mankind began to 
suffer from various diseases. Grieved at this, tlie sages Varadwajn and 
Atreya convened a meeting of the ijfwwjs in the Himalaya mountains. 
According to the account in Charaka there were present the sages 
Angira, J^madagni, Vasistha, Kasyapa, Bhrigu, Atreya, Gautama, 
Sanlchya, Pulastya, Narada, Asita, Bamdeva, Markandeya, Aswanayana, 
Parikbhita, Bhikshuratreya, Bharadwaja, Kapinjala, Vishwamitra, 
Aswaran3^a, Bhargava, Chayabana, Abhijit, Gargya, Sandllya, Abar- 
kshi, Devala, Galava, Saukrit^'a, Vaijavapaya, Kusika, Vadarayna, 
Kaikasaey, Dhauma, Marichi, Kasyapa, Sarakshya, Hiranakshya, 
Lokakshya, Paingi, Saunaka, Sakuneya. Gautamayani and others. 

After some deliberations they all arriveo at tlie conclusion that the 
only means of saving humanity from such a disaster was to send one 
of their number to the thousand-eyed deity Indra and to obtain from 
him the knowledge of medicine. Varadwaja was selected. The sage 
went to the king of gods and returned with the knowledge of'Ayur- 
veda. He related to the ‘Rishis the precepts that he had learnt from 
Indra. They consisted of (i) Samana or the general character of 
everything, (2) Visesa or classification, (3) Dravya or elements, (4) Giina 
or qualities, (5) Karma, or actions, ( 6 ) Sanyoga or combination. Of 
those Rishis Atreya con.municated bis knowledge of medicine to his 
numerous pupils. 

Then again after the deluge when the Vedas were lost the gods and 
demons churned the ocean for finding out the water of immortality. 
Wlien the ocean was churned many precious gifts or ratnas came out. 
Among them was Dhanwantan the physician or holy sage who came 
out witli water of life'or Amriia. He was a pupil of Indra in Ayurveda 
and practised medicine in heaven. Seeing the miseries and diseases of 
mankind he down on earth to instruct them in the science of liFe> 

H’d a^mards bwaifie^he king of Kasi and performed many celebrated 
ctitire^. Witnessthg^lije miserable condition of mankind the Rishis sent 
adeputatidnvlto Divadasaor Qhanwantari requesting him to teach them 
the science oF> Itfis* This dejputation consisted of Oupadhnuba, 
Au^bh|ra, Kai^birya, G'oupura, Riikeeta and Susruta who 
fol^b^d to retirement Of them Susruta was selected to 

ad^rl^e thb A>;nrvoda. 



her endued with beauty, the Daityas, overcome with facina- 
tioh, said |3e our wife, take this ambrosia, O fair on‘e and 
make us partake of (13)-^ 

Saying So be it’' Hari took it from them and made the 
celestials drink of it. Assuming’ the form of the moon 
Rahu* drank up the portion offered to the sun and moon 
and therefore his head was severed off his head by his enemy 
Hari. He then said to Hari, the giver of boon. By thy 
mercy I have attained immortality 14 — 15)." ** Rahu is 

mortal still he will possess the sun and the moon during the 
ecclipse as well as the other planets. Charities made at 
that time will be imperishable (16). To it Vishnu replied 
“ So be it" along with all the immortals, casting off his 
female form. He was then requested by Hara to show (this 
form) unto him tiy). The Divine Hari then dis- 
played his female form unto Rudra. Overpowered by his 
(Vishnu's) illusory power, Shambhu, renouncing Gouri, 
longed for that damsel (iS). He became naked and looked 
like a maniac. He held the woman by the hair and she, 
releasing her hairs, ran away. He too followed her (19). 
Wherever dropped Hara's seminal fluid there sprang up 
fields of his phallic emblem and gnid (20). Then knowing 
that this was her illusory form Hara assumed his own^ real 
form. Hari then said to Shiva ** 0 Rudra, my illusory 
power has been overpowered by thee (21). There is no 
other male being on earth who is capable of discomfitting 
my Maya^^ 

* Th« ascending node ; in mythology the son of Sinhikat b. Daitya, 
with the tail of a dragon wlmse head .was severed from his body by 
Vishnu, but being immortal the head and tail retained their separate 
existence ai.d being, transferred to the stellar sphere, became authors of 

eccUpse the first specially, by endevourmg at various times to swallow 
the sun and :ihe moon, 

f For a right interpretation of broad outlines of the Vedanta Phtlo* 
sof^y one must b^in with Maya. It if a term pretty commonly used, 

* but 'with wide distinctions.* It has a scientific and a^popular signification 
^ both of which k wifi be our purpose to show in the present notice. 



Thereupon not obtaining the ambrosia the 'Daityas were 
defeated by the Devas in battle. The gods then repaired 

Maya has been defined as the inherent force residing in the Supreme 
Brahma — which ts essentially existent and which cannot be differentiated. 
As the consuming ftanre of fire imparts an idea of its force, so the 
potentiality of force present in Self is plainly seen in the objective world. 
But this Maya cannot be said to be one with Parabrahma, nor as some- 
thing distinct, in the same way as the consuming force of a fire cannot 
be said to be the fire itself. Then again if you admit it as a separate 
entity you cannot by any means describe its separate existence. 
{Panchadasi, Book II. V. & 43.) 

It will thus be evident that Maya and Parabrahma are but another 
name for Matter and Force. We all know force cannot exist without 
matter as a separate entity, yet to say that it is the same as matter, is 
absurd. Hence in the text quoted w^e find the non -dualist asking his 
opponent a Madhyamika Buddhist to describe force as a separate entity. 
Bat it may be urged that Parabrahma is force, and we have seen Maya 
.0 be also a force — therefore we have force x force — or force within force 
something equally absurd. A condition which the mind fails to com- 
prehend. But such apparent ambiguity is far from real. For Maya is 
matter in its undifferentiated condjtion in which th^ difference between 
matter and its indwelling potentially is minimised to the lowest numeri- 
cal figure ; it is the boundary line of m'ktter and force, where matter 
losing its grossness assumes the subtlety of super ethereal finist where 
no matter is distinguishable as such, but all is spirit or force. And such 
inference is derived from Nature. To quote a familiar illustration, the 
transition from a mineral to a vegetable and from vegetable to animal* 
is so gradual that it is impossible to distinguish the one from the other. 
Even at the present moment science is undecided as to whether certain 
classes of the lowest vegetables belong to the mineral class or the last 
in the scale of the animal series belongs to the vegetable. So much do 
they resemble each other. If such a view be accepted the apparent 
inconsistency is removed. Virtually then difference between Mula- 
Prakriti (Matter in its undifferentiated cosmic condition) and Purush 
(its spirit or Parabrahma) for all practical purposes is nil. Hence the 
Western Materialist, denying Spirit all over, concentrates his attention 
on his material atoms which with their Indwelling potentiality supply 
him with a sufficient cause to answer for eve obenomenon. ‘The 
' Vedantist therefore presents the sharp point of Adaublfc-edgcd sword 



to .theJf celestial home. He who rea^s this account goes tcj» 
the celestial region (2*2). 

to his opponent which takes the ground horn und-^r his feet and makes' 
his own position invincible* 

Now Maya is described as a force and it h> ^elsewhere defined as- 
something indescribable, which is neither existence (saf) nor non- 
existence {asai) — in- short it is one with Ignorance, which' again being 
the chief factor of the grand cosmos is the same as Prakriti of Kapjki. 
Therefore Maya is nothing less than matter. Now this Maya existed* 
potentially in the Parabrahma, and if we say that by an act of volition 
created he the objective world from the very same Maya,, ^e imply, nc 
such contradiction as the Hebrew accounnt of God’s creating the worict 
out of nothing. But then we*may be asked Parabrahma is an imper*^ 
sonality, and volition is due to consciousness which it cari lay. no claims- 
to. To such of our task masters we reply that matter per se- is un- 
conscious and inert, and can bring forth nothing until acted upon by 
an infeifigent co-operation of a force ^nd that the Parabrahma is- 
ConscioBsnes itself, consequently the impress of change which it 
produces in the mass' of inertia to make it evolve things varied and 
innumerable is tantamout to the volitional agency of a- personal creator. 
Then again if it be askecj that since Parabrahma is a pure spirit, 
-how can it have any connection with matter which is its antagonist ? We 
• have seen that spirit and force are cbnvertible terms, and we have like- 
wise seen that force cannot exist without matter, hence where ever there 
is force there matter must always be ; — to sum up then we find, Maya 
existed in the parabrahma, and it is the same M?.ya which brough forth* 
the universe in a natural order of sequence by undergoing mutations 
impressed upon it through its force or Parabrahma. It is unnecessary* 
here to dwell upon the consecutive series of changes, suffice it to say 
that, from its undifferentiated condition,— a state in which it had no 
properties to distinguish it, for properties are due to . the elements, ether 

and £he rest, Its pre-elementary condition if we may be allowed such an 
expression it became subtle, and then gross, and ultimately quintupli- 
<»tech Change, then, is the law of. the universe, without it the earth 
’-woidd lo^ freshness and beauty ; cjhange every where and at every 

is the ^arrd centric law round which are deposited the ni us, 
and nucleoli of future planets, their satellities &c., as surely as it 
leads t& the slow and gradual, but sure disintegration of the existing 

4 n this way there never was a time, when the world was non- 

nor will there ever be a time when it will be totally, destroyed 


H-Gni said ; — I will now dcwscribe the tortoise rncarna- 
tion (of Vishnu) destructive of sins. 

Having vanquished the celestials Hiranyaksha* becanne 
their lord and settled in their region (i). The celestials 
then repaired to Vishnu and chanted his glories, who assume 
ing the form of a sacrificial boar and killing their thorn the 
Danava together with all (other Daityas) protected virtu'e 
and the gods. Afterwards Hari disappeared. 

(Kapila) ; though in truth it may be laid down that the earth we inhabit 
is not the first of the series and that our human rape is not the first that 
has been called into existence- From close reasoning this must naturally 
establish itself- For if the Parabrahma is eternal and essentially 
existent, and if such Parabrahma must have its Maya wherein to reside, 
if the corttact of the two induce changes which end in words usually 
called creative, but strictly speaking evolutional, then where is the 
beginning and the end in such a plan? 

AnotheV signification of Maya is illusion. This consists in believing 
the world and all Us goods to be real, and thus entranced to hunger 
after material comforts. As an apt illustration we may refer to the 
story of Narada, Narada was enquiring of Krishna one day what 
Maya was. They were travelling together in a sandy waste ; Narada 
feels thirsty, and wants some water to drink, a shed was pointed out,, 
where he repairs leaving his companion to wait for him. The proprietress 
of the shed happened to be a young damsel whom Narada had no 
sooner seen, than he felt head and ears, over, in love. His thirst for 
drink was gone, but he was now possessed with a thirst for obtaining 
the fair creature^s hands. He marries her, he gets several children and 
removes with his family from place to place to avoid disaster till 
ultimately his wife and family are drowned while crossing the bed of a 
river ; and he is found bewailling the loss of his dearly beloved wife. 
In such a juncture Hari puts in appearance ; to his queries Narada 
gives no r^ply but intent on grief he weeps as loudly as ever. He is full 
entranced in the meshes of Maya. Bliagavan deprives him of the 
charm; when lo ! Narada is again restored to Jnana. Hehaan^w 
seen Maya. 

^ A demon chief. 



HiranySkslia had a brother by name Hiranyakashlpw 
(2 — 3). Having vanquished the celestials he occupied all 
their possessions and tnonopolised their sha<?e in the 
sacrificial offerings. Having assumed the form of a man- 
lion he killed him together, with all the. Asuras and re- 
-established the Suras (celestials) in their own stations. 
Nirasinha* (man-Iipn incarnation of Vishnu) was then 
worshipped by the-celestials. 

Formerly in the war between Devas and Asuras the 
Suras were dereated and driven out of heaven by Bali and 
his followers and sought the protection of Hari. Having 
promised safety unto the celestials, been prayed for by 
Aditya and Kashyapaf and been born as a dwarf from 
Aditya he went to the sacrifice of Balif who promised to 

* Man-lion incarnation of Vishnu, The following is the inythol<'- 
gical account of this incarnarnation. 

In ancient time there were two demon kings named Hiranyaksha 
and HiranyaKashipu, They were deadly enemies of Vishnu and tried 
their best to piit down his worship. Their attempts were however 
baffled by the birth of a pious son of Hiranya Kashipu, by name 
Pralhada, who was a devout follower of Vishnu, HiranyaKashipu 
tried every possible means to induce his son not to worship Vishnu but 
he was unsuccessful. He then tried to kill him, by throwing him down 
from a mountain summit, by placing him under the feet of a mad 
elephant and by various other means, but all to. no purpose. One 
day growing exasperated he asked his son ‘‘Wheieis your 
Pralhada said '*My Hari is everywhere— He is even in this pillar 
before you.'* The Danava king, in anger, struck the pillar with his 
foot and anon Vishnu came out inhis man-lion form and killed him. 

t He was the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma and one of the 
progenitors of created beings. In Puranas* he is described as the 
husband of Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daksha, and father of 
gods, demons, men and of the erttire animal creation. He is one of 
the seven sages and father of Vivaswat and Vishnu “and grand-father 
of Manu. Aditi had twelve sons of whom Shukra was the eldest and 
Vishnu the youngest. 

J Bali was a powerful and pious kmg, Eveiv now people point out 
IMS City near Madras. The king grew so very powerful by his virtues 
that even Indra the fcing_ of celestials had, ts> givejiis sovereignty onto 



give whatever riches one would pray for, and beg in® to 
recite - at the Palace-Gate (4—7). Having heard 

the DwarP recite the Vedas (Bali) wanted to grant him a 
boon. Although prevented by Sukraf Bali said “ I 
will give thee whatever thou shalt want/^ Whereupon the 
Dwarf said to Bali : — “ Grant me land for placing my three 
feet.’^ (Bali) said to him “I give'' (8 — 9). When waterj 
dropped into his hand the Dwarf became un-dwarfi,sh§ 
and occupied the regions Bhur (earth) Bknvas (atmosphere) 
and Swas (celestial world) with his three feet (10). Hari 
(then) sent Bali to Sutala^ and conferred all the regions on 
Shakra. If Having chanted the glories of Hari along with 
all the celestials Sakra became the lord of the universe and 
happy (li) 

Hear, O twice-born one,** I will describe the Parashu 
Rama incarnatvon. For relieving the earth of her burden 

him. Therefore to kill him Vishnu incarnated himself as a dwarfish 

* All the sacred writings of the Hindus are divided into two classes 
namely Smti or what is heard or revealed and Smriii or what is 
remembered. The Vedas constitute’the Sruti for they are regarded by 
them as revealed and the sacred Laws^c now pass under the name of 

i He was the priest of the Daityas and the presiding priest of the 
Sacrifice undertaken by Bali. 

J rtie practice amongst the pious Hindus is that whenever one 
wants to make any gift in a sacrifice or a religious rite he takes up 
water in his hand and with a promise pours it into the hand of the 

§ He assumed a' huge size which startled the oh-lookers and 
proved what Sukra had said. 

II Nether region. Another mythological account is that Vishnu 
placed one foot on earth, one in tlie sky and wanted room for the third. 
Bali then offered his Aead. Vishnu placed his third foot on it and sent 
him down to the nether region, where even now Bali is reignitve. 

^ Another appellation of Indra, the king of gods* 

Brahmana : bis second birth is said to lake place when he puts on ' 
his sacrificial thread. 


and establishing peace Hari incarnated himself ; and having 

smothered the proud Kshatryas* he protected the '"gods 
and Vipras. From Jamadagni and Renuka he was born as 
Bhirgava, pWficient in the use of arms (12 — 13). 

By ^he grace of Dattatreyaf the thousand-armed 
Kartavirya became the Lord Paramount of the world. Once 

. - _ - ■ - " > 

♦ Xhe military caste. The following is the text of Manu on the 
origin of castes. 

“ For the sake of preserving this universe Brahma allotted several 
duties to those ^ho sprang respectively from his mouth, ^ arm, lis 
'.high and feet. 

To Brahtmanas he assigned the duties of reading the l^eda and 
teaching it, of sacrifing, of assisting others to sacrifice, of giving alms 
and of receiving gifts. 

To defend the people, to give alms, to sacrifice, to read the Veda, to 
shun the temptations of sexual enjoyment constitute in short the duties 
of the Kshatryas. 

To tend cattle, to bestow properties, to sacrifice, to read scriptures, 
tp carry on trade, to lend money on interest and to cultivate land arc the 
duties of the Vaisyas. 

To serve the three other castes is the duty of the Sudras. 

Mr, Muir has cojlected many passages relating to the origin of 
castes and finds it ** abundantly evident that the sacred books of the 
Hindus contain no uniform or consistent account of the origin of castes, 
but, on the- contrary, present the greatest varieties of speej^ation," 

The earliest reference is to be seen in PuriishaSukta of Rigved/t 
•which It considered by many a$ an interpellation- 

in tills hymn it is stated that Purusha hying divided *' The Brahman 
was his mouth ; the Rajanya was made his arms, the Vaisya was his 
thigl« ; the Sudra sprang from his feet. On this point Mr’ Muir thus 
remarks ; — 

In a hymn of this allegorical and mystical characCer it cannot be 
assumed that the writer intended to represent it as a historical fact that 
four different classes sprang from different parts of Purusha^s body; 
any more than he desired to assert as literally true, what he has stated 
in Verses 13 and 14 that “ the moon was produced from his mind, the 
thf sun from his e^e &c, 

’f' riie name of a great Rishi. An account of this Rishi occurs in 
Markandeya Puranam, 

rgni puranam. 


while a-hunting he was tired in the forest and invited by 
the Muni Jamadagni. The king with his retinue was fed by 
him by the favour of Kamadhenu* (14 — 15). (The king) 
then prayed for the cow and (the sage) not agreeing he 
pilfered it. Thereupon Rama, with Jiis axe, cut off the 
head of the king in battle and brought back the cow to his 
hermitage. One day while Rama was out into the forest 
Kartavirya’s sons, out of enmity, killed Jamadagni. On his 
returii ' Kama saw his sire slain and was stricken with 
grief in consequence thereof (17 — 18). Having divested the 
.earth of the Kshatryas for twenty one times, made five wells 
in Kurukshetrat offered oblations to the departed manes 
and conferred the earth on Kashyapa the Lord settled himself 
on the mount Mahendra. Hearing of the incarnations of 
tortoise, boar, man-lion, dwarf and Rama a man repairs lo 
tilt ceslestial region (19 — 20), 


said : — I will now describe RlmayanaJ which 
gives enjoyment and emancipation as described formerly 
by Narada§ unto Valmiki (i). 

* A fabulous cow that gives whatever is prayed for. 
f The field where the great battle was fought. Modern Panipat is 
now pointed out as the proper place, 

J Literally it means history of Ramn the great epic of the Hindus 
written by the sage Valmiki. 

§ He is one of the well-known celestial sages. In the Vedas be 
is described as one of the descendants of Katiwa and author of several 
hymns of the Rig-veda. In mythology he is often associated with 
Parvata and acts like a messenger of gods to men, and is known zs the 
son of Brahma. He is the friend of Krishna and is the inventor of Vinm 
or lute. In the MahabharaU he is described as the king of the celestial 



NarADA said : — Brahma sprang frAm the lotus navel of 
Vishnu ; his son wac Marichi ; his son was Kashyapa ; his son 
was Surya whose son again was Vaivaswata Manu (2). From 
him sprang Ikshwaku in whose family was born Kakuthstha. 
His son was Raghu; his son was Aja whose son was 
Dasharatha (3!, For^the destruction of RSvana Hari incar- 
nated himself in four parts. King Dasharatha begat Rima 
on Koushlya (4). He begat his son Bharata on Kaikeyi and 
Lakshmana and Satrughna on Sumitra. Rishyashringa* 

The following account of Narada^s telling Valmiki about Rama 
occurs in the first chapter of Ramayana : 

The ascetic Valmiki asked that best of sages and foremost of those 
conversant with words, ever engaged in austeritios and Vaidika studies, 
Narada saying , — ** Who at present in lids world is alike crowned with 
<jualities, and endued with prowess, knowing duty, and girateful, and 
truthful, and firm in vow, — who is qualified by virtue of his character, 
and who is ever studious of the welfare of all creatures ? Who is 
learned, hath studied societ}', and knoweth the art of pleasing his 
subjects? And who alone is ever lovely to behold? Who hath 
subdued his heart, and controlled his anger, is endowed with personal 
grace and devoid of malice ,* and whom, enraged in battle, do even 
the gods, fear ? Great is my curiosity to hear of such a person. Thou 
canst, O Maharskii tell me of a man of this description.*’ Hearing 
Valmiki’s words, Narada, cognizant of the three worlds, said with 
alacrity, — Do thou listen ! Rare as are the qualities mentioned by 
thee, I will, O sage, having duly considered, describe unto thee a 
person endued with them. ■ There is one sprung from the line of 
Ikshwaku, known by the name of Rama. 

* In one of the deepest and most romantic glens of the Maisur 
Malnad, fonned by the Western Ghats, is nestled the shrine of 
Sringesva of Kigga. The locality is extremely picturesque, and the 
liabits and customs of the inhabitants are very primitive. The soil is 
rich, and, though thinly scattered, the peasant^are by no means over- 
mdustrious. The productions are among the most valuable, conristing 
oi supari, cardamoms, rice, &a Territorially, the village of Kigga is 
it the Koppa Taiuka of the Nagar Division. There is a tradition 
attaching ta this shrine to the effect that no drought will ever approach 
within 1 2 gavadas of tlie god. In seeking the origin of this tiadition, 
the following legend Iia^ been gather^, it is , scarcely necessary to 


gave Payaaha unto them (the queens) after completing 
a sacrifice and they partook of it and from them were 

remark that .the people of the country accept its truth. But a simpler 
explanation may easily be arrived at. The temple is built cldse to the 
eastern base of the Western Ghats, and as their gigantic peaks intercept 
and appropriate the precious burden of the clouds during the S. W. 
monsoon, the locality happens by a simple natural law to be highly 
favoured with rain. The local priest-hood, with a view to enhance their 
own importance and gains, have turned the naturnal phenomenon 
to their own advantage, clothing it with a religious and supernatural 

‘ Vibhandaka Muni, son of Kasyapa, who was the son of 
Marichi Brahma, consulted his father as to the choice of the 
best place for iapas^ and was directed to the spot in which the 
river Tungabhadra runs in three different directions. Vibhandaka 
thereupon went in search of such a place, commencing from the 
source of the river, and after passing various tirthas and holy spots, 
at Sringapura (modern Sringeri), and identified it with ^the locality 
ordained by his holy father, from the Tungabhadra threat making 
different sweeps in its course. The Rishi here performed the rite of 
fapas rigorously for three thousand years, and its severity (lit. jvala 
flame) penetrated Indra’s heaven and seriously disturbed its denizens. 
They in a body complained of ft to their ruler, who directed one 
Chitrasena to interrupt the tapas of Viblifttidaka. Chitrasena thereupon 
conveyed Indra's behests to Urvasi (the head of celestial, frail beauties), 
who then went to the l!ishi's Asraraa or hermitage. The ascetic was 
then absorbed in dhyana or contemplation. Totvards evening {pradoshay 
Vibhandaka went to bathe in the river, and was deeply smitten with 
the celestial nymph whom he encountered on the road. He afterwards- 
proceeded to the river, and nerformed his ablutions, to about the same 
time a doe came to drink in the river and unconciously imbibed the 
washings of the ascetic. The animal immediately became great with 
young, and in time was delivered of a human male; child, with the 
unusual addition of two horns like those of the deer. The mother ran 
away directly after, and Vibhandaka, who arrived at the river-side 
about that time, heard tlie wailing of the infant. By second sight 
>(divya jnanam) he perceived that the child was his own flesh and blood 
■ and conveyed it to his Asrama, where he brought the child up, feeding* 
him with his own fare of roots, leaves,, &c., and performing over him 
♦he preacribed rites, such as Namakarana, ^utakaranat Upmayam^ 


When the boy was about twieve years old, the Parames\rara an(l 
Parvati were one day taking an airing in the celestial regions, attended 
by their retinue of evil spirits, ghosts, and devils, and^, were much 
surprised to find a child in such company. They alighted on the spot 
and blessed the boy, investing him with the mram^ or power of destroy- 
ing famine and drought within twelve yojanas of his abode. 

‘Once upon a time, when Romapada Maharaja was ruling the king- 
dom of Anga, it was overtaken by an unusual drought of twelve years' 
duration, and the people were in great suffering, no food or drink 
being procurable for men or cattle. At this juncture the divine Rishi- 
Sanatkuniara, who has the privilege of visiting the earth whenever the 
fancy seizes him, went to see the afflicted country and its unfortunate 
ruler. He was duly received by the Raja, and informed .lim that if 
the young Rishya Sringa, son of Vibhandaka Muni, could be induced 
to visit the country of Anga, it would get rain in abundance, and regain 
its usual prosperity. Romapada (bare-footed) could make, nothing of 
this information and consulted all the wise men. in his dominions on the 
subject. They referred to their sacred books, and told him that the 
Asrama of Vibhandaka was situated on the banks of the Tungabhadra 
river, whidv was in the southern direction. The advisers moreover 
expressed their own inability to bring Rishya Sringa to Anga, but sug- 
gested that the Raja should employ dancing girls of surpassing beauty 
to allure the young Rishi to the desired place. Acting upon this prac- 
tical suggestion, Romapada sent several lovely women of equivocal 
character, with large supplies of scents, cloths, jewels, and wealth, and 
directed them to conduct Rishya Sringa to his capital, by every nneans 
ki their power, whether fair or foul. They at fi.‘st established a depot 
at a place called Narve, and taking advantage of Vibhandaka’s absence 
from the hermitage, gradually initiate the unsophisticated young Rishi 
in the pleasures of the world, escaping from the certain malediction of 
the father to their own retreat at Narve, The enchanted young man 
one day asked his enchanters the object which prompted their unusual 
attentions. They gave highly beguiling pictures of itbe wealth and 
beauty of their own country, and invited him to go with them to enjoy 
the same. 'The young Rishi was completely overcome by the artifices 

these delinks, and consented. Taking advantage of the father's 
^nce at the river-side, dancing-girls took Rishya Sringa with them 
,aiui started for Angadesa. In the meantime the long withheld rains 
oescended »pon that country, and there was soon joy, plenty, and pros- 
peri^ ^ k. Romapada took a large retinue about half way and met 
Rishya Sringa, and conducted him to his capital, where every Honour 


2 ? 

and worship was patd to him. Sometime after, the Maharaja praising 
the Rishi very much, offered to give his daughter, Santadevi in mar- 
riage, and ^he offer .’.as accepted. The wedding came off with due 
pomp and eclat, and the happy bridegroom dwelt for some time in the 
country of his adoption. 

‘About this period, Dasaratha king of Ayodhya, was rn deep distress 
from the absence of an heir to his throne. Narada paid him a visit and 
divining cause of his host’s dejection, advised him to invite to his court 
the Muni Rishya Sringa, who would bring about realization of his wishes. 
Dasaratha did accordingly, and Rishya Sringa conducted a yajna 
(sacrifice) called Puira Kameshti in which the god Agni came out of 
the cacrificial fire, and handing a cup of Paramanna (Payasa), told the 
Raja to distribute its contents among tris wives, whereby he would get 
four sons, named Rama, Lakshraana, Bharata, and Satrugh'na. The 
god thereupon vanished out of sight. Dasaratha followed the directions 
of Agni, whose prophecy was duly fulfilled. Rishya Sringa soon after 
returned to his father’s old Asrama, but did not find him there. His 
father’s disappearance afflicted him very much, whereupon 'Vibhandaka 
emerged from the Linga of Malahanisvara. The son was overjoyed, 
paid him due reverence, and asked him where he could best conduct 
tapas. Vibhandaka referred him, however, to Maha Vishnu, who was 
living in the Sahyadri hills. Rishya Sringa was accordingly proceeding 
in that direction, when he was benighted on the bank of a stream near 
Nirmalapura (modern Nemmar). He stopped there to perform his 
evening religious rites, when a Rakshasa named Vyaghra (tiger) rushed 
upon him with the object of swallowing him up. The holy man there- 
upon threw a drop of water upon the Rakshasa from the nail of his 
little finger, and instantly the demon qliitted the body of the tiger, and 
begged the Rishi to tell him what he should do. Rishya Sringa directed 
him to go to Sarvesvara (a Lingam so called), and by doing so the 
quondam tiger attained mokska (salvation). 

‘ Next day Rishya Sringa proceeded to the Sahyadri, and performed 
tapas there seven years in honour of Maha Vishnu. That god told 
him to go, to an incarnation of Siva called Chandra Sekhara, at the foot 
of the Sahyadra ^mountain. The Rish went to the spot indicated, and 
peeped at it through the darkness with half-closed eyes. Hence the 
place is called Wigg, from Kiggannu, the half-open eye. The Rishi 
again performjsd tapas, and Chandra Sekhara appeared before him and 
asked what he wanted. Rishya Sringa begged that Paramesvara would 
absorb himself within his (Rishya Sringa’s) soul. According parames- 
vara became one with Rishya Sringa, whose name also became 
celebrated in the woricL*^. 



born (the princes) beginning with Rama all like unto 
their sire.* 

Although this spot is not exactly on the bank of the Tungabhadra, 
still the Puranas say so, as the rivers Nandini and Nalini flow respec- 
tively from the left and right of it, and join the Tungabhadra at 

It will be perceived from the foregoing that the interested Brahmans 
have woven a marvellous story, however preposterous, round a plain 
natural fact. This l^end has been extracted from the Skanda Purana. 
A portion of the same is related, in somewhat different language, in the 
Mahahharata Aranyaparva (Adhyayas no to 1x3)* Also in the 
Ramayana Baldkanda (chapters g to 17). 

On the back part of many temples of note there are at present well 
cut rcpresei^tions in relief of the manner in which the privileged Rishya 
Sringa was conveyed from the quiet of his father^s hermitage by the 
creatures who were present on the mission by Romapada* There is a 
marvellous and beautiful cut in the temple of Gopalasyami in Devandahalli, 
and fairly represents all similar sculptured figures. The Rishi is 
represented with a deer's head. 

Narve is still a village, and gdes by that name. It is about 12 
miles from the shrine at Kigga, which is itself about 6 miles from 
Sringeri, the seat of the great Sankaracharya. 

It only remains to say that the Linga in the temple is a long-cylinder,^ 
over thr^ee feet above ground, and some part of it must besides be 
buried under the Pitham. Its surface is rough, and the credulous are 
asked to beheve, with the aid of the light reflated frcyn a large mirror, 
that the nmqalities on the Linga are nothing less than the actual avatars 
of Siva, his consort, and his bull ! 

There are some fine carvings and inscriptions in the vicinity. The 
idirme. k largely endowed with lands, partially free from government 
fevenue. ft would be diflicult to find lovelier and more ’ enchanting 
scenery than diat winch the traveller suddenly comes upon in these 

2 The Tna^t^idra above, r^ened to is only the Tunga — far above 
jtscimSueace w^the Indian Antiquary, 

wo k^ie. The $ages>advbed him to bru^g down a 
a sacrifice. The king sent some nymphs 
to Ikfest brot^t dowtx the . sage through their temptation. 
Hishira^u^a caxane to Ayodhya and performed a sacrifice and then 



Rf^quested by the Sage Vishw5mitra for removing 
obstacles of sacrifice the king dispatched Rama and 
Lakshmana with him. Rama, well trained and proficient 
in the use of all sorts of arms, killed TarakS. (5 — 7 ). He 
stupified Maricha with a human weapon and sent him away 
to a long distance. The powerful (hero) then killed Sav 5 hu, 
the obstructer of sacrifices, together with his followers ( 8 ). 

offered Payasha or pudding to the king. The following account about 
it occurs in the sixteenth chapter of the First Book of the Ramayana. 

Do thou, foremost of kings, accept this excellent and divinely 
prepared Payasa, conferring sons, health, and affluence,— which thou 
art tq give unto thy worthy consorts, saying, — Partake it. Through 
them thou wilt, O monarch, obtain sons, — for obtaining whom thou 
hast performed this sacrifice.’* Thereupon, saying,— ** So be it,’’ the 
lord of men delightedly placed that divinely-bestowed golden, vessel 
filled with the celestial Payasa upon his head. And having saluted 
that wonderful being of gracious presence, he in excess of joy began to 
go round him again and again. Then Dacaratha, having received that 
divinely-prepared Payasa waxed exceeding glad ; like unto a pauper 
attaining plenty. Then that highly effulgent being of wonderful form, 
having performed that mission of his, vanished even there. And 
Dacaratha’s inner apartment, being graced with the rays of joy, looked 
like unto the welkin flooded with the lovely beams of the autumnal 
moon. Then entering the inner apartment, he spake unto Kaucalya, 
saying, — “ Take thou Payasa ; for this will make thee bear a son.” 
Having said this, -the king offered unto her a portion of this Payasa. 
Then he conferred upon Sumitra a fourth of it. Then inorder that she 
might have a son, king Dacaratha made over unto Kaikeyi an equal 
portion of what remained. And then having reflected, the mighty- 
minded one* gave unto Sumitra the remaining portion of the Payasa 
resembling ambrosia. Thus- the king dispensed the Payasa unto each 
and all of his wives. And those foremost wives of the king, having 
received that Payasa, became exceedingly delighted, and considered 
themselves as highly honored.- Then those excellent consorts of the 
lord of earth, having separately partaken of that choice Payasa, shortly 
bore offsping, 'resembling fire or the Sun. And the king, beholding 
those Vlves of his bearing children, obtained his desife and becan^ 
delighted; even as that foremost of the celestials, Indra, while being 
worshipped by the Siddhas and the ascetics. 



WLile living in tlie hermitage of Siddhas* he along with 
his yonnger brother, Vishvvamitra and other sages, went to 
witness .tl;e bow sacrifice of Maithilaf undertaken through 

♦ A Siddha is a Semi-divine being supposed to be of great purity 
and holiness and characterised by eight supernatural faculties namely. 

(I) Amman or the power of becoming as small as an atom ; (2) 
Mahiman or the power of increasing size to any shape ; (3) Laghtman 
or the power of assuming extreme lightness at will ; (4) Gariman or 
the power of making one’s self heavy (5) Prapti or the power of obtain- 
ing everything at will (6) Prakamya or irresistible will ; (7) Iskitwa or 
supremacy (8) Vashitwa or the power of subjugating all. 

t The king of Mithila •o., Janaka. Mithila is the modern district of 
Durbhanga in Behar where still the ruins of Janakapuram are to be 
seen. The following account occurs in the sixty sixth chapter of the 
first book of Ramayana which will fill up the missing parts. 

The next morning, which happened to be bright the lord of men, 
hatving performed his daily devotions, welcomed Vicwamitra and 
Raghava. And having, in accordance with- the scriptures, paid hemage 
unto the former as well as the two higb-souled Raghavas, that virtuous 
one said, — Hail, O woishipful sir! What shall I do unto thee, O sinless 
one? Do thou command. Surely, I deserve to be commanded by 
thee. Thus addressed by the high-souled Janaka, that first of ascetics 
endowed with a righteous soul, well versed in speech, answered, — 
** These sons of Dacaratha — Kshatriyas— -famed among men, are eager 
to behold that best of bows, that lies with thee. Do thou show it unto 
hem, may it be well with thee ! Having obtained a sight of that bow, 
the king’s sbiis, their desk^crowned with success, will return as they 
list.” Thus accosted, Janaka replied unto the mighty Muni^ saying, — 
Listen to why the bow lieth here- There was a king known by the 
name |>evarata^ He was the elder brother of Nimi. And, O 
worsiS^ful one, this bow was coiudgned unto the hands of that high- 
sotdded one as a txmU Formerly with the view of d^roying Daksha's 
sacr^ce, the puissaut (Siva), drawing this bow, sportively spoke unto 
the celestials in ire, saying,—* Since, ye gods, ye deny me the shares (of 
llus sacrifice), which i lay dmm to^ I will with my bow cVen those 

beads of y<»trs.’ Tbere^ O powerful ascetic, with agitated he^^A the 
jddties ^ to propitiath^ that k>rd of the cekstialsj-^and Bhava was 
pleased^ with them. And weH^pleased with them,' he / conferred this 
I^Oii these b^-soulded ones. And even this is that jewel of a bow 
behmging to the h^h-souled g<4 of, gods. sM which jultroxitie ,0 



'die instrumentalily of Shatananda* and under the bi- 
fluence of VisluvSniitra. [The object r>f the sacrifice] was 
cornmunica'ed by the hing unto RSnia and the Muni was 
worshipped in that sacrifice (9—10). He then drew the bow 
and snapped it easily. Janaka then conferred on Rama Sila, 
her daugliter born of no woman, the dowry from .he bride- 
groom in whose wedding was prowess. And after the arrival 

Jord, consi^t*iicd as a trust unto our ancestor. And as I was ploughin'^ 
the mead, arose a damsel, — and as I obtained her wliile iiallowin^^ die 
field (for sacrifice), she ii^th come to be known by the name of Sita, 
And arising from the earth, she grew as my daughter. And un- 
sprung from the usual source, she was then established here as my 
daughter, wliose hand must be obtained by bending the bow. And O 
foremost of ascetics, many a king, coming here, had sought to obtain 
my growing daughter arisen from the earth. FUit, O worshipful one, . 
in consideration of her being one whose dower must be prowess iji 
bending the bow, I would not bestow my daughter upon those lords of 
earth seeking for the damsel. Thereupon O puissant anchoret, all the 
kings in a body began to flock to Mithila, desirous of being acquainted 
with the strength of the bow. And on their being curious (as to the bow), 
1 showed it unto them ; but they could neither hold nor wield it. And, 
O mighty Muni^ finding those powerful kings] to be but endowed with 
small prowess, I passed them by. Hear what then befell, O thou of 
ascetic wealth. Then, O powerful anchoret, in high ire, the kings, 
doubtful as to their strengtli in stringing the bow, laid seige to Mithila. 
And those potent princes, conceiving themselves as frustrated by me, 
began to harass the'eity of Mithila, waxing wondrous wroth. And when 
a year had been completed, n:iy defensive resources were entirely 
exhausted, — and at this, 1 was exceedingly aggrieved. Tlien I sought 
to propitiate the deities j and well-pleased, the celestials granted me a 
Chatuyanga army. At length those wicked kings, meeting with 
slaughter, broke and fled in all directions, together with their adherents, 
bereft of vigor, and confidence in their strength. And, O puissant 
ascetic, tins highly effulgent bow will I show unto Rama and Likshmana, 
O thou of excellent vows. And, if, O ascetic, Rama succeeds in fixing 
string to it, I will confer up m Dacaratha‘s son my daughter Sita^ 
unsprung from the usual source/^ 

* The eldest son of Goutama and the family priest of Janaka, the 
king of cMithila. 




of his father and other relatives Rama espoused Sita and 
Lakshmana Urmila (ii — 12). Satrughna and JBharata 
married Shrutakirii aud Mandavi the two daughters of 
Kucadhwaja, Janaka’s younger brother (13). After the 
wedding of his two daughters Rama, honoured by 
Janaka, went away accompanied by Vashistha and others 
after having vanquished Jamadagnya. Bharata and 
victorious Satrughna also returned to Ayodhya (14). 


Narada said : — After the departure of Bharata* Rama 
adored his father and other elders. King Dacaratha tl)en 
said to Rama : — “ Hear, 0 Raghava,t you have been installed 
by the subjects out of their appreciation for your accomplish- 
ments. I have therefore thought of declaring you as my 
heir-apparent next morning (1—2). Therefore practise self- 
controlj and observe vows along with Sita in the night. 
I'he king also communicated this unto Vashistha and his 
eight ministers who were Sristhi, Jayanta, Vijaya, Siddbartha, 
Rasfia Vardbana, Ashoka, DharinapSla, Sumantra and as 
well as unto Vashishtak (3 — 4^. 

Hearing the words of his sire, saying * So be ii\ adoring 
the deities and communicating this intelligence unto 

It IS mentioned m the original Ramayana of Vaimiki that Bharata, 
at that time, was at his maternal uncle's residence. 

t An appellation of Rama. Liteially it means a descendant of 

, t Ths practice the HiediiS is that on the day pfevious to 

any rdigioBS or rdiglo-seciai ceheniony they ^taiit from eating and 



Koushalya Rama waited (in the night) (5). The king then 
addressed Vasbistha and others regarding Rama's installation, 
asked them' to collect necessary materials and repaired to 
Kaikeyi’s (mansion) (6). 

Seeing the decoration of Ayodhya and informed of 
Rama*s installation, Kaikeyi's companion Manthara said to 
her Rama’s installation comes off’' (7). Once slie was 
dragged by Rama holding her feet and for this offence she 
wished for Rama’s exile into the forest (8). 

She said: — “Rise up, O Kaikeyi, in the installation of 
Rama, He? your death, mine and that of your son. Verily 
there is no doubt about it” (9). 

Hearing the words given vent to by the haunch-backed 
'woman Kaikeyi gave her an ornament and said As Bharata 
is like a son unto you, so is Rama to me"'’ (10). Worked 
up with anger Mantharl cast off the necklace and said to 
Kaikeyi “ I do not see any means by which Bharata may 
inherit the kingdom (ii). O foolish girl f save me, Bharata 
and yourself from Raghava. If Raghava becomes the king 
his son will succeed him. The Royal line will then forsake 
Bharata as formerly in the war between gods and demons 
the celestials were slain by Sham vara* (12—13). While one 
night your husband went to you (wounded) you cured hio" 
with your learning.f He granted you (at that time) tv- 
boons. Pray to the king for them now, so that he may exi 
Rama into the forest for fourteen years and confer on Bhara 
the heir-apparent ship” (15 — 15). 

Urged on by the haunch-backed woman, she, seeking her 
interest in another’s misfortune, said:-— “ ftnd out some good 
e3:pedient for me” (16). 

Then entering into the mansion of anger she lay sense*^ 
less onrlhe ground. Thereupon having worshipped tlte twice- 

* The name of a demon-chief. 

f On .one occasion Dasharatha was wounded. Kaikeyi cured him 
with caro^and skill for lAlch he premised her twoboons; 

3 ^ 


born and others king Dacaratha came there. Seeing 
Kaikeyi thus angry he said: — “What is this? Are you 
ailing? Are you assailed with fear? Tell me what you wish 
and I will satisfy it. I swear by Rama in whose absence I 
cannot live for a moment, that I will satisfy your desire, O 
fair one (17—19'.” 

“ Tell me the truth, 0 king” she said “you granted me 
two boons formerly ; satisfy your promise now, O king. Let 
Rama, self-controlled, live for fourteen years in the forest 
and install Bharata to-day vviih all the ingredients. I will 
drink poison and die if you do not grant me this prayer, O 
king.” Hearing it the king dropped down senseless on 
earth like one clapped down by a thunder-bolt (20 — 22). 

Having regained consciousness for a moment he said 
tO Kaikeyi : — “ O thou bent on .doing misdeeds, what has 
Rama done unto thee or what have I done that thou speakest 
thus unto me, O thou doing mischief unto all ? I shall be 
censured by all if I carry out thy pleasure 23 — 2 0* Thou 
art not my wife but the night of death. Bharata is not such 
a son. After my death and the departure of my son thou 
wilt govern this kingdom as a widow” (25). 

Fettered b> the bonds of truth he sent for Rama and 
said : — “ I have been duped by Kaikeyi, O Rama ; defeat 
me and govern this kingdom (25), Kaikeyi wants you to 
live in the forest and make Bharata the king.” Having 
bowed unto his father and Kaikeyi and circumambulated 
them, and having saluted Koushalya and consoled her, he, 
along with Lakshmana and bis wife Sita, got upon a car with 
Sumantra. Having made gifts unto the Brahmanas and the 
poor,^ be, followed by bewailing mothers and Vipras, issued 
out of, the city {27 — 29).. Having spent the night on the 
bank of the Tamast [he went away] leaving behind the 
^citizens. And having not seen him in the morning they all 
' leturned to Ihe city (30), 

Filled with grrief and weeping. the king came to K^ucalySt's 
palace* Ail the cilizenSj women and wives of the ling also 



wepi ('31^. Seated on his car and clad in baric Rama went 
to tlifc city of Siiringavera.* And he was* worshipped by Guha 
there under an (ngudi tree (32). With Laksiunana and Guha 
they kept up the whole night. And leaving his car there 
Sumantrat crossed the river JanhaviJ in a boat (33). 
Having crossed the river Rama, Lakshniana and SitS arrived 
at Prayaga.§ And having bowed unto Bharadwaja they 
repaired to the mount Cliitrakuta|| (34). hlaving worshipped 
there the Vastu (ieity on the bank of the river Mandakini 
Raghava showed Chitrakuta unto Sita (35). ^ At that time 
a crow .wounded (Sita) with its talons and Rama uprooted 
its eyes witli an Aishika weapon. It then, renouncing all the 
celestials, sought refuge with Rama {36). 

Ill the night of the sixth day after the departure of Rama 
into the Cc.^est the king said to Koushalya : — “ In my youth 
on the bank of the river Sarayu I killed the son of a Muni 
mistaking the sound of a filling pitclier proceeding from the 
water-H His father, bewailing, imprecated a curse on me. 
His mother bewailing and weeping again and again said * We 
will die for tlie want of our son, you too will die of (similar) 

* In this city a king of a barbarian clan by name Cuba was reigning. 
He was a follower of Rama. 

f Dasharatha*s chaiMoteer. 

J A name of th^ river Ganges— said to have been derived from Janhu. 

§ A sacred shrine of the Hindus — the junction of the rivers Ganges 
and Vamuna, Its modern name is Allahabad, the seat of the N. W. P. 

11 A sacred mountain of the Hindus situate in the N. W. P. of 

^ This refers to the killing of Sindii, the son of a blind Muni, by 
Dasharatha [See Chapter LXIH of Valmiki*s Ramayana. ** And 
coming to the bank of the Sarayu while it was so datk that nothing 
could be discovered, I heard sounds of a filling pitcher proceeding from 
the waters resembling the roars of an elephant. Thereupon raising 
up my shaft flaming and like unto a serpent of virulent poison, I, desirou<i 
of hunting the imaginary elephant, let fly my dliaft in the direction of 
the sound*', — M, N. Dutt’s 'Translation, 



sorrow^ Remembering that grief, O KoushalyS f know, I 
will die for the separation of my son.” Saying this and 
exclaiming “ Oh ! Rama i” the king went to heaven *'(37 — ^40). 
Thinking that, he filled with grief was asleep, Kaushalya 
also slept. But in the auspicious morning, bards and 
panegyrists whose duty was to arouse the king by singing, 
could not break his sleep. The king did not awake. Then 
taking him for dead Kaushalya cried aloud *" Alas ! I am 
undone” 41—42). Men and women began to weep and 
Bharata with Satrugl-na \v.;S brought to the City from 
Rajagriha^ by Vasliistha and others (43)- Beholding 
bewailing Kaikeyi he, filled with sorrow, censured her, saying 
“a calumny thou hast put on thy head”. Then speaking 
highly of Koushalya he put the (dead body of his) sire in a 
jar of oil and performed the funeral obsequies on the bank of 
the river Sarayu. Then requested by Vashistha and others to 
govern the kingdom he said “ I will go to fetch Rama. The 
powerful Rama is the recognised king.” He then went to the 
city of Shringavera aiid was entertained by Bharadwaja there 
{44 4 ^)* Saluting Bharadwaja he then approached Rama 
and Lakshinana and said “ 0 Rama, father has gone to 
heaven ; do thou become king of Ayodhya” (47). Abiding 
by thy mandate I will repair into the forest.” 

Hearing the news and offering water Rama said ** Take 
this my shoe and go ; for observing my vow I will not 
return to my kingdom and wear bark and matted locks.” 

Thus addressed by Rama the powerful hero went to 
Nandigram and settled there. And worshipping the pair of 
his shoes in Ayodhya he governed the kingdom (48 — ^49). 

* The city of Bharata's maternal uncte. 


I^ARADA said : — Having bowed there unto his mothers, 
Vashistha, his wife Anasuya, Sharabhanga, Sutiknaka, 
Agastya^s brother, Agastya and having received by the 
latter's favour a bow and a dagger he came to the forest of 
Dandaka (i — 2). They settled on the bank of Godavati* in 
[the forest of] Panchavati in Janastiiana.f Tliere the dread- 
ful ShurpanakhaJ went to devour them {3). Beholding 
Rama of great beauty that damsel said : — 

Who art tliou ? Whence have you come ? I pray that 
you may be my husband (4). I will eat up the other two/' 
Saying it she approached him. And addressed by Rama 
Lakshinana cut off her nose and ears (5). Bathed in blood 
she went away and spoke to her brother Khara. 

‘‘ Shorn of my nose, 1 will give up my life. Rama has a 
wife by name Sita, and a younger brother, by name 
Lakshinana. If you can make me drink their hot blood, 
I will live, 0 Khara’* (6 — 7). 

Having said “ So be it” to her Khara, accompanied by 
fourteen thousand Rakshasas, Dushana, as well as Trishiras, 
went out to figlit. Shurpanakha then went to Lanka and laid 
herself prostrate on earth before Ravana ^8 — lO). Worked 
up with anger she said to Ravana : — 

“You are not our king and protector. Stea-l Sita the 
wife of Rama, the destroyer of Khara and others. I will 

^ Nasik, a district in the Bombay Presidency, is jow pointed out as 
corresponding with the Panchavati forest of Ramayana. The river 
Godavari still flows there. 

f The name of a civil division of that time. 

X She was the sister of Ravana, the king of Lanka and of Khara, 
the king of Janasthana. These Rakshasas were probably barbarian 
kings reigning in the Southern India whom Hama killed and extended 
his conquests. 



»}ive by drinking Kama’s and L'ikslin)anaks blood an 1 not 

Hearing it and saying “so so be it” Ravr na saitl to 
Miricija “ Proceed. Assuming the form of a beautiful gold 
<leer, that can attract Ratna and Lakshmana do tliou spiort 
h'^-fore Sita and I wilt then steal her away or else thou .shalt 
meet with deailj” (ll — 13). 

.Maricha said to Ravana; — “ Rama holds a deall)-giving 
iiov. . I atn to meet with death either fiom f'lavana or 
Rau java. If deatli is certain it is better, to receive it at the 
hands of Rama tiian at those of Ravana”. 

Determining tiiiis anrl assutning the form of a deer he 
began to range before Sna (14 — 15). Rama was despatched 
by Sita (to catch it) and he killed it with a ^haft. While 
dying the deer exclaimed “Oh Sitaj O Lakshmana j”.* 
Addressed by Sita Suniitra’s son reluctantly approached 
Rama. Ravana carried away Sita having slain tlie vulture 
Jatayusha.t Having his^ limbs wounded by Jatayu and taking 
up Jiiiaka's daughter on Ids lap he went to Lanka, K'ept her 
in the Asiioka forest guardedj and said (16 — 18). “Do thou 
become m3' foremost queen. Gmrd her, 0 Rakshasees” 

Having slain Maiicha and seen Lakshmana Rama .said :™ 
“ It is an illusory deer, O Sumitra’s .son. Forsooth after 
your departure for here Sua has been stoJen away.” He 
tlien went (to the cottage) and did not find her (19 — 20j. 
Stricken with fear he tl)en bewailed exclaiming ** Where hast 
tijou gone leaving me behind?” Consoled by Lakshmana 
Rama began to searcii the road by which Janaka's daughter 
had been taken away (21). Seeing him JatSyu said “ Ravana 

* He immitated the voice of Rama which filled Sita with fear .about 
Rama’s personal safely, 

f He was a great friend of Rama’s father. 

I Even now a forest is pointed out in Ceylon where a lake is to be 
seen, which people ascribe to Sita’s tears. 




^ has stolen her away’' and expired. Having performed his 
la‘^t rites Rama killed Kavandha, who; freed of curse, said 
“ Do Ihou go to Sugriva* '(22.) 




arada said : — Rama then repaired to"' 
and spent the night in lamentations. He was then brought by 
Hanuman to Sugrivaf and made friends with him (r). Tlien 
before his very presence piercing seven Tala trees with 
one shaft lie threw, with one foot, the dead body of the 
(demon) Dundluivi at a distance of ten Yojanas.}; .2). After- 
wards having slain his enemy Vali, who had done miscluef unto 
his brother iR^lma) conferred on him Kishkindya, the kingdom 
of K?ipis§ and as well as the beautiful Tara (3), On the mount 
Rishyamnka Kishkinda's Lord, the king of monkeys, said ** I 
will do that, O R§ima, by which thou mayst regain Sita" (4). 
Hearing it Rama performed Ckdtufy^iaayaW sacrifice on the 
mount Malyavan. After his departure to Kishkinda Sugriva 
^ did not return (5). Then Lakshmana communicated to him 
^ Rima^s message, say*ing “ Do you go to Raghava. «Tiiat is 
not a censurable means by which Vali has been slain. 
Make good your contract, O Sugriva, and do not follow Vali's 

* The lake Fampa is still to be seen near Narayanadcvakiri in the 
District of Bellary in the Madras Presidency. The Vija) nagar ruins 

situate on its banks. 

t Sugriva was the king and Hanuman the commander-in-chief of 
the Vanaras. They were a non-aryan tribe infiahiting south India, 
corresponding, in my belief, with tiie modeni Shanan living in the 
Southern districts of Madras. Sugriva's foit is still pointed out in the 
juiigles of Travancore. Kishkinda was the capital of Suj^riva. 

I Sugriva watued Rama to prove his power of killing Vali by dis^ 
playing a wonderful feat. This was the feat Rama showed. 

§ A name of the Vanaras. 

I! Name of a sacrifice performed every four months, 




fool steps,” Whereto Sugriva replied Immersed in enjoy- 
ments I could not- perceive that the proper time had gone 

by’' (7). 

S.iying it the king of Vanaras went to RSma and saluting 
him said : — “ I have brought all the Vanaras for searching 
out Sitl’s whereabouts. By thy mandate I will despatch 
them to find out Janaka’s daughter. They will come back 
in the first half of tjhe month. If they spend more than a 
month I will kill them|(S — 9).” 

Thus addressed tlhe Vanaras repaired to the east, west 
and north. And not finding Janaka^s daughter they returned 
to R^ma and Sugriva (10). Then taking Ramans ring 
Hanuman with other Vanaras repaired to the south near 
SuprabhA^s cave (ii). They spent more than a month but 
could not find out Janaki. They said Uselessly shall we 
die. Blessed is Jatayu, who slain by Ravana in battle, gave 
up his life for SitS.” 

Hearing it and casting off the food offered by Kapis 
SampSti said : — “ This Jatayu is my brother. Once I (and 
he) soared high in the sky near the flaming sun, while protect- 
ing him from the rays of the sun my pinnions had been 
scathed. Hearing Rama's news my wings have again grown. 
Sita has been taken to Lanka and kepj. in Ashoka garden 
'(situate on the mount) Trikuia in the ogean of saltwater 
extending over a hundred Yojanas, Learning it the Vanaras 
the intelligence to Rama and Sugriva (12—16). 



** who lives there who can cross this ocean”? (t). For 
saving^ the lives of Kapis* and giving celebrity to Rama’s 
work, MSLrrtit should overleap the ocean extending over a 
hundred Yojanas (2). Beholding the rising mount Mainaka^J 
and slaying Sinhika§ he espied Lank§ and saw Rakshasa 

* A name of Vanaras. 

f Son of Maruta, wind-god ; an appellation of Hanuman. 

J The account in the Ramayana is that while Hanuman was crossing 
the ocean he felt exhausted on the middle of the deep. At that time 
the mount Mainaka came out of the sea and Hanumana rested on its 
summit. This mountain is no longer to be seen. Perhaps it is under 
the ocean now. In the First Chapter of Sundara Kandam the following 

And Hanuman, that lord of monkeys, being engaged in the act of 
bounding, the Ocean, wishing glory unto the race of the Ikshwakus. 
thought within himself, Truly shall I be blamed of all persons if I 
do not assist this lord of monkeys — Hanuman. ^Reared I have been by 
Sagara, the foremost of the race of the Ikshwakus — and this monkey 
is their counsellor. It therefore doth not behove me to tire him out. 
It becometh me to do that by which the monkey may take in me and, 
relieved, may happily traverse the remaining way.” Having arrived 
at this wholesome resolution, the Ocean spake unto that best of moun- 
tains, Mainaka hued in gold and situate in the waters, saying, ** O 
lord, thou hast been placed here by the king of celestials as an outer 
gate against the Asuras inhabiting the region under the earth. Thou 
too, from then, hast been waiting at this gate, unapproachable by the 
Asuras, rising up again and again and whose prowess is well-known 
unto the Lord of celestials. O mountain, thou art capable of expanding 
thyself upwards and on thy sides. 1 do command thee therefore, O best 
of mountains, to rise up. That best of monkeys, the energetic Hanu- 
man, the performer of mighty deeds, engaged in Rama’ service, worn 
out with fatigue, waiteth above thee. Beholding the exhaustion of that 
leader of monkeys, it behoveth thee to rise up.” Hl^ng the speech 
of the Ocean, the golden moimtmn Mainaka, covered with tall t^e^ and 
creepers, rose up instantly from hb watery bed. Like unto the Sun 
bright rays rising out of the watery expanse, he uplifted htn^^ from 
the Ocean. Hieing thus cofumanded by the Ocean, the gre^t mountain 
covered oh alt sides with waler, immediately brought forlh bis 

§ The foUovi^ing acodt^^of tj|e 

the Fi&t Chapin ^ — m’, 



women in their houses {3). He did not. see S!t5 h the 
palaces of Dashagriva ,* Kumbha, the Rakshasa Kumbiiakarna, 
Bibhishana, Indrajit as well as in the houses of oilier 
Rakshasas. Nor did he see her in the drinking ground and 
Ollier places and he was (accodingly) filled with anxiety 
Then repairing to the Ashoka forest he espied Sita nnder a 
Singshapa (Dalbergia Sisu tree) guarded by the Rakshasis 
and repeatedly asked by them to become Ravan’s wife. And 

And it came to pass that beholding him in the act of bounding, a 
Rakshasi named Sinhika, of great age, and capable of wearng forms 
at will, thought within herself.— « To-day after a long lapse of time I 
shall have my fare. This mighty creature hath after a time come 
wuWn my power.” Having thought thus in her mind, she seized 
(Hanuman’s) shadow. On his shadow being secured, the monkey 
reflected,— “ As a mighty bark is retarded in its course in the sea by 
adverse wind, have I. my prowess paralysed, been suddenly obstructed 
•n nsy career. ^ Then looking above and below and sideways, the 
monkey saw a mighty creature arisen from the salt waters. And seeing 
t at one o a distorted countenance, the wind-god’s son thought, — " This 
one IS without doubt, the creature of wonderful form, possessed of 
ex^ng prowess.-given to securing its prey by means of its shadow,- 

irtich had described by the monkey-king. And concluding her to 
hcSmhAa from her pet, the intelligent monkey attaining a gigantic body, 


- b^y of the mi^ty mook^. she extended her mouth measur- 

^9^?- Anrf roaring like unto a mass of 
pwreart, that iirtefligent and 
'noWh. her body and 

threw himself into her 
;s»>k,]n her mouth, as 
, Then tearing.he .5 

.^dowedwUh thg 



Sita was repeatedly saying 'No^ unto Ravana wlio also was 
standing under the tree and the Rakshaseos were again and 
again urging her to become his wife. After the departure of 
Ravana the Kapi said : — ** There flourished a king by name 
Dagaratha, He had two excellent sons, Rama and Lakshmana 
who had been exiled into the forest. You Janaki, R§ma's 
wife, have been carried away by Ravana by force. Rama 
has made friends with Surgiva and has sent me here to find 
out your whereabouts. This ring is the insignia given by 
Rama, take it, (4—9)/’ Sita took the ring and saw Marutt 
before her seated on a tree. She then said : — “ If Rama is 
alive why does he not rescue me" ? 

The Kapi said to her who was filled with fear : — 0 SitS, 
RSlma did not know your whereabouts. Knowing them now 
and slaying the R^kshasa Rivana with his followers he will 
release you. Do not grieve, O worshipful dame. Give me 
your insignia". 

Sita handed over to the Kapi a jewel {to — 12) and 
said Do thou do that by which Rtma may take me away 
soon. And remind him, 0 remover of sorrow, of his taking 
out the eyes of the crow” {13). 

Accepting the jewel and message Hanuman said ”I will 
take thee to thy husband. O fair one, do thou speedily 
get on my hack and I will even to-day show thee Rima and 
Sugriva.” Sit 3 . said to Hanuman ” May R§gbava take 
me” (14—15), 

HanumSn then made arrangements for seeing Dashagriva. 
He devastated the forest, killed the gardeners and servants 
with nails and teeth, the sons of the, seven ministers well 
as R^vana*s son, the prince Aksha. Shakrajit bonod iblni 
having coppery eyeS with the nooses of serpents and 
hlih unto RSLvana, 

- Ka¥ana ^laia ” Who art thoti'?^ 

Maruti said :— I atn Rtma's nUessenger. Return SitI 


you, will tanka* 1*6 Jf# 



Rayana was about to kill him but was prevented by 
Bibhishana. Maruti then set tire to his tail. And with his 
flaming tail he set fire to Lanka. Then eying the Rakshasas, 
bowing unto Sita, coming to the other side of the ocean he 
said ** I have seen Sita” (20 — ^21). Having drunk honey in 
mangoe groves and vanquished Dadhimukha and others 
Angada and other Vlnaras returned and said to Rama 
** We have seen” {22). 

Hearing that Sita has been seen, Rama, filled with delight, 
said to Maruti ; — ** How have you seen Sita ? What has she 
communicated unto me? With the nectarine message of 
Sita do you cool down me who am being consumed with 
tlie fire of desire” 

HanumSu said to Rama : — Having seen Sita, burnt 
down the city (<rf Lanka) and crossed the ocean I have 
returned here. Accept this jewel from Sita. Havingr slain 
Ravana regain Sita. Do not grieve, O^RSraa. (23—25)’' 
Taking that jewel, Rama, stricken with the pain of 
separation, began to weep; (saying) :—** Having seen the 
jewel I have seen Janaki. Take me to Sit5. J cannot live 
without you.” He was thea consoled by Sugriva and 

RAma then went to tiie bank ef the ocean where 

Um. Having said Return Sill unto Rama” 
was oew^ired feis brother, the vicious-souled 
aad heiple^ Rama installed his friend 

%' life: 

Ofi|% ^ tbi^ of laakl. When (Rlma) 

way be djd^ npt,coiifie. 
%is,,s^fts. , The pceajp- 



’rocks Rama went to the other side of the great ocean. And 
statiored on the beautiful bank of the ocean Rama, together 
with the V^auaras, espied Lanka (26 — 31). 


Narada said ^Instructed by Rama Angada went to 
Rnvana and said “ Return immediately Janaka^s daughter 
to Raghava or else you will meet with death.'^ (l). The 
Rakshasa Ravana, elated with the pride of fighting, was 
about to kill him. Dashagriva then communicated unto 
Rama, I think there must be a war” (2). Hearing of the 
offer of battle Riina, with ail the Kapis, arrived at Lanki. 
The Vanaras Hanuman, Mainda, Dvvivida, Jamvavan, Nala, 
Neela, Tara, Angada, Dtimra, Sushena, Keshari, Gaya, 
Panasa, Vinata, Rambha, Sharabha, Krathana, Vali, Gavaksha, 
Dadhivakra, Gavaya, Gaadhamadana, these and innumerable 
others followed Sugriva (3 — 5). There took place a close 
fighting between the Vanaras and RAkshasas. With shafts, 
clubs and saktis the Rakshasas slew the Vanaras (6). With 
nails, teeth and rocks the Vanaras killed the Rakshasas. 
The Rakshasa army consisting of elephants, horses, cars, 
and ihfe infantry was killed (7). With a mountain peak Hanu- 
raan slew his enemy Dumraksha. Neela killed the fighting 
Akampana and Prahasta (8). Released from the (serpentine) 
fetters of IndrajiPs shafts at t|ie view of TArksha (Garuda) 
Rama and LaksUmana killed the Rakshasa army with ibeir 
arrows {9). Rama assailed Ravana with arrows iii 
And filled with sorrow Rivana aroused (his bro!thei:) Kd^, 
bhakarna (lo). Aroused ICumhhakama^ drank a Initidred 

1 111 - ■ — _ ■> , ^ ■ 

* This Eakshasa used to sleep dx months a dsiie« 



jarfuls of wine and Jeasted upon buffaloe and other animals 
and then said to Ravana “ Thou hast committed a 

great iniquity by stealing Sita. Howevet; I go to the battle- 
field and will slay Rama with all the Vanaras” (12). 

Saying it Kuaibhakarna assailed all tlih Vanaras. He 
then overtook Sugriva who chopped off his ears and nose. 
(I3< Deprived of ears and nose he devoured the Vanaras. 
Rama then cut off Kumbhakarna’s arms with his shafts. 
{ 14* Then cutting off his legs he struck down his head on 
earth. Thereupon Kumbha, Xtkumbha, the Raksl>asa Maha- 
rSksha, MalioHara, Mahaparshwa, Malta, Unmatta, Pradhasa, 
Bhasakarna, Virupaksha, Devamaka, Narantaka, Trisiiira, 
Alikaya, encountered Rama, Lakshmana, Vibhishana and 
VSmaras in battle. All those Rakshasas were slain and 
struck down on earth. Then fighting with his illusory power 
Indrajit fettered Rama and others (1S-18) with his serpen- 
tine shafts given him as boons. They were to be healed 
up with the herbs Vishalyaka.* Maruti then brought the 

♦ There is a divergence between the story here and that in the 
original Ramayana. There Lakshmana was killed by Ravana and the 
the former was restored to life by a medicinal plant. * The following 
extract is taken from my Tranblation : 

Having spoken thus unto Raghava, the highly wise Sushena thus 
addressed the mighty monkey, Hanuman, saying, — “ O placid one, 
going hence to the mountain, Mahodaya, which, O hero, had formerly 
been mentkmed unto thee by jambavan, bring hither the mighty drug 
sprung at its right summit — Yicalyakarani byname and Savarnyakarani, 
and Sanjwakarani, O hero, and the potent medicine — Sandhani- Do 
thmi bri^ (these) in order that the hero — Lakshmana — may be revived.’* 
Having been thus instructed, Hanuman, repairing to the Medicinal 
mocmlam, was wrouglit up with anxiety, not knowing the drugs. And 
then Ibe thought sprang up in tfie mind of the WindT-god’s offspring of 
prowess,—*! shall go, even taking this (entire) summit of 
^ MMOUWtain. In this very summit must that delightful drug hava 
spTHOg. This I inter, in asmuch as Susheua liad forsooth said so. ff I 
spe«id much lime <in thought), that would be fraught with evU.’* 
Havifig.feie cted thus, the exceedingly powerful Hanuman, foremost of 



mountain ; and having healed up their v^rounds with Vishalya 
Hanufnan re-established the mountain where it was origmallj 
situated. While (Indrajit) was offering oblations to fire ia 
the sacrlBcia! house of NikumbhilA Lakshamana killed that 
heroe in battle with arrows. Stricken with grief Rivana was 
about to kill Sita (19 — 21). 

Prevented by Avindhya, the king seated on his car went 
out with his army. At fndra’s command Matali* placed 
Rjlma on his car (22j). he encounter between Rima a»d 
Ravana was becoming of Rama and RUvana. Ravana slew 
V§naras.. Maruti anid others assailed him also {23). lifce 
unto a cloud Rama showered arrows and weapons do him. 
Rama cut off his standard, cars, horses, charioteer, bow, 
arms and heads. But his heads again and again cropped 
up. Then piercing his heart with a weapon granted by the 
Grand-Father (Brahma) Rama struck down Ravana 00 the 
ground. All the Rakshasas and women wept. At Raima’s 
command Bibhishana consoled them and performed his 
obsequial ceremonies (24 — 26). 

monkeys, — swiftly drawing up to that best of mountains, and giving ^ 
three shakes to the mountain filled with various dowering trees, — rjw c w i 
it up with his hands. And taking that summit of the mountain reseot- 
bling dark-blue clouds charged with rain, Hanuman fiomtheeasdi 
bounded up into the sky. And arriving (at his quarters), wominNW 
vehement one, putting down the mountain -peak, and repo^mgt^a 
while, spoke unto Sushena, — “ I did not^ find the drug, O best of 
monkeys ; and .therefore have I brought this entire sunimit n€ dm 
motmtain.’* When the Wind-god's offspring had spoken 
that foremost of inonkeys — ^Sushena — praising him., uprooted the 
herb and ■ secured it. Seeing Hanuman’s feat, incapable of bemg ^nie 
by qven the cele^ials, the choicest of the monkeys were amazed. Then 
crushing the healing herb, that *best of monkeys — ^the exoeedEh^iy 
effulgent Sush^a, made Lakshmana 'smell the same. And ftompon 
the wounded Lakshmana, — slayer ©f hostile"heroes — smelfii^ it, cnrei 
of his wound and ailment s,.S|>eedily rose up from the ground. 

♦ JIadra's charioleer. 



Hanamlna ^tien brought Sita unto Rina, who after tesl- 
iag her purity, took her back. She proved her puri^ty by 
eatering into fire. Indra and other celestials then chanted 
Rite’s glories as well as Brahma; and Dasharatha, saying 
«Thou art Vishnu, the suppressor of the Rakshasas” Then 
adored Indra revived all the Vanaras with a shower of am- 
brosia (27 — 28). 

Having seen the war, the celestials, worshipped by Rima, 
returned to their region. Rama then conferred Lankft on 
Bibhisbana. And having honored the Vanaras he took his 
seat with Sha in the Pushpaka car and returned by the way 
iu which he had gone, showing delightedly unto her many fast- 
Msses of the forest (29 — 30). Having saluted BharadwSja 
they arrived at NandigrSm. Then bowed unto by Bharata 
they returned to Ayodhya {3I). Having saluted Vashistha 
mud others, Koushalya, Kaikeyi and SumitrSl and regained 
kk kingdom he worshipped the twice-born v32l. With horse- 
saeri6ces he adored his own self Vasudeva. He made various 
gifts and governed his subjects (33). Offspring, virtue and 
eujoyinent multipled. The wicked were suppressed. People 
followed their duties and earth was filled with all sorts of 
corns. While RSlma governed his kingdom there was no 
preoialure death (34), 


INIaraba said When Rftghava was settled tn his king- 
4 owi Agastya and others went to him and* well adored by 
hM said : — Blessed and victorious are you, since you have 
kiMed lodrajit (l),’’ Brahmt’s sou was Pulastya ; his son was 
Viikcavait. His wife was Naikeshi. On his first wife Push- 
fodmia be begat a son, Ike lord of riches. From Naifceishi 



was; barn Rivana of twenty arms and ten faces. By his 
penances and on account of a boon granted by BrahmS he 
defeated art the celestials (2—3)- Kumbhakarna was fond 
of sleeping and Bibhisbana grew virtuous. Surpanakht was 
tbeir sister. Ravana*s son was Meghanida (4). Having 
defeated Indra he obt^fijed the name I ndrajit (Uie victor of 
Indra) and he was more powerful than Rivana. He was 
slain by thee and Lakshmana, wishing the well-being of the 
celestials (5I. 

Having said so the Vipras, headed by Agastya and saluted 
by Rima, went away. Requested by the celestials and 
ordered by Rama Lakshmana slew Lavana {6h There was a 
city by name Mathura. Ordered by Rlima Bhatata killed the 
wicked Gandharva Shailusha who was living on the bank of 
the pcean and with i^harpened arrows his three hfisons. 
Having placed his son Pushkara and Taksha in charge of 
the country Bharata returned with Satrughana and saluted 
RSlma’s feet. Rama there governed his men suppressing 
the wicked and encouraging the gentle (7—9). From SitSL 
whose pure character he knew, but whom he renounced on 
account of the vilification of his subjects were born two 
most excellent sons, Kusha and Lava in the hermitage of 
VSlmiki (lo). Installed on rhe throne and engaged in the 
n^diiation ** I am Brahma” he, governing the kingdom con- 
sisitfig of many cities with citizens, younger brothers and 
SitS^s sons for ten thousand and ten hundred years and 
performing sacrifices, went to the celestial region adored of 
the deifies (ii — 12K 

Agni said ; — Hearing this story from NSrada Vllmiki 
composed the R&miyana. He, who listens to this Ihemn, at 
length repairs to the celestial region. 


A.GNI said ; — I will now describe Harivamsha* * * § (the 
family of Hari). The un-bon. (BrahmS) was born frona the 
lotus navel of Vishnu. From Brahma was born Atri and 
from him Soma. From Soma was born Pururava (i). Of 
him was born Agni ; from him was born Nahusha and from 
him Yayati. He begat on Devayani Yadu and Turvasu (2). 
SarmisthS, the daughter of Vrishaparvan, gave birth (for 
him) to Duhyu, Anu and Puru.f In Yadu's family were horn 
the Yadavas the foremost of whom was Vasudeva. For 
relieving the earth of her burden Hiranyakashipu's sons were 
begotten by Vasudeva on Devaki. They were the first six 
offspring taken previously into Devaki’s womb by Yoga- 
nidrS (sleep of devotion) despatched by Vishnu, Bala was 
the seTenth embryo of Devaki. He was transferred from 
her womb to that of Rohini and therefore Hari was called 
Rohineya.l Krishna was the issue of the eighth conception. 
He appeared in the sky in the middle of the night with four 
anas. Hymned by Vasudeva and Devaki he was born as a 
boy with two arms. From fear of Kansa Vasudeva placed 
him om Yashoda*s bed^ and taking her girl placed her on 
Devaki’s bcd.§ Hearing the cries of the baby Kansa threw 
her on a rock (4 — 8). Saying iht child of thy eigth con- 
ception is my death** although be was prevented, by Devaki. 

* U is a most important work, regarded as the sequel of the Maha- 
bbarata, held in great reverence by the Hindus. 

An account of this family is to be found in Vishnu and Bhagvat 

J Vawnlc.a bad two wires Devaki and Rohini. Baladevn was 
k^wsfened feow the wosab e{ the fomer to that ol &e latter and there- 
foR he was catted Sai^fcarsaaa. v 

§ Vaswlns eeBbaaged the chUdR^ . 



Hearing a disembodied speech, he, under infatuation, killed, 
all her embroys (9). It was settled at the time of Devaki's 
marriage thaf,' she would consign all her children to him. 
Dashed there the girl went up into the sky and spoke to 
Kansa (lo) 

What is the use of throwing me, O Kansa? He, the 
all-in-all of gods, is born who will kill you for relieving 
the earth of her burden^^ (ll)- 

Having said this and killed Shumbha and others she was 
hymned by Indra, saying “O worshipful Durg§.,* * * § O Veda- 
garbhi, Amvika, Bhadrakali, .BliadrS, Kshemya, Kshemakari, 
O thou having more than one arms, I bow unto thee. He 
who reads thy names at three periods of junction obtains all 
desired-for objects” (12—13). 

Kansa then despatched PutanSl and other she-demons for 
killing all the children. In fear of Kansa and others 
Vasudeva consigned Rima and Krishna to Yashod^’s husband 
Nanda in Gokula.f And they sported, there with kine and 
cowherd boys (14-15). The two protectors of the entire uni- 
verse became there two cow-herd boys. The naughty Krishna 
was once tied by Yashoda with a rope to a mortarf (i6). 
And he, going between two trees, Yamala and Arjuna, 
uprooted them both. And anxious to suck Yashpda^s breast- 
milk he overturned a cart (17). PutanSL, about to kill him,, 
was destroyed &y him by sucking up her breast milk. 
Going to Vrindavana Krishna vanquished Kftlya in the lake 
of Yamuna§ and drove him from there out into the sea. 
Requested by Bala he made the Tila groves secure by 
killing Dhenuka, Gardhava and other demon (18— ig). . He . 

* These are the various names of DurgA. The girl was the incar- 
nation of DurgA. 

t A village on the other side of Mathura in N.-W. P. of India. 

X These are the various miracles worked by Kr&hna a profuse ac- 
count of which is to be found in the Tenth Book d Bhag»v&tpuraiukm, 

§ A oortwn of the river Yamw^ is stiQ this lake* 



slew the demon Anstlia in the form -of a ljull and Kesbin! 
in the form of a ho<rse. Having suppressed festivities in 
honor of Sakra he revived Vedic sacrifices (io). Having 
held up the mount (Govardhana) he saved the country from 
the rain (showered) by Sakra. And saluted by Mahendra 
Govinda took charge of Arjuna (2l). Pleased Krishna 
again introduced the festivity (in honor) of Indra. Eulogised 
by Akura who had been despatched by Kansa he came to 
Mathura on a car (22). He was looked at by the sportive 
and attached milk-women. Having slain a washerman, 
who was unwilling to part with clothes he took them (23). 
With Rama he was engarlanded by a flower-vendor and 
he conferred on him a boon. And having been offered 
unguents by a haunch-backed woman he made her straight. 
Having entered the arena of sport he killed the mad ele- 
phant Kuvaiayapida at the gate. In the presence of Kansa 
and others he encountered the wrestler Chanura, set against 
them by all present on the platform and Bala met with 
Mushthika. The wi;estlers ChSimra, Mushtika and others 
were killed by them (24 — 26). Afterwards having slain 
Kansa, the king of MathurSi, Hari, appointed his father the 
king of Yidavas. The two wives of Kansa, Asti and Prapti 
were Jartsaadha’s daughters. Excited by their words he 
laid seige tcf Matiiuri and Yadavas fought with him with 
arrows (27—28). 

Having left Mathura Rima and Krishna went to Gomanta 
and having van(|uished JarSLsandha made the city of 
Pwndraka Visudeva's property {29). Having built the 
dtjr of Bwar^ he lived there encircled by the Yidavas. 
And having slain the dreadful (demon) Naraka he brought 
there ^ daughters of Devas, Gandharvas- and YaksCs. 
JaidLrd^afiat -aiaiyied those sixteen thour^an^l damsels of whom 
Saks^itti and seven others were the foremost 30— 31). 
S€»l<rf m Gari^ with SatyabhSma (bis wife) Hari, 
Itdra ia the cclcstiai regiou, brought the 


5 S 

monntaia of jems with all the jewels and the PSLrijIta treo 
and pl|.iited the latter in SatyabhSlmA’s palace. Having 
received lessons in military science from (tl»e Rishi) Sandi* 
pana, he having defeated the Daitya Panchajana and been 
worshipped by Yama (the Regent of the dead) returned (the 
RUhi) his^ son. Worshipped by Muchukanda* he killed 
XSllayavana (32 — 34). (After his return) he saluted Vasa« 
deva, Devaki and the devoted Brahmanas. 

Balabhadra begat on Revati Nishatha and Ultnukha (35)^ 
Krishna begat Shamva on. Jamvavati. He had besides many 
other sons. He begat Pradyumna on Rukshmini. On the 
sixth day he was stolen away by force by (the demon) 
Siiamvara who threw him into ocean where a fish devoured 
liini. A washerman caught the fish and Shamvara taking 
it gave it to (his wife) ^ayStvati (36 — 37). Seeing her own 
husband in the fish MAy^vati brought him up and said » 
•*I am your wife Rati; you are my husband K&ma; yoa were 
made .limbless reduced to ashes) by Shamhbu (Siva). I 
was captured by Shamvara and am not his wife. You, ct^ui- 
sant of illusory power, kill Shamvara (38—39)/^ 

Hearing it and slaying Shamvara Pradyumna, with his 
wife -Miyavati, went where Krishna was. And Krishna and 
Rukshmini were pleased [to see him] (40). 

Pradyumna’s- son was the highly intelligent Animddha, 
the husband of Ush§. Bali’s son was Vana. He had a delight- 
ful city (by name) Shonitapuram (41). By practising hard 
penances he became Siva’s son. Pleased Siva approached 
Vina and said O Vina, you will obtain a fight when this 
peacock standard will be -struck down*' (42). Beholding Uml 
sport with Siva^Uslilj- fcft a desire for having a husband. 

^ A royal <amt* Hw cave where Krishna killed Kalayavana is to be. 
seen «n a moeoitain near Dhdepur in Ra jputana where a fair is hdd 

t The stery sf Usha's love is (kscrtbed at length in Hanvattfau 



lo her Gouri said The person whom you wiH see in 
«4feam in the night of the twelfth day of the 15 on th of 
Vabhaka while sleeping will be your husband^.^^ Thus ad* 
4 ressed by Gouri and pleased Ushi, while sleeping in her 
hoase, saw him (43—44). Considering herself united with 
hex consort, she, by means of a portrait drawn by her, brought 
Aairaddha through her friend ChitralakhS. ( 45 )- 

The daughter of KumbhSnda, Vana's minister, brought 
Krislina’s grand-son frejm Dwarka and Aniruddha lived there 
bappify with Ush^ (46). He was then reported unto Vatia 
hf gnards who were charge of the standard. Then there 
took place a highly terrihe encounter between Aniruddha 
and yina (47). 

H^ing the news from Nirada Krishna, seated on 
Gani&’s back, went there whh Pradyumna, Balabhadra 
said others and defeated there the fire*gods and fevers 
prodoced there by Maheswara (48). There took place a 
gnbt encounter between Hari and Shankara. Nandi, 
yioayaka, Skanda and others were defeated by Garuda and 
odKT (followers of Krishna) (49). While Shankara yawned 
il was destroyed by Vishnu with an yawning weapon. 
Having his thousand arms lopped off (Vina) prayed unto 
Rairt for protection (50). Vishnu however kept Van a alive 
with two arms and said to Sliiva : — Thou hast promised 
psotectioa unto Vana and (necessarily) I have done so (51). 
Tkeie is 00 difference between us* He who sees this 
dlilii II Oil goes lo hell.” 

Thea worshipped by Shiva and others accompanied by 
AaimdAa and UsM Vishnu returned to Dwarkk and lived 
with Ograsenp and other YAdavasw Aairuddha^s son 
Vaj^ learnt every thing from MSrkandeya {52 — 53). 
ltKl4j^jlii4dra, the slayer Pralamba, the master of monkey 
Dwividu and the destroyer of the pride of the Kouravas, 
Aew Ae river Yamunk (541* The Lord Hari, having many 
lived happily wUh Rskshmini and others au<| begat 

AGHi PUftAKAlt. 


numher^less sons amongst Yadavas. He wlm reads it with 
his desired-for objects gained repairs to the region of 
Hari {55). 


jAlgn! said : — I will now describe BhArata,^ and the cna- 
racteristfcs of Krishna’s greatness. Making the Pandavas 
the instrument Vishnn relieved tnc earth of her burden (i). 
Brahma sprang from Vidbna’s lotos navel. His son was Atri 
whose son again was Soma. His son was Buddha. His son 
was Alia and his son was PamravS (2}. From him was 
born Ayu whose son was king Nahnsha. His son was 
YayatL From him was bora Porn in whose family was born 
Bharata. Then was horn king Kora (3). In his family was 
born Shlntanu whose son was Bhishma given birth to by 
GangSL. His younger brother Chitrangada and Vichitra were 
begotten by Shantann on Satyavatif {4). After Sh^ntanu's 
death, Bhishma, who led a life of ceiebacy, governed bis 
brother’s kingdom. TThitrangada was killed when be was a 
boy by Cfaitrangada-t The two daughters of the king of 
KSsbl, Amvlka and AmvUiki were brought by Bhishma 
after having vamquished his enemy and given as wives to 
Vkbttravirya wiai, some time after, died of consumption^ 
With SatyavatPs pemisskim Vjasa begat Dbritarkstra on 

^ The Mahabbatafa, one of liie two great In^an epks. 
f She was the daugh ter of a feh e niiaii> Siantanu in love with 
her and espoused heron c ani iiti o ii that her son would succeed to the 
throne. Bhisinsa, Ae eldest sew of ShMlaim, led a fife of celdiaty to 
make good Ids father’s promise. 

% AGandharialdog, 




AmvikS and Pandu on AmvalikS* who became kin||[«f 
DhrUarastra begat on G^ndhlri hundred so^ns headed by 
Duryodhana (S^ — 8). In the hermitage of ^Ibatashriifgaf 
Pandu was cursed by a Rishi that he would die of his 
intercourse with his wife.§ Dharma begat on Kunti for 
Pandu, Yudhisfatira, the Wind-god Bhima and Shakra Indra. 
The two Ashwinis begat on M&dri Nakula and Sahadeva.jj 
Afterwards Pandu died by knowing Madri {9 — 10). Kunti 
gave birth to Kama in her maiden-hood who was under the 
protection of Duryodhana. By an accident enmity took place 
between the Kurus and Pandavas (ii). The wicked-minded 
Duryodhana put the Pandavas into a house of wax and put 

* This practice of inviting learned and pious men for begetting 
offspring on widows was then sanctioned by the Sacred writ. The 
following six kinds of sons are mentioned in the Adi Parva of the 
hlahabharata — 

( 1 ) Anraska or the son begotten by'one^sown self on his wife; (st 
PrmnitM or the son b^otten on one’s own wife by an accomplished 
person ; Parikriii or the son b^otten on one’s own wife by a man for 
pecuniary consideration . (4) Fauna rbhava or the son begotten on a 
wife after her hosband’s death , (5) Kanina or the son bom in maiden- 
hood ; (6) Kunda or tbo son born of a woman who had intercourse with 
four persons; (7) or given by another ; (8) Krita or bought from 
another; {^Upakrita or son coming to another out of gratitude; (10) 
Sayamupa^ia or the son coming himself to give him away ; (i i)Sada or 
the son hom of a pr^oant bride; (12) Hinajoniikrita or the son born 
of a woman of lower caste (See Adi Parva Chapter CXIX Vers«(33— 34). 

t Dhritarastra, thougii^ ddest, did net the throne on account of 
hb ^ndfiess. 

I A mountatfi havii^ a hundred peaks. 

§ The s^tocy is to be lostMl in the Adi Parva of the Mahabharafa. 
Once on a tone retired into a forest with hb two wii^ Kunti 

and Madrt lor a pioi 
hoichiig ioleinoome 
woold die o€ ber mil 
-aboet by hb Hie»iien| 

lip. There be ^let down a deer while she was 
his aoato. She caraed Psmdu saying that he 
e wkb his wife. This eventually brought 
Hi ftfadrL 

I PMda b«ttera£M«NQ)H$e!d Wsmes to invk 

miowspdsfsr se«s OR ihoB. 



fire to it. The Handavas however with their mtrther managed 
to come out of the burning house (12). Then they all, under 
the guise of, ascetics, lived in Ekachakra in the house of a 
Brahmana after havi.ig slain the Rakshasa Vaka (12). They 
then went to Panchala country on the occasion of Draupadi's 
Swayamvara * And by shooting the mark the five Pandavas 
obtained Draupadi (14). They obtained half of the l«ngdom 
when Duryodhana and others came to know (of their where- 
abouts). Arjuna (obtained) from Fire-God the most excellent 
car as well as the celestial bow Gandiva as also Krishna as 
his charioteer in battle. And they all, proficient in the use 
of arms, obtained from Drona un-ending shafts and Brahma 
weapons (15 — 16). Through Krishna’s (help) Arjuna set 
fire to Khandava forest.f And .that Pandava with a down- 
pour of arrows put a stop to Indra’s showers (17). All the 
quarters were conquered by the Pandavas. And Yudhishthira 
ruled his kingdom celebrating a Rajasuya sacrificej with 
profuse gold. This Suyodhana could not bear (18). He was 

♦ This was a ceremony prevalent in ancient India* A royal maiden 
used to invite all the eligible bride-grooms and select one after her 
heart. The following acctmnt of the condition of her Swayamvar* 
occurs in the Adi Parva, CLXXXVII of Mahabharata, 

** Causing a machinrry to be erected in the sky the king Drupada 
set up a mark to be shot through that machinery. He said ; — He who 
will string this bow, and he who will be able to shoot the mark above 
the machinery with these ornamented arrows, will obtain my daughter. 

f The account occurs in the last chapter of the Adi Parvan of 
Mahabharata. The allusion is as follow? : — Agni fed on clarifi^ butter 
for years and grew pale. He went to Brahma for a cure who told him to 
go and devour the forest of Khandava the abode of »he epemies of gods. 
He wenttlwrc and put fire to it which was extinquished. Became 
back to Brahma who a^ed him to secure the help of Krishna and 
Arjuna who succeeded in the work though even Indra poured down 
raki to put out the fire. 

i A sacrifice in whkdi one becomes Lord Paramount after e actkig 
allegietice from minor chiefs. 

6 o 


then urged on by bis brother Dashlsbana, Kama, who bad 
been enriched by him and as wet! as by Shakuni to play a 
game of dice, and by a dishonest trick defeated . Yudhisthira 
and won his kingdom from him. The audience then laughed 
at him. Thus vanquished Yudhishthira with alt his brothers 
retired into woods (19—20). He spent twelve years of the 
promised period in the forest and fed eighty eight thousand 
Brahroanas there (21). Then with Dhouroya and Draupadi 
making up the sixth they went to VirSta’s house. The king 
passed there incogniio as the twice-born Kanka and Bhima 
as the cook. Arjuna [lived in the guise of] VrihannalS,* bis 
wife as Sairindrit and the twins (as keepers of horses and kine). 
Under another name Bhimasena killed KichakaJ in the night 
who was about to ravish Draupadi, Arjuna defeated Kurus 
who had taken away kine from (Virata's) cow-shed and 
Pandavas were afterwards found out (22—24). Krishna’s 
sister Subhad^ gave birth from Arjuna to her son Abhi- 
manyu. VirSta conferred his daughter UttarS on him (25). 
Dharmaraja then collected seven Akshouhinis of soldiers. 
He then desp^cbed Krishna as an emissary for battle who 
•aid to the invincible ‘king Duryodhana who was master of 
eleven Akshouhinis^ of soldiers Give half of your 

kingdom to Yudbisthira, or at least give him five villages or 
give I»m battle.” 

Hearing his words Suyodhana said to Krishna » I will 
even give bias land measuring the point of a needle. I 
wiH fight with him.” Then showing him his invincible 
form add adored by Vidnra (Krishna) approached 
Yadbutbira and said** Fight with Suyodhana” {26-29) 

• AaemnekvhovmstbetinararUtbta. 

t Maid-servant af the queen of Vkota. 


jI^GHI saidt—The armies of Yudbisthira and Duryodbana 
assembled on the field of Kurukshetra. Beholding Bhishtna^ 
Drona and others and considering them a& his elders 
(Arjuna) did not like to fight (i). The lord then said to 

**You should not grieve for Bhishma and others. The 
bodies are destructible, but the one, who has the body, does 
not perish'^ (2). Know this soul as Para Brahma and that 
/ am Brahma, Whether (a work) is successful or not a Yogin 
is always the same. . Therefore observe your royal duties{ 3 \* ** 

Thus addressed by Krishna Arjuna got on his car, struck 
the musical instruments and fought. In the beginning Biiishmar 
was the commander-in-cheif of Duryodhana^s army and 
Shikhadin was that of the Pandava'army. . Then there took 
place encounter between both (the parties). Dhritarkshtra’s 
sons assisted by Bhishma killed Pandavas in battle (4~5)* 
And the Pandavas headed by Shikhandin killed Dbritarfistra’s 
sons in battle. There took place an encounter between- 
Kuru and Pundava soldiers like that between gods and 

* This refers t6 the celebrated episode of the Mahabharata the 
Bhugamad-’Gita^ the greatest book ever written in any language of the 
world. These two verses constitute, as if, the key-note of the entire 
teachings Krishna to Ai^una". 

On some p<mts the several phi!osq[>hic systems vary ; but all insbt 
that knowledge is the essential means for the attainment of liberatkifi ; 
more or less all are indiiferent to action as a complement of knowledge. 
Consequently the philosophic systems might become open to the charge 
that “ the ascetk: who never stirred from his seat was superior to the 
active, brave soldier dr merchant who defended his ne^bours in wm* uf 
fed them in faintne”.- The Bhagavad-Gita guards the devotee agalo^ 
this erroneous idea, by pointihg out die duty oi acdon as involved tn 

**kiiowIedgc,*^ amd the danger d pure a^cetidsm* 

6 z 


4 eectans» ei)h;tnetfig the delight of and before fte very 
eyes of gods stationed in heaven. For the (hrst) ten days 
Bhishma strack down the Pandava warriors with his 
weapons ( 6 — 7). 

On the tenth day Arjuna showered arrows on the heroic 
Bhishma, Aud urged on by Drupada Shikhandin made a 
downpour of arrows like unto a cloud (8). The elephant 
warriors and the infantry struck each other with their respec- 
tive weapons. Pointing out the road of battle, beholding 
the SUB during its progress to the north of the equator, 
meditating on Vishnu and hymning his glories Bhishma, 
having death at his call, lay on a bed of arrows rer^ested by 
Vasu to repkir to his region. {9—10). 

On Duiyodhana lamenting Drona assumed the office of 
the commander-in-chief. The Pandava soldiers were ISlled 
with delight as well as their chief Dhristadyumna (li). 

There took place a dreadful encounter (between both 
the parties) increasing die dominion of Yama.* VirSta, 
Drupada and others were sunk in the ocean of Dronaf (12). 
The huge army of Duryodhana, consisting of elephants, 
horses, cars and infantry, was struck down by Dhristadyumna 
and Drona looked like death there (13). Afterwards, on 
(Yudhisthira’s) exclaiming '' AshwathamSJ is slain^' Drona 
threw off his arms. And then assailed Hrith Dbristadyumna^s 
arrows he fell down on earth (14), 

On the fifth day on Duryodhana being stricken with grief 
the irrepressible Kama, having assailed all the Kshatryas, 
became bis coannander-in-chief (15). Ar|una assumed the 
Gomsaand of the Pandava army. Then there took place a 
highly dreadful encoanler with various weapons between ■ 
ikem both like Ih^ between the gods and demons (16). 

* 4tr%|wd cff metaphor it means “ in which many persons were 


t e h a r assed by Ikoaa or covered by Mm with arrows. 

t He was son ol Thb wasa false rqioit for kitting Drona. 



the between and Arjuna Kama killed bS 

enemies, with arrows. Aod on Bie second day Kama was 
struck down by Arjuna (17). Sbalya fought for half a day 
and Yudhishthira killed him. Having his army stain 
Suyodhana fought with Blumasena (18), Haring slain many 
men he addressed Bhlmse^ And while he was abont to 
strike him with a club Bhima sti'oek: hh^ ^wjb as well as 
his younger brother with hk night of the 

eighteenth day whfle asleep the 

assailed one Akshoufiint of Pandara army. He killed the 
sons of Draupadi, the Panchala princes and Dhristadyumna 
(19 — 21)* While Draupadi was bewaltifig for the death 
of her sons Arjuna with an Aishika weapon took off the 
jjewel of his head (22). Hari then rerivecl [the warriors] 
scorched with Ashwath^m^^s weapons. Uttara at that time 
was eneieni€ and the offspring of that conception was the 
king Parikshit (23). 

Kritavarmi, Krtpa and Drona’s son then reflred from the 
battle-field as well as the five Pandavas, Satyaki and Krishna 
and not others (24). Having consoled his aggreved wives 
Yudhishthira, with Bhima and others, cremated all the slain 
heroes and distributed water and riches (15). Having 
beard from Shkntanii's son Bbishma various duties conferring 
tranquility viz the duties of a king, those leading to eman- 
ctpatioii aad those about making gifts be became the king^ 
(17}. And that represser of enemies made gifts unto Brahma- 
nas in his Ashwamedha (horse) sacrifice. And hearing from 
Arjuna of the destruction of the Ykdavas from a pestle and 
settling the kingdom on Parikshit he, with his younger 
brothers, repaired to heaven {18—19). 

' * These accdiuifs occur in the Shanti Parvan of the Mahabharata* 


j^GN! said :-~WheB Yadhisthira was established on the 
throne Dhritarastra retired iolo woods with G^indhari and 
(travelled) from one hermitage into another as well as PrithS, 
O twice-born one (l). Burnt by a forest-fire Vidura went 
into heaven. Thus did Vishnu slay the Dtoavas the load of 
the earth, for the protection of virtne and destruction of 
iniquity making the Pandavas the instnimental^ . thereof. 
Then with a pestle, under the pretext of a Brahmanic 
imprecation he destroyed the Y'&dava race constituting a 
heavy load and installed Bajra on the kiogdooi.'^ Then 

* The accouat in VidbrnpaEanan fiSs up the gap. 

Maitreta said: — Tell me how Jaaaiddbtna broi^ht about the 
extemiifiatiofi of his own iaamStf noder the pretext ol a Brahminica! 
curse and hi what manaer did he renounce ins Inn**?*** body. 

Paiusa&a sa]d>«At the iulj place of Pindarika, Yiswamitra, 
Kanwa and the great sage, ,Narada, were seen hy some boys of the 
Yadii family. laSated with the i r yoath and mfinenced by predestined 
results, they ihiessed and adorned Samba, the son of Jambavati, as a 
female and taking her to fhe sage^ du^ add r ess ed them with usual 
reverence^ sayu^ :-^Wiiat chid ml ths dm wife of Babru, 

who is anxious to have a son, give hktfa toT* He sages, who were 
gifted with cfitmetmadom, enraged at dim msidt. said 
hkth to a dub tha£ wii extermiaaie the c n tite Yada*,-a race/' 

Thus addressed hy Ae s^fes. the hcqfs went to Ugrasena and rdated 
to hnn what had happened; and after someihae^ as foretold, a chd> 
^ ^ Ae dub, w^di 

oCdtodnat hrmw n e twAci ^ Hmwasonefmt^fiie ir^ dub 
ims lii» toe hbdeelnlwaTi indwiadiihejtfidfaa^ 

Imeahr; thb often thaown mto the sea was vwiW i iii ti b^ the fid> 

*** f*^*|*^ the i mn splw w a s rrtrarted faem li and was token 

^ it Pfo n cr ia mnJrrlrt Wie ^ 



In the*interval an emissarry despatched by the celestials came to 
krishna and said to him in private : — “I am sent to thee, O lord, by 
the celestials ; and do thou hear what Indra together with the Viswas 
Maruts, Adityas, Sadhyas and Rudras respectfully represent. More 
than a century has gone by since thou in compliance with the request of 
the celestials, descended upon earth for the purpose of relieving it of its 
load. The demons have been destroyed and the burden of earth has 
been removed ; now let the immortals once again see their king in 
heaven. More than a hundred years have passed, and if thou dost wish 
do thou return to heaven This is the prayer of the celestials. And 
if this be not thy will, do thou remain here as long as it may be desirable 
to thy dependants.” Whereto Krishna replied, “I am well aware of all 
thou hast said. The earth is not relieved of her load until the Yadavas 
are extirpated. 1 shall also speedily bring it about in my descent, and 
it shall take place in seven nights. Having restored the land of 
Owaraka to the ocean and destroyed the race of Yadu, I shall proceed to 
the region of the celestials. Inform the celestials that having renounced 
my mortal frame and been accompanied by Sankarshana, I will then 
return ^to them. The tyrants that oppressed the earth, Jarasandha and 

rest, have been slain and a youth even of the race of Yadu is so 
less than they an incumbrance. Having removed this huge weight of 
the earth, I will proceed to the mansions of the celestials. Sav this to 

Paras AJR A said : — O Maitreya, being thus addressed by Vasudeva, 
the messenger of the celestials bowed and took his heavenly course to 
the king of the deities. The illustrious Krishna too now espied signs 
and portents both on earth and in heaven prognosticating day and night 
the destruction of Dwaraka. Beholding those evil omens, he said to the 
Yadavas; * 'Behold these ^dreadful portents ; let us hasten to Prabhasa 
to avert them.” When he had thus said to the eminent Yadavas, the 
illustrious Uddhaba saluted and said to him : ”TeII me, O lord, what 
is proper that I should do, for it seems to me that thou wilt destroy 
all this race* The signs that are manifest declare nothing less than 
the annihilation of the race. ‘^Thereupon Krishna replied : — "Do thou 
by my favour proceed, by this celestial course, to the holy place 
Badrikasrama in the Gandhamadana mountain, the shrine of Nara 
Narayana ; and on that spot sanctified by them, thou, meditating upon 
me, shalt obtain perfection through my favour. Having extiqiated this 
Yadu race, I shall proceed to Vaikuntha ; and after 1 have quitted 
Dwaraka, the ocean shall inundate it.” 

Parasa&a said ;^Being thus addressed by him and commandedl iiy 


ACm puranam. 

Kftsava, Uddhaba proceeded to the holy shrine of Nara Narayana^ 
And the Yadavas, with Krishna, Balarama and others, having ascended 
swift-coursing cars, proceeded to Prabhasa. Having reached Prabhasa, 
the Kufckuras and Andhakas bathed there and, being excited by 
Krishna, indulged in liquor. As they drank, the destructive fire of 
dissension was engendered amongst them by mutual collision and fed 
wkh the fuel of abuse. Worked up with ire by the divine influence, 
they attacked one another with missle weapons, and when these were 
finished, they had recourse to the rushes growing nigh. The rushes in 
their hands became like thunder-bolts, and they assailed one another 
with them. Pradyttmna, Syamba, Kritavarman, Satyaki Aniruddha, 
Prithu, Vipathu, Charuvarman, Charuka, Akrura, and many others, 
struck one another with the rushes, which became hard like thunder- 
bolts. Thereupon Krishna arriving there prevented them r but they 
thoi^t that he was taking part with each severally and continued the 

Tticreupon, enraged, Krishna took up a handful of riches to destroy 
them, which became a club of iron j and with this he killed many of the 
rour^roys Yadavas, whilst others fighting fiercely destroyed one 
another. At this time in the very presence of Krishna's charioteer, his 
swift steeds carried off his J^atfra car and entered into the sea. The dis- 
cus, the club, the bow, the quiver, the shell and the sword of Kesava, 
having circumambulated their master, flew along the .'path of the sun. 
la a short time there was not a single Yadava'Ieft alive save the mighty 
Krishna and Daruka. Going towards Rama, who was sittiug at the 
foot of a tree, they saw a huge serpent coming out of his mouth. 
Having issued out of his mouth, the mighty snake- proceeded towards 
the ocean hymned by saints and other great snakes. Bringing an 
ofienng respect, the ocean came to him and then the majestic being 
worshipped of all the attendant snakes, entered into the waters of tlie 
deep, Beholdif^ the departure of the spirit of Baladeva, Kesava said 
to Damka-^-Dc thou go to Vasudeva and Ugrasen^ and communicate 
aato him this. Go and mform them of the departure of Balabhadra, 
^ dm destrtHjJon of the Yadava race, and also that I shall engage 
ki fe^^ious meditation. Do thou ala> inform Aheka and the in- 
habitants of Dwaraka that their city shall be inundated by the ocean. 
And do ye aw^ the arrive of Arfuna at Dwaraka. When Aquna, the 
^ Panda, sbafl issue out of the city, none of, you should wait 
thete bwt go whither the descendant of Kuru shall repair. jDo thou also 
1^ to the s emoi Km ti and tell him that he may at my reqa^ protect 

mylasMlyaoconli^tohism^ht. Then go fo H^tinapm- with Arjuna 



having renounced his own body in Prabhasa*^ attIiecoiiinia.nd 
of the Deity. Hari was adored by the denizens of Brahma 
and Indra lokas. Balabhadra, the incarnation of Ananta, 
went to the heavenly region of Patala (2 — 5) 

The Lord Hari is indestructible and is worthy of being 
meditated on by sages. ^ In his absence the ocean submerged 
the city of Dwiraka (6). Having performed the crem^ion 
ceremony of the Yadavas he offered them water atnd gave 
away their riches. The cow-herds, with the weapoas of 
rods, carried away, after defeating Partha, ail the wives of 

and all the inhabitants of Dwaraka and, let Vajra be iastafled over 
the race of Yadu.” 

Parasara said : — ^Thus instructed and having bowed mifeo 
ciimambulated Krishna again and again, Daruka d^iarted as be lad 
been desired ; and having conducted Arjuna to Dwaiavaf$^ ihe intelli- 
gent servant of Krishna established Vajra as king. Tbete^oa iiavkg 
concentrated In himself that supreme spirit whidt is vitfi 

Vasudeva, the divine Govinda w^s inwjtified with ail bmiigs. 
ing the wocids of the Brahnsana, the curse of Durvasas, the aw^tious 
Krishna sat ^gaged in meditation, placing his foot i^poa hfo 
Then thane came a hunter named Jara, whose arrow was wkh a 

blade made of the iron club, which had not been redaced fo powder; 
ami espying from a distance the foot of Krishna he mbtook it for a part 
of a deer, and shooting feis arrow, lodged it in the Approaching 

his mark, he' saw tke forff-armed king and falling at hm ie^ rop^edly 
besought his forgiveness, exclaiming, have done this deed naknow- 
ingfy, thinking I was aiming at a deer. Have pity on me who am 000- 
SBmedby my crime; for thou art able to consume me.” Ther^qmn 
Bhagavan saiid ; **Tlioa needst not have the least fear, tester; hy my 
favour, thou shaft repair to the r^ion erf the celesdate” As soon as 
Kridmabad said this, the celestial car arrived there, asQeiiE&^ wbidi 
the hunter repaned to the r^ions of the celestials. 

Thereupon ttedirine Kf^hna having united 
pure, spiritua], inexhaustfoie, inconceivable, unborn, midecajh^ im- 
perishabfo, af£d tmiversai spirit, winch is one, Vamdevg^ rmnrairr il te 

moitai ihm» and te Gonneette te thn^ (|»a&ties. 

* This sacred s&me is near Almere in tUipofona. 



Visfanii^ at Ibe imprecation of Asthavafcra.f And Partha 
noersed for the loss X7 — 8). Consoled by Vyasa he thought 
"I had strength as long as I was by Krishna/^ And then 
reivnuag to the city of Hastina he coniinuiiicated every 

* O ioremost of ascetics, one day while proceeding, Arjuna, the son of 
PfiitiB4 the people he had brought from Dwaraka in the Pancha- 

Mada coasntiy in a rich and fertile spot ; the desires of the neighbouring 
iobbeis were excited when they saw a number of widowed females and 
iMwense ridies in the possession of Arj una alone. Worked up with 
llwi r capufitj th^ assembled their villainous herds and said to them : — 
Tliis Aijnna, alone «nth his bow, is passing amongst us having immense 

abdess women with him, whose husbands had been slain ; 
I k fhy strei^h therefore. His pride hath been increased by the 
, l>ona, Jayadratha, .Kama and others ; he is not 
t «f the prowess of the simple villagers. Up, up, take your 
Aaffes; this stupid fellow hates us. Why should we not lift 
3 ?*' Saying this they rushed armed with cudgles and clods 
I the people who were without their lord. Arjuna met 
I lo them in contempt ; *^Go away, O ye wretches, ignorant 
«rwhati 5 r^ht»ifyou do not wish to die.” But they neglected his 
dhnalsaMd sdxed his treasures and women, the wives of Viswaksena. 

'I' fw aHKim; lisie, a Brahman, named Ashtavakra, was pursuing his 
standing in water and meditating on the eternal 
r On account of the overthrow of the Asuras there 

sagieatlesdralon the summit of Meru ; on their way to which 
Tie tt a wia and hundreds of other beautiful nymphs praised 
I lor his devotions. They bowed unto him and eulogised 
3 immersed in water up to his throat, his hair twined in 
They samg in honour of him whatever they thought would be 
m that most eminent of Brahmanas. Ashtavakra at last 
1 2 -••I am well pleased with 3^00, illustrious damsek ; asV 
al lAateoer ytm wi^ and I wi 8 give it however diiicult it 
wmm he el attamment.” Thereupon aH Oiese nymphs,^ Rambha 
3 m^ioned in die Vedas, refdted is enoi^h 

ant pleased, what dse need we say, O Brahman 
a said.w^lf you are kideed pleased witb us, 

Jhou gCTt psahu^jand, tbebestolmen^dsovu- 
el Brahmanas ” Thereupon saying **so be §4’* Aiddavakra 
ftc valets. When the nymphs observed him coming 



thing unto YudhisUiira and his other brothers, who were the 
protecters of men at that time, saying ‘‘ I have the same how, 
the same weapons, the same car and the same hors^. But 
they are all useless in the absence of Klrishna as is a gift 
given to one born in an inferior family/* 

Hearing it and placing Parilcshit on the throae the 
intelligent Dliarmaraja with Draupadi and fais brothers set 
out for final place, perceiving the instability of the world aad 
reciting the (name of) Hari eight hundred times ( 9 — 12 ). 
On the great road dropped down Draupadi with Sahaderai 
and Nakula, Phalguna, Bhima and the king were filled iwth, 
grief ( 13 ). Then seated on a car brought by lodra, be wi^ 
his younger brothers, reached the celestial regiow. Aad 
beholding Duryodhana and others as well as Visadesa be 
was filled with delight. I have thus described Bliaiata uto 
thee. He who reads it repairs to heaven { 14 ). 

— i-__ 

out of-the water and saw that he was very ugly and crooieii ia 
plac^ they could not restrain their merriment and laugiied Tfe 

Muni was very angry and imprecated them with a ijiw^ 

“Since you have been so impertinent as to laugh at my I 

denounce upon you this curse ; through the favour I ham Aamm 
you, you shall obtain the first of males for your bo^iaiid; mk 

account of tny curse, you shall afterwards fall the ha^s 




J^GHl said : — I will now describe the Buddha* incar- 
natioiky bj reading and hearing of which one acquires great 
profit. Ftumcrly in the war between gods and demons the 

♦ A geoearal luinie for the deified teachers of the Buddha sect 
suaoDgst numerous Buddhas are reckoned. The name is here 

fft the ninth incarnation of Vishnu. He was bom at 
KsvilzvQetB at tibe foot of *the Nepaia mountain. His father was 
SvddhodaMi wko was a king and his mother was Mayadevi. The 
juiiiining smmaay of his life and work taken from a well-known work 
fnsBi llw to file 20th year. 

jftk yemr, Gootama admitted a rope-dancer to the Order and lived 

in IfainlnBa. 

jwnr. He went to Kapilau&siu to see his fsUher who was dying. 
Alter Ac mmatum he returned to Mahabana followed by his step- 
medier mmd bis wife^ who were accompanied by many ladies. They 
aB earnest asked him to be admitted to the Order, but the Buddha 
was net wttag to admit them to the Order, but at last yielded to the 
earnes t admcacy of Ananjda. He then retired to a hill near Allahabad. 

dfi jMnr. Gontam returned to Rajgriha and admitted Kshairutf the 
^ joeen of Mmihmsmrm to the Order. One of his disciples displayed 
sirades^ bnl Ae Buddha strictly ordered that no miracles should be 
dfapto je d nad be particularly enjoined that miracles had nothing to do 

TikyiMr. His opponets induced a woman, named Chinchay to 
nfensebnw of a fiteach of chastity, but her deceipt was exposed. 

He passed on a hill near KapilwBastiiy made some new 

fik jnnr. A grea t dissension broke out in the Order. The Buddha 
fried in nain in establish peace and amity. At last being disgusted, be 
left bis dftciplcs and went akme to the forest of Parilyaka^ 

anjpnor. Tfte rae^bonring villagers built him a hot, where he 
spent Ae sainj season. Here the refractory Buddhist monks found 
Wm mA awd aAed his pardon. Th^ were forgiven and well received. 
IWftft his itff Mf Jut ^scifte he went to SrapasH and thence to ^jgriha. 



former were defeated by the latter. Saying “Save us, Save 
us !** they sought refuge with Iswara. Being incarnation 

It year. He made some more important converts and passed his 
time in Magadha and Kosala. 

1 2th year. He made his longest journey, going as far as 
and returning via Benares, preaching in all the places he visited. 

i^tkyear. He spent the year in Chaliya and Sravasti in delivering 

14th year. He remained in SravasHt where he delivered a discourse 
to his son Rahula. He then travelled to Kapilavastu. 

i^th year. The whole of the year he remained in the wood outside 
Kapilavastu, where he addressed a discourse to his cousin Mohanama, 
who had succeeded his father on the throne of Kapilavastu* He 
delivered also a discourse on the superiority of righteousness to alms- 

16th year. This year was spent at a place called Alawi. 

lyihyiar. He went to Rajgriha and passed the rainy season there* 
He preached a sermon on the occasion of the death of Srimati, a 
courtezan. He refused to preach to a hungry man until he had been 

18 year. He went to Chaliya^ where he instructed a weaver who 
accidentally killed his daughter. After passing {the rainy season there 
he returned to Rajgpriha. 

igih year. Goutam travelled through Magadha preaching in all 
the villages. On one- occasion finding a deer caught in a snare, he 
released it and fed it- ^The angry hunter tried to kill him, but he 
preached to him, wh’b with all his family became his disciples. 

20 year. He spent the year in preaching in villages and towns. In 
the forest of Chaliya he succeeded in overcoming by kindness a notorious 
robber named Angulimala, whom he persuaded to become a Buddhist 

From the 21^ year to the 45tH year of his Buddha-hood we know 
almost nothing of> his mission works. Perhaps one year was so much 
alike of the other, that his chroniclers did find nothing to narrate. 

The Summum hanum^ according to Buddha of a man’s life, is to 
attain Nirvana^ and this every man can acquire by spiritual exercises. 
He laid down the foQowing'laws for his monks. 

What is that Law t It b (i) the four Earnest MedUaHons (2) the 
fiw Great Efarts (3) the four Roads to Saintskip (4) . the hve Moral 


of illusion and infatuation he was born as the son ol 
Suddhodana (2). He infatuated the Daityas and made them 

powers (5) the seven kinds of Wisdom, and (6) the Noble Eight-fold 
Patn .^^ (Hh. D. Buddhist Suttas, pp. 61-63.) 

1 his is the sun and substance — a short summary, — of the teachings 
of the Buddha. We shall now try to explain each of the above 

I. The four Earn^i Meditations are meditation. 

( "j On the impurity of the body. 

(5 > On the evils which arise from sensation. 

(c) On the impermanence of ideas. 

{d) On the conditions of existence. 

5 . The four Great Efforts are tl»e efforts. 

(oj To prevent bad qualities from arising. 

To put away bad qualities which have* arisen. 

(*-V To produce goodness not previously existing. 
fVy. To increase gondness when it does exist* 

3. The four Roads to Saintship are four means by which it is 
attained, namely, — 

{o) The will to acquire it. 

(b) The necessary exertion. 

ic) The necessary preparation of the heart. 

(dj Investigation. 

4 * The five Moral Powers are : 

(«) Fakh. 

(h) Energy, 

(^) RcooJiection. 

(d) Contemplattoti. 

{€) intnttion. 

s. TW se*e« kinds <A Wisdom are,— 

W Bwrgy. 

0} SecaUectiaR. 

(e} CttBtewpbriim. 

al Scrmtare. 

U) J« 7 . 

if) Scpase. 

ig) Scmdtjr. 

*- jBe,— 



reJinquish tbe religion of the Veda. They then ■ became 

followers of Buddha and induced others to forsake Vedic 


{by Right Aims. 

(cj Right Speech. 

{dj Right Actions. 

(tf) Right Means of livelihood. 
ffj Right Endeavour. 

(g) Right Mindfulness. 

{k) Right Meditation. 

The following general rules of a householder's duties are most 

General Duties. 

Parents and Children. 

Parents should — 

1. Restrain their children from vice. 

2. Train them in virtue. 

3. Have them taught arts and science. 

Provide them with suitable husbandsi or wives. 

5. Give them their inheritance. 

The child should say : — 

I, I will support them who supported^ me. 

2- I will perform family duties incumbent on them. 

3. I will guard their property. 

4. I will make myself worthy to be their hehr. 

5. When they are gone, I will honOur their memory. 

Pupils and Teachers. 

The pupils should honour ikeir teachers, 

1. By rising in their presence. 

2. By ministering to them. 

3. By obeying them. 

4. By supplymg thrir wants. 

5. By attention to instrucrioa. 

The teacher skuhU show his affeeiion to his pupils^ 

1. By training them in all riiat is good. 

2. By tea^diing than to knowled^ ia^ 

3. By iiistnK^;ioii in science and lore. 

4^ By to Aem, to theif IfiesBds Eltd dUPi^iWS* 

5. By guaidingtlimfpoiitdaag^* 



Religion (3). He became Arhata* aad afterwards made- 
others Arhatas, J>ivorced from Vedie religion they became 


all PSshandinast (4). They committed (sinful) deeds capaWe 
of taking one to bell and received (gifts) from degraded 
persons. At the end of Kali yuga there will be njixed castes 
(5). And there will flourish robbers having no character. The 
Veda of Vajasaneya, proved by its fifteen branches, will be 
in existence (6). Under the cover of religion they will 
preach irreligion. And the MIechhas in the guise of kings 
will devour men (y). Armed with a coat of mail and 
weapons, Vishnuyaslia^s son Kalki, with JSjnavalka as his 
priest, will extirpate the MIechhas, establish the order and 
fespective dignity of the four Varnas and various Ashramas J 
and lead people to the path of pure religion (8—9). Then 
having renounced the form of Kalki Hari will return to 

Husband and Wife. 

. dThe husband should cherish his wife. 

1. By treating her with respect. 

2. By treating her with kindness. 

3. By being faithful to her. 

4. By causing her to be honored by others. 

5. By giving her suiUble ornaments and clothes. 

The wife should show her affection for hor husband 
I. By dmng her household works ar^ht. 

3 . By being hospitable to kinsmen and friends. 

3. By being a chaste and faithful wife. 

4. By being a thrifty housekeeper. 

5. By showng skill and diligence in afl she has to do. 

*^Ugbt««d- A general term applied to the chief saints of the 
Baddha sece They are ranked-by them as sup^or tothpgods'of 

t Irrel^fious peof^. 

ih Cdigioas o»ier of which tbete.are four binds referaWe to the 
periods of life; 1st that of the stiid»t or t 

t** It! * <^*-***' 3 that o* fte a«:terit.. or 

; ^ that of ttwb^garer Filsiw, 



heaven. Thereupon Kritayuga will come into existence a$ 
before (lo). Thus in all the Kalpas and„ Manwantaras the 
various Varnas and Asramas are« established in their duties 
(ll). There are numerous incarnations past and future. 
The pure man, born in a good family, who hears of or reads 
the ten incarnations of Vishnu, having acquired all desired 
for objects, attains to heaven. It is Hari who makes all 
arrangements of virtue and vice, and it is Hari, the cause of 
creation &c, who incarnates himself (12 — 13). 


A.GNI said : — Hear, I will now describe Vishnu^s sport 
of the creation* of the universe and others. He Is the author 
of the creation and the beginning of the universe and 
creation and is with and withoot Gnnast (i). Brahma is un- 

a The Hindu philosophers conslderthe work of creation and disso^ 
lution as merely a sport of the Lord. 

b The three gunas or the universal tendencies of Nature form a 
most important factor in the metaphyseal sy^em of the Hindus. The 
great first cause is the Infinite, Incompnehen^hle, Self-existing Being 
from whom all spiritual and material matter is derived and from whom 
proceeds the universe ; bring hnniaterial he. is- al^ve pomiption ; bring 
invisible he can heve no form or qoafily; but what we behold is his 
works. The entire universe, oonristmg of aiumate and inanimate 
creations, has emerged out God and into Him,- h w3!, ia comse of 
time, subside. He is the Absrfete Reafity and aH things, pr^ent 
our consciousness, are its phcfioiBeBa or sboms* The God is the, 
n umenon and the universe before as is pliciiomcnoii. The Ahso- 
Real God manife^ Hims^ as rriated iof creatii^ ^ universe. 



manifest and existent In the beginning there was no sky, no 
day or night Entering into Prakrit! (nature) and Purusha 

which is called His Maya. As the beautiful luminary the sun casts its 
rays of light upon miHions of pools of water and represents himself at 
the same moment on each of them, so are otxr souls the manifestatinns of 
the Divine Being. The creating power or energy of God is Prakriti 
or Nature — the material cause of the universe. It is blind and purpose- 
less;, without form or parts, is eternal, material, universal, forming for 
itself yet undeveloped bemg from which proceeds the visible world. 
In this creative energy of God, the material cause of the universe we 
find, on an analysis, three universal tendencies which are napned by the 
Kishis the three Chmas: The action of these universal- tendencies is not 
only visible in the nature of men, but it is equally so in the lower order 
of animate bein^ as wri! as in the inanimate creation. We find three 
universal tendencies or forces acting on the face of the creation. There 
is the chaotic or disoigan^ng tendency which leads everything into 
confusion, there is the isolating tendency, by which every object tries 
to secure an indiridaal porition of its own and there is the harmonizing 
tend«icy by which every object gravitates to a centre in creation and 
which tries to bring all objects of creation into one universal order. 
Thus in the creation there is one dfwganising tendency, one isolating 
tendency and one organizing tendencv. These three universal tenden- 
, dcs are inherent in creation, both animate and inanimate and every 
ickmci growth is dependent upon the working of these tendencies. 
They are not tiie maferials or ingredients which form all the objects of 
Nature but the laws that r^rnlate their creation — tbs inherent energies 
or fendenries. The &st is called the or the disorganizing 

tendency or ^ en er gy that brings on confusion in the work of creaf ion 
a«id puts obstmtei in the way of order or harmonv. The second is 
odM or isolaliag tendency-^ the inherent energy by 

whkdi every object, in i^itae, strugig^ to secure its own independence 
md to ^oiate'ifseff from the rest. The.third is the Satiwa-^una or the 
few id eoij: ^ that triim to es^ rnitversa! order,-— the energy that tries 
to cqainsion and relating tendencies and bring every thing 

'Ppuhne of a wmviersrf order. Because the creative energy of the 

creation parfaloes' ^ its nato^l^'" Thus the 
*«**» « T «• aiW tf»e Sattwd-gana ; the 
iniifiBK UuSutg. is caAd tte Stfte-gmidi M»d {he ^sorgaihmng 



tendency is called the Tama-guna. These three universal tendencies, 
energies or qualities regulate the entire creadon. 

The Hindu Rishis have always meditated on their Brahma or 
Supreme Deity in His two aspects, namely Saguna or immanent and 
Nirguna or transcendent. The entire nniverse is resolvable into two 
factors, Nature and God ; by the former may be understood the 
“totality of perceptible phenomena, and by the latter the eternal ground 
or cause whose essence they express.” God is Him^lf the Real 
Absolute, and Nature is His objective manifestation. He is the eternal 
abiding ground, and Nature is the transient phenomenon. God is 
what is and Nature is w\iBt appears. Thus in Hb true, real nature God 
•is transcendent : He b immanent when He manifests himself in Nature 
The relati^in of God with the obj^:tive worl b governed by three Gunas 
or qualities. These Gunas are the qualities for primary elements 
which constitute the entire objective world. These three principles 
are essential ingredients of which every object of Nature, from a man to 
an insect, from a mountain to a grass, b formed. These are the three 
universal tendencies, which govern die relation of the universe with the 
God, the relation of the object with the subject. These are the forms 
in which the Absolute Reality manifests itself. These three Gunas are 
Sattwa or the principle of organisation, Rajas or the principles of self- 
attraction and Tamas or tfie principle of disorganisation. When God 
manifests Himself in Nature He appears in these forms as such as 
such He is called immanent or Saguna. When God is in Nature, when 
the objective world b viewed in its relation to, and dependence on its 
author He is Saguna. Immanency b attribntable to God only when 
He manifests Himself In only when the relation of the object 

with the subject is t,aken into consideration. The phenewnena of Nature 
are objects which are* not eternal- They are not permanent entities, 
but undergo changes- And 'so they must be related to an Eternal 
Subject, an abiding ground that remains unchanged in the midst of 
changes. No one can help thin^ng td somethii^ behind what he sees 
or feels. The colour, the form, the sound are not floating attributes,— 
they are attached undoubtedly to a penuanent gnnm^. Tl^ Eternal 
Essence from which aB objects of Nature proceed, thb permanent 
abiding ground whidi sends oat aH phencHuena of Nature, this Abso- 
lute Reality which suffers no dianges, fe the Jihgana Brahma of the 
Hindu Rishb. God b transccn^nt as a&sofatc Reality—the Abso- 
lute Truth, Intelligence Bibs — mtandam. This b the 

true Nature of God el«t has often descifl>ed in giesring leans 
by the Rbhb iff the Opamtsha^ 



The Sjicred Scriptures of the Hindus spe^ of God as both Saguna 
and Nirguna as raanifestingf in Nature and ^£^ain transcending the 
objects of Nature — as partaking of qualities or Gunns of Nature and 
again transcending them. Isa-^Upamshad it is said : — 


jRssnsf Wsr ^Tinr: « 

'Tt (Brahman^ moves but (truly) does not naovc : it is near, it is also 
distant. It is inside all this, and outside all Ihis.” 

Similarly many other Sruti texts cterly prove that the Rishis of the 
Upanishadas contemplated upon the Divine Being both as Saguna and 
Nirguna, The former aspect of the Divine Nature is transitory, subject 
to change, rdative and dependent, and while the latter is essential, 
absdute and eternal. The Saguna a^>ect is limited in time and space 
^nd Nirguna transcends all snch Gmitations. .The Saguna is ever 
^hangfingand whirlii^, tl^ Nirguna is enduring, central, regulative 
^id reposing eternally in the "hi changes. The Saguna is acci- 

dental, and Nirguna *15 essential. The Saguna aspect is finite, and 
Nirguna is inSitite, The Saguna exdudes Nirguna^ but Nirguna com- 
prehends The hnite can not contain the infinite, but infinite 

can compndtend the finite. 

It is for tlus reason the Rishis of the Upanishada hold that the Nir 
guma descrRies the nature ol God in its absolute truth. Thus the con - 
ceptlon of NirguMa is the conceptioo of the True and Absolute Divine 
Beif^. tlie tme nature of God, aooordmg to the Rishis, is Nirguna, it 
k only when Hk powers are sanded to in His manifestation in the object 
of Nature that He is caBed SogumML^ They have therefore given a 
tided prefer en ce to the worsky of Nirguna, though often times their 
^adptes are exhorte d to oonfeoqilate on the Saguna aspect of the Divine 
It k indeed, very difflcoit to concrive One. Absolute, Infinite 
kk sol weiy£Sk»fe to conceive Him in Nature, to con- 
^ author of the ofafecdve world and exercising His 
power hi ks prepervatioa and destmcdofi. The latter, though practically 
» fea% spea^mg reia|^ and The NirgKma indicates the , 

the true nature of dbe Divine Saguna describes His power 

wdnch iaiuite in aalnre upon time imd space for its 

aannkcsta^on. |heai conteteplM ion of the Sagu^ aspect of 
;^od one can- urrave a| idnt af jim is the uUtiiiate 

gfiii ^idtoal el a nofdupper. Nirguni or abaoh^ 

altekNAesfll CM mcUe the Signam ur fd^tve Tl^ only 



(soai) Vishnu agitated them (2).* In the beginning of tfie 
creation first came out the principle of Mahat. (greatness} 
and then tha^t of Ahakirat (egoism) and then the VaikSrika, 

dfference between them is that the former describes the true Nature 
of the Divine Being, and the latter how He manifests Himself in 
Nature and governs the creation. Though the first stage in a man's 
religious' culture is the contemplation of the Saguna aspects, the 
ultimate, goal howeve, is that olNirguna, 

Kena Sruti thus describes Him : — 

He is the ear of ears, mind of minds, words, prana of pranas, and 
eye of eyes. 

" People cannot conceive Him in their mind, but He knows it. 
Know Him as Brahma. 

** Know him as Brahma whom people cannot see with their eyes, but 
through .whose power they see all objects of vision.'’ 

He is not to be seen by eyes, not to be described fay words, not to 
be conceived in minci. We do not know Him. Know Him as Brahms 
who is indescribable in words, but who whose power) gives utter* 
ance to wordsl 

* According to Sankhya the creation is effected by the involuntary 
union of soul and nature. Others hold that Brahma brings about this 
union for a mere sport. 

f 'The twenty -five principles of Sankhya’s system are (first) Prakriti 
oc Pradhana : the universal and material cause ; the root or the <^0* 
plas^ origin of all. It is eternal productive but not prodirced. 

2. Intelligence otherwise called Mahat or Buddhi. This is the first 
production of nature and the intellectual principle. 

5. Ahankara or the consciousness of ego or 1 am. This is produced^ 
by intellectual principle, 

4 — 8.* Five Tanaxnatras or subtle particles or atoms perceptible to 
beings of a superior order, but unapprehended by the grosser senses of 
mankind. Tliese are tl^ production of the consciousness of ego. 

9 — 13- Fivejnstruments of, sensation, ,nan»ly, the eye,^ the ear, the 
nose, the tongue the skin. << 

14 — 18. The five instruments of actioft, nam^y, (he organ of ^eedh^ 
the hands, the feet, the organ of excretion and the organ ol geseratiou. 

^9. Mind, servmg bodi lor sense and action. 

20y24» Five; elemeats. produced from eiciiic^a! par^cies^ 

nmnely, edter, or the . of .k 1^ the ef 



Taijasa and Tamasa creations {3).* From AhankSlra 
emanated Ak5sha (ether) the vehicle of sound, air sensible to 
hearing and fire sensible to sight. Taste is the* elementary 
particle of water and smell is that of earth. From Ahankara 
and the quality of Tamas emanate luminous bodies and organs 
[of sense and action] (4 — J), The ten-fold devas (celes- 
tials are the (first) transition from the natural or the quiescent 
condition of the soul. Manas or mind is the eleventh organ. 
Then came into existence the self-sprung Lord desirous of 
creating various creatures (6). He first created water and in 
it seeds. Waters are called Nara for they are the creation of 
Nara (the spirit of God); and since they were his fir^ Ayana 
or place of motion, he hence is named NarSyana or moving 
on the waters. The egg engendered in the water was gold- 
hued. In it Brahma himself was born and therefore the 
Sruii reveals him to us Swayambhu or self-born. Having 
lived there for one full year the Lord Hiranyagarbha 
sundered that egg into twaioi one forming heaven and 
another earth. And between these two fragments the Lord 
created the sky fy — 10). The ten quarters upheld the earth 
when it was submerged under water. There Prajapati, 
desirous of creating created time, mind, speech, desire, anger 
and attachment and their counterparts. He created thunder 

audibletiess ; <2) air, sensible to hearii^ and touch ; (3) fire, sensible to 
Itearing, toac^ and «gl>t ; (4) water, ^sensible to hearing, touch, sight, 
taste ; earth sensible to hearing, touch, ^ght, test and smell. 

25. Soul termed Puriisa or Atman which is neither produced nor 
produi^ve. !t is laukiUidinoiis, individual, sensitive, eternal, tm- 
akerableb a»d imiaaterial. These twenty-five principles are thus 
^Oi^rasled » Karikh ** Native, root of all, is no production, Seven 
priflfeiples, the great or inte^ectuai one etc., aret productions and 
fiwdat^ve ; wxiaea prodiyctiofls (i^piodiictiye). Soul ^ neither a 
, war 

* VmJmikm h the first €t^bm k the ot^come of the first 

Irawekkii ite aatmi or tltequekcen^ coadkkm of soul. tsijMsa 
I fiocfies Tmmm ; k the of the quafity of ignprance. 


8 t 

and cloud from lightning, rain-bow and birds from red 
colour. First of all he created Parjanya (Ihdra)- and then 
from his mouth the Rik, Saman and Yayush. For complet- 
ing sacrifice [he created] Saddhyas* * * § who propitiated the. 
Devas, the most exalted order of creation with sacrifices. 
[He then created] Sanatkumar from his arm arid Rudra from, 
his anger. [He then created] Marichi, Atri, Angiras^ 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vashistha. They were regarded 
as the mind^born sons of Brahm§. 0 foremost [of sages] 
these seven procreated many dreadful offspring. Having 
divided bis own body he became male with one half and 
female with another. BrahmS then procreated progeny oo 
her (the female half) (ii— 16). 



A.dNt said t — Priyavrata "and Uttanaplda were the two 
sons of Manu SwSLyambhuva who begat them on the maiden 
Shatarapat endued with asceticism. The Lord Paramount 
[UttSLnap^da] begat on Kardaraa’s wife KSmyaJ [two 
daughters] Bamr§.t and Kukshi. Uttanapada begat on 
Sunichi§ a son £by name] Uttama (1—2). He begat on 
Suniti a son [Byname] Dhruva. O Muni, for establishing 
bis fame Dhruva carried on austerities for three thdusand 
celestial yeafs (3). Propitiated with him Hari conferred 

* Infeiw deities or demi-gcx^. 

f LiteraliyMvmg a hundred forms, 

X In \^shna Parana k Is Kanya. 

§ Surtiehi and Smiki were Uie 



on him a fixed station above all constellations.* Beholding 
his advancement Ushanaf recited the [following] verses 
** Oh ! I have heard of the wonderful ascetic pov/ers of this 
Dhruva, placing whom before the seven Rishis$ are now 
situate (5). 

Dhrura begat on his wife Shambhu two sons Shisthi and 
Bhavya. And Shisthi begat on Suchaya five sinless sons (6), 
(viz) Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrikala and Vrikatejasam. 
Ripu begat upon Vrihatee the highly effulgent Ch5.lcshusa 
who again begat Manu Chakshusa on Pushkarini of the race 
of Varuna. Manu begat on Nadvala ten most excellent sons 
(7—8)— Uru, Puru, SatSdumaya, Tapaswi, Satyavak, Kavi, 
Agnistoma, AtirStra, Sudumnya, and Abhimanyu (9), Uru 
begat on his wife Agneyi six highly effulgent sons, Anga, 
Sumanas, Svati, Kratu, Angiras and Gaya§ (9—10). And 
Anga begat on Suneethi one son [named] Vena. Given to 
sinning and negligent to protect [his subjects] he was slain 
by the Rishis with Ku§a reeds (ii). But with a view to 
multiply his progeny the Rishis rubbed his right haod-K 
And from the rubbing of Vena’s hand sprang the king 

* An exhaustive atcount of I>hruva's translation to stellar regions ■ 
occurs in Vishiiupuranam. “ I do confer upon thee, O Dhniva a 
station whicH is above those of the sun, the moon, stars, Mercury, Venus, 
Saturn and all other constellations ; above the regions of seven Rishis 
and the defies who traverse the univeree*'. 
d' The preceptor o£ Daityas. 

t The seven 3^, Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu 
and Vasi^ftha ; hmthe constellation called Ursa Major, the seven stars 
af are said to be the seven sages mentioned above* 

{ ^ VtsbaiipQcaiiajn the name Siva occurs for Gaya. 

I A complete account of Vena’^s oppr^siohs and haughtiness occurs 
in Vi^wn^nwait* fie oppressed his subjects and grew so haughty that he 
^d not ^ow the s^pes even ^ perfomra sacrifice in honor of Harr. 
^ med hhn. So that fee not die son- 

the s^dfar fiora ^ 

hand fixnn which ^>faag the pcnmiat. 



Pnthu (12). Seeing him the Rishis said This highly 
effulgent king will satisfy bis subjects ^and acquire great 
fame (13). Armed with a bow and coat of mail Vena's son 
Prithu, the predecessor of the Kshatryas, protected his 
subjects as if consuming all with his innate lustre (14). He 
was the first of the lords of the earth who were sprinkled _ 
with water on the occasion^^>t-Rft^U.ya sacrifice* * * § . From 
that ceremony were born the clever Sutaf and MSgadhaJ 
(15). The two heroes composed verses in his pijaise. He 
obtained the appellation of Rdjd by pleasing his subjects. 
With celestials, Munis, Gandharvas (celestial musicians), 
Apsaras, (Nymphs) Pitris,§ Danavas, serpewts, reptiles and 
mountainous subjects he milched the earth for corns and for 
preserving the lives of his subjects, Milched VasundharaH 
poured desired-for milk into every vessel with which they 
sustained themselves (16—18). 

Prithu had two pious sons Antardhana and Pali. And 
Antardhana begat on Shikhandini a son named HavirdhUna 
(19). And Havirdhina again begat on Dhishana six sons, 

• tr. He was the first of all the Lords Paramount of the world, 

f The founder of the race of bards whose duty was to compose > 
verses about the families of great kings and sing their praises. 

% The first born of tfie panegyrists — a class of men who flourished in 
every royal court or ancient India. 

§ Departed manes : they are a class of inferior deities, 
y The goddess Earth. A beautiful story about Prithu's attack of 
Earth on behalf of hisVu^jocts -occurs in Vishnu Puranam. Once the 
country suffered from ’ famine and drai^ht. Petitioned by the Rishis 
Prithu got enraged and pursued the Earth with uplifted arrows. She 
fled from one place to another and at last helplessly agreul to give wh^ 
Prithu wanted. She asked him to give her a calf and level the surface 
of the earth. She th^ gave whkh is the root of all v^fetatfon. 
This stoiy has a great moral value.- It shows tfwd: Prithu was the first 
ku^ who leveled the surface of the earth and introduced o^tvatiouC 
From him ^ Earth received the uame of PrHMm. the dae^hler ‘ ‘ 



Pklciimai^hiSj Shukra, Gaya, Krishna, Vreya and Ajina (20)- 
[He was named PrSchinavarhis] on account of his placing 
upon the earth at the time of his prayer the cacred grass 
pointing to the east. The Lord PrSchinavarhis was a mighty 
king and Patriarch (21). Prachinavarhis begat on Savarna, 
the daughter of Samudra (the ocean-god) ten sons who were 
all named Prachetas and well skilled in archery (22). They 
all practised the same religious austerities and remained 
immersed in the bed of the deep for ten thousand years (23), 
HaTisg obtaianed the dignity of patriarchs and pleased 
Visban they came out, [found] the sky overspread with trees 
and burnt them down (24). Beholding the trees destroyed 
by the and wind produced from their mouths Soma, the 
king [of plants] approached those patriarchs and said ^25). 

“Reoonnce your grief, I will confer on you this most 
excellent maiden MArisha* begotten by the ascetic sage 
Kaadn on (the nymph) Piamocbai and [nourished) by me. ^ 
Gjgntxant of the future I created this wife for you capable 
of multiplying your family. She will give birth to Daksha 
who will multiply progeny'^ (26 — 27). 

Pracbeta accepted her ; and from her was born Daksha 
and the mobile and immobile creation, the two-legged 
crealmes and quadrupeds (28). 

The mind-born Daksha afterwards procreated daughters. 
He CMferred ten of them on Dharma, thirteen on Kashyapa, 
twes^ » on Soma, four on Aristhanemi, two on Vahuputra 

The great Rigfei Kandn engaged in great penances. This filled 

ip^rf^odsvdth fear whorde^tched nymph Plamocha to obstruct 

hie devodott. tlw fefi in love wth her and lived in her company 
Iw many years. Afterrards pero^ving his mi^ake he renounced her. 
lemeastiated wkh by that sage she issued oat of the h«*mitage 
hegaa to wead her way by welkin rubbing die persphration of 

her ha# wiHi ^ leaves die trees. The slie had conceiwd 

came wftma the |K)fe of her ill drops of p^sjara- 

received those drops and die wind collected them. Soma 
jpwtotoeii k-inih his tiS ii mcreased tn 



and two on Angiras (29—30). By mental intercourse they 
gave birth to Devas, Nagas and others. I will now describe 
the progeny of Dharma begotten by him on his ten wives 
(31). Vishwa gave birth to Vishwadevatas* Sadhya to 
Sadhyas, Marut to Marutsf and Vasu to VasusJ. The 
Bhanus (suns) were the sons of BhSnu and the deities 
governing the moments of Muhurtha. Ghosa was begotten 
by Dharma on Lamva and Nlgavithi§ was born of Yami 
(32 — 33). And all the objects of the world were born of 
Arundhati. Sankalpa (pious determination) was horn of 
SankalpS. The stars were the sons of the moon (34). 

Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhara, Anila, Pratysusha and 
Pravasa were the names of tjie eight Vasus (35). 

The sons of Apa were Vaitanda, Shrama, Shanta and 
Muni. Dhruva son was KSla, the destroyer of the world 
and SomaV son was Varcbas (light) (36). Dbara’s sons by 
Manohara were DrSvina, Hutahavyavaha, Shishira, Prina and 
Ramana {37). Anila^s sons were Manojava (swift - as 
thought) and AvijnStagati (unknowable motidn). And 
Agni's son KumSra was born in a clump of Sara reeds (38). 
His sons were S^klia, Vis^ha, Naijameya and Pristliaja* 
KirtikA’s son was Kartikeya and the'kscetic Sanatkamar (39). 
Pratyasa's son was Devala. PrbhSsa^s son was Vi'shwakarraa. 
He was the maker of thousand arts for the celestials (40}. 
And men are now making their livelihood out of the arts^ 
invented (by him). Kasfayapa begat on learned Sorabhi 
eleven Rudras (41). 

By the favour of Mahadeva whom she thought of in her 

ascetic observances Sati gava birth to Ajaikada, Hirbradhna, 

» . 

* A rlactft duties to whom daily <^eriiigs are to be made. 

j* Wind^gods. 

} A kind of demi-god of whom eight are enumerated m Dhava* 
d>nxva, Soma (moon), Vishnu, Anila (wind), Anala (fire) Prablnsa and 

§ The milky way. 



Twasta and Rudra. TwastS’s son was the beautiful and the 
highly illustrious yishwarupa. Hara bad various forms. Try- 
amvaka, Aparajita, Vrishakapi, Shambbu, Kacpardi, Revata, 
MrigSvyadha, Sarpa, Kapali and Ekaka — were the forms by 
which the entire world, mobile and immobile, was overspread 
with hundreds and millions of Rudras (43—44). 



j^GNi said :~I will now describe progeny of Kshyapa. 
O Munf| from Aditi and others the deities Toshitas 
of ChSkshusa (Manwantara) were again begotten by 
Kashyapa on Aditi (i). They were born as the twelve 
Adity&s in Vaiv&swata Manwantara viz Vishnu, Shakra 
Twasta, Dhita, Aryama, PushSl, Vivaswan, Savita, Mitra, 
Varuna, Bhaga and Ansu. The wives of Aristhanemi bore 
him sixteen children {2—3). The daughters of the learned 
Vahtiputra were the four lightnings. The excellent Richas 
ware the cbHdren of Angiras and the celestial weapons were 
the ofifspring of the RisH Krishaswa {4). These appear 
and disappear age after age as the sun rises and sets. 

Kashyapa b^at on Dili (two sons) Hiranyakashipu and 
Hiraayhkdia. Ste bad also a daughter named Sinbikh who 
was married to Viprachitti* RAhu and others were the children 
of SafaikS 

Hiranyakashipu had Imir h^blj effulgent sons namely, 
Anuhrida, Hrhd^ PrabiSda, greaUy devoted to Vbhnu aii4 
Sa ahff hd a» the fourth. Hrid&’s son was Hrada. Sanheftd^s 
mmw&ct Ayustoan, Sivi and Va^kala (7—8}. 


8 ; 

The son of PrahrSda was Virochana whose son was Bal*, 
who had a hundred sons amongst whom Vana was the eldest, 
O great Muni ' *(9). Having propitiated Uma^s Lord in the 
previous Kalpa VSna obtained a boon from the Iswara that 
he would always roam by his side (lO). 

Hiranyaksha had five sons namely Shamvara, Shakuni, 
Twsiti, DurmurdhS and Shankara. Danu had a hundred 
sons (ii). SwarbhSnu had a daughter named Prabha. 
Pulomana^s daughter was known as Sachi. Vrishaparvan's 
daughter SarmisthS had two daughters vis Upadanavi and 
Hayashira (12). PulomSL and KllakS were the two daughters 
of VaishwSnara. They were married to Kashyapa and gave 
birth to ten millions of sons (13), In PrahrSda^s family 
were born four Kotis of NivStakavachas. Tamra had six 
sons named Suki, Sweni, Bhisi, Sugrivi, Suchi and 
Gridhrikl. They gave birth to crows and other birds. 
Horses, camels &c., were also the offspring of TArnrS. Aruna 
and Garuda were the sons of VinatS. 

The thousand serpents were the offspring of Surasa. 
Kadru also had a thousand children namely Sesha, Vasuki^ 
Takshaka and others. Animals having tusks were the 
offspring of Krodhas and acquatic fowls were the children of 
Dhara. Surabhi gave birth to cows and buffaloes and ha 
was the mother of ‘all sorts of grass (14— ly). Swadha gave 
birth to Yakshas and RakshAs, Muni to Apsaras and Aristha 
to Gandharvas. These were the offspring of Kashyapa 
whether moveable or stationery (18), 

Their children and grand children were innumerable. The 
Danavas were defeated by Deras. Having her children 
destroyed Diti propitiated Kashyapa, and prayed from him a 
son capable ol destroying Indra and achieved her object*. 
Indra seeking out her fault, j^foimd out that orte day] without 
washing her feet she fell asleep and (Indra) cut off the 
embryo* They became the deities Martats and these forty- 



nine highly effulgent celestials became the assistants of 
Shakra * 

Having installed the king Prithu over all these Hari and 
Brahma parcelled out soverignty unto others. The Lord 
Hari conferred the soverignty of Brahmanas and plants on 
the moon, that of water on Varuna. Vaishravana was the 
king riches, Vishnu the lord of Sun, Fire-god the king of 
Vasus, Vasava, the king of Maruts. Daksha became the 
king of Patriarchs and Prahrada of Danavas (tg — 24). 
Yaraa became the king of Pitris and Ha*’a the Lord of 
goblins. Himavana became the king of mountains and 
Samudra (ocean) the lord of rivers (25)* Chitraratba 
became the king of Gandharvas, Vasuki the king of Nagas, 

* The following account occurs in Vishnupuranam. 

O best of ascetics, when there was a quarrel amongst the Gandharvas, 
serpents Danavas and gods, Did, having lost all her children, propitiated 
Kasyapa. Being perfectly adored by her, Kasyapa, the foremost of the 
ascetics, promised her a boon and Diti prayed for it in the shape of a 
valiant son capable of destroying Indra. O excellent Muni, he granted 
hts spouse that boon. And having granted her that boon Kasyapa 
said “ You shall give birth to a son who shalhdestroy Sakra, if with 
piois thoughts and a pure body, you carry the babe in your womb for a 
hui^red years.** Having said this the ascetic Kasyapa remained with 
her and conceived being perfectly pure. Knowing that this concep- 
Ibn was for its own destruction, Indra the lord of immortals, came to 
her and attended upon her with humility. And the slayer of Paka 
wanted there to thwart her intention. At last in the last year of the 
eentury he found out an opportunity. Diti, without washing her feet, 
went to bed. And when she was asleep the wielder of the thunder-bolt 
entered into her womb and severed the embryo into seven pieces. 

The child* thus severed, cried out bitterly in the womb but Sakra 
again and again said ‘*Donot cry.*' The embryo was thus cut into 
seven portiofis, and Indra, wroth again, cut eatx^ portion into seven 
pieces with his thuiMier-bott. From these or^nated the swift-coursing 
deities cs^ed Maruts (wind.) Hiey got this name frmn the words with 
Indra had addressed the embryo (Ma — rooda — dq not cry) and 
beca m e foity-nine divinities the a^istants of the wiH<kr of the thunder 




Takshaka the king of serpents and Garuda the king of birds 
(26). Airavata became the king of elephants, bull the king of 
kine, tiger (She king of animals, and Plaksha the king of 
trees (27). Uchaishrava became the king of horses* 
Sudhanwl became the regent of the east, Shankapada tbat 
of the south, Ketuman of the north and Hiranyaromaka of 
the west. I have thus described the secondary creation (28). 



A.CNI said The first creation of Brahman was Mahat 
(intellectual principle). The second was that of Taumatras 
(subtile particles) which is known as Bhuta* (i). The 
third was the Vaikhrika creation known as Aindriya\ or 
that of the instruments of sensation and action. This is 
Prhkrita\ creation originating from the intellectual principle 
(2). And the main creation counts as the~ fourth and includes 
the immobile objects. By the name of 'Tiryyaksrotas is 
meant birds, beasts &c (3), The sixth creation is 
Urddhasr0tas which is known as Devasarga. And the 
seventh is Arovakasrotas which is man {4). The eigth is 
the creation of Anugrakas^ composed of Satttbas (goodness) 
and Tamas (passion). Five are the Va£krtfa\\ acts of 
creation and three are Prakrita (5). And they together 

* Creadon elements. 

f Relating to Indnya or organ of sense. 

I From Prakrid or Nature. 

J An order of ddkies. 

K Relating to the excited condition of any thkig. 



:oDstitute Vaikrita and Prakriia. And the ninth U 
Kouniara. These are the nine creations of Brahcna, the 
radical causes of the universe (6). 

Bhrigu and other sages- married Ksbyiti and other 
daughters of Daksha. People designate creation as three- 
fold, Nityay Naimittika and Dainandina, That which takes 
place at the end of a minor dissolution is called Dainandina* 
The constant daily creation of beings is called Nitya (g). 

Bhrigu begat Dhata and Vidhata on Kshy^ti. Vishnu’s 
wife was Shree who was requested by Sakra for multiplying 
progeny (9). Dhata’s and Vidhata’s sons w^ere Prana and 
Mrikanduka, Vedashira bore Mrikaoduka [a son named] 
Mirkandeya (10). Marichi begat on Sambhuti a son 
Pournamasa. Angiras begat on Srmiti bis sons Sinivali, 
Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. And by Atri Anasuya 
gave birth to Soma, Durvisa and the Yogin Dattatreya. 
Pulastya’s wife Preeti gave birth to a child named Dattoli. 
Pulaha begat on KshamI Sahishnu and Karmapadika 
(il — 13). The wife of Kratu Saonati brought forth the 
highly effulgent Bilakhilyas, sixty thousand in number, no 
bigger than a joint of the thumb in size (14). Vasishtha 
begat on Urja the seven sages, Raja, Gotra, UrdhavShuka, 
Savana, Alaghu, Sukra and Sutapa. Agni begat on Sw&h3, 
Pkvaka, Pavamlna and SuchL Agnishwattas and Varhi- 
shads the former being devoid and the latter possessed of 
fires* were the Pitris (departed manes). Swadhfi had two 
daughters Mena and Vaidharini. 

Hins^ the wife of Adharma (unrighteousness) ; 

her offspring was Anrita (untruthfulnf^ss) and a daughter 
NtkritL From these cama forth Bbaya *(fear) and Naraka 
(hell) and two daughters (Maya) (illusion) and VedanS (pain) 

* Aciaorcfiiig lo the comwiuator dlstincti<m is derived from the 
VedmL The iarst class or Agviishwattas consists of those householders 
who when ahve, did fiot oiler btiral sao^tSces ; the secxmd erf those who 
premied iihlai^ 



{!6— 18). MSya's son was Mrityu the allayer of the 
sufferings of creatures. And Vedana bore for Rourava a 
son named Duksha (misery) (xg). And from Mrityu (death) 
sprang Vyadhi (disease), Jvara (decrepitude), Soka (sorrow), 
Trisbna (thirst), and Krodhanger. While Brahma wept 
from his weeping sprang Rudra. The Grand-father called 
him Bhava, Sharva, Ishana, Pashupati, Bhima, Ugra and 
Mahadeva (20 — 2l). From Daksha s anger his wife Sati 
renounced her body; and born again as Himavan’s daughter 
she became the spouse of Shambhu (22). I will now 
describe, as 1 have heard from Narada, the method of 
worshipping, preceded by bathing and other rites, Vishnu 
and other gods that gives enjoyment and emancipation (23). 



N ARADA said : — will now describe the ordinary form 
of Vishnu's worship as well as the Mantras (mystic for- 
mulae) which grant all. [One should] worship [him by 
saying] salutation unto Acliyuta* and his entire family (i). 
Salutation unto Dhat§ (preserver), Vidbata (creator), Ganga 
Yamuna, ocean, the prosperity of Dwara (Dwaraka), 
VSLstu-deity, Sakti, Kurina (tortoise), Antaka, earth, religious 
knowledge, disassocialion from the world, lordly powers, the 
Rik and other Vedas, Krita and other Yugas, Sattwa and 
other Gunas, the solar disc, itie purifying and most excellent 

* A name of 



Jnana and Karma Yoga* (2—4). Salutation unto joy, truth- 
fulness, the various forms of Ishana's favoured seats, Durga, 
speech, Ganas (goblins), K^faetra (field), Vasudeva and others 
(5). Salutation unto heart, bead, mace, coat of mail, eye, 
weapons, conch-shell, discus, club, lotus, Srivatsa (mystic 
mark on Krishna’s breast) and Kaustava jem (6). He 
should then adore the garland of wild flowers, Sree 
(goddess of prosperity), Pushti, (nourishment), Garuda, 
preceptor, Indra, Agni, Yama, Raksha, water, air, and the 
lord of riches (7). [He should next adore] Ishana, his 
weapons, and his carriers bull and others. By worshipping 
Vishwakseoaf first in the circular figure one acquires 
Siddbi (8). 

This is the ordinary mode of worshipping Siva. One 
should first adore Nandi and then Mahak3.ia,j: Ganga, 
Yamuna, the Ganas, the goddess of speech, the goddess of 
prosperity, the spiritual guide, 'the Vastudevata, the various 
Saktis,§ Dharma and other gods. Vam5, JyesthS, Roudri, 
Kala-vikarini, Valavikarini, Valapramathini, Sarvabhutadamani 
Madanodm§dini and Siv5 [should then be worshipped in 
due order] (9 — ii). [Saying] Him, Hum Ham salutation 
unto Siva form, he should adore Siva, his limbs and mouth. 
Houm salutation unto Siva, Ishina and his other forms (12)* 
Hrim Salutation unto Gouri^ Gam, salutation unto Gaoa» 
Shakra, Chanda, heart &c. These are the mantrams in order 

* Yoga Of imkHi with the Si^>rei»e Being. The union can be effec- 
ted by two-fold means — first by a true knowledge of the nature and 
being of Brahma or impersona! Self, whkji is called Jnana- Yoga, 
and Second by doti^ one's own dtrty and religious acts without any 
selfish motive which b cafled Karma^-Yogsu Tbb has been explained 
length in the cdebca^ work Bhagavat-Glta» 
f Anepithi^ol Vishaa. 

I Attei»(laiils of Sivat 

{ AUendii^ dekies of the goddess Dttrga. Tl»se are enumerated 
as % 9 or even 50. 



in the adoration of the sun. Then the twany coloured 
Bandin should be adored (13). [He should then] adore 
Ucchaisrava ’'and the greatly pure Arqna, the charioteer [of 
the sun] and then the highly blissful Skandba and others (14). 
Then Dipta, Sukshanl, Jaya, Bhadra, Vitnala these 

oreadtui forms of lightning, which have their faces directed 
Towards all, should be adored (l5)- Then with the mantram 
Ham, Khan, he should adore the seat of the sun, having the 
~ shape^of the sky and fire-brands. [He should then say] 
JSam, Hrim, salutation unto the sun, salutation unto the 
heart (16). Salutation unto Arka (the rays of the sun) the 
lord of fires acceding to the region of Asuras and air • 
andrhaving-^ani^ lighting up, earth, nether region and the 
sky, Ham. This is the amulet* (17). Salutation unto 
lustre, the eye and the weapons, Rhjni, Shakti and Nishkaleha 
of the Sun. I will nov^^d^cribe in order and in brief the 
adoration of Soma, AngSraka, Budha, Jiva, Shukra, Shani, 
Rahu, Ketu and the effulgent Chanda. The worshipper 
should then adore the principal seat of the image, heart &c. 
(ig — i^). The mantram of the Vishnu seat of Vishnu 
fornT is ” Hrim, Shrim, Shridhara, Hari". Hrim is the 
mantram for all the forms capable of enchanting the three 
worlds (20). Him, Hrishikesha,t Klim Vishnu. With long 
vowels [one should adore] heart See. With these mantrams 
should be performed Panchami Puja} which , gives victory 
in battfe^c#v^(2l). One should then adore in order his 
dbcus, club, co^h-:sbell^ mace, dagger, SrAnga bow, noose, 
goad, (mystic mark) Srivatsa, (the jem) Kousl;ava and garland 
of wild flowers (22). With the mantram Srim one should 

T ' Some mystip wor<fe are written on a pap^or hai^ anditis 
^ into an amulet. If it is carried by a person he or ^ always be- 
comes successful. 

. t Litjerally one who has controfled bis senses. An of V^niu 

i An adr^tion oflered on ^ ater Idl-mooHi 



adore llie great gooddess of prosperity Sree, Garuda, the 
spiritual guide, Indra and other deities. With the mantram 
Aum and Hrim one should adore the form and seat of 
Saraswati (23). Then Hrit, Lakshmi, Medha, KalS, Tusti, 
Pushti, Gouri, PrabhSvati, DurgS, Gana, Guru and Kshetrapa 
should be worshipped (24). TheiT'he should say, Gam, 
salutation unto the Lord of Ganas, Hrim unto Gouri, Shrim 
unto Sri, Shrim unto Twarita, Sou unto Tripura” (25). All 
the mantrams should be preceded by Pranava (Om) added 
Vindu to it, either while offering adorations or performing 
Japa (26). Celebrating a Homa with sessamum seed and 
clarified butter he who reads these mantrams ot adoration, 
yeilding religious profit, desire, worldly profit and salvation, 
repairs to heaven after having enjoyed all the objects of 
desire {27) 


NarADA said :“I will now describe the mode of bathing 
[necessmry before the performance of] any religious rite. 
Meditating on the 8ian4ios form one should take up a clod 
©f earth* And dividing it into two pieces he should with 
one bathe Us eriad (i), Immersiug himself .in water^ rinsing 
his mo^^a>idafra8fii% Ins hails, Im should, protected by 
the lioB, peffmrm the due rfte of baibiug preceeded by 
Praaayama'^ { 2 ). Me^tariog oa Hari ia his heart with the 
masimm assisting irf haters be diould divide the 

tiw si ^ye ssi aa ef vital breath. 

* A process of 



clod of earth into three parts on his palm and then protect 
the quarters* reciting the name of the lion (3). Reciting 
the name ol Vasudeva, determining within himself about 
sacred water, rubbing his body with Vedic mantrams, 
adoring the image of the deity and putting on a pure cloth 
lie sliould perform the rite. Putting water into hands with 
mantrams, dividing it into two parts, drawing air and 
control! ing it with the name of Nariyana he should pour the 
water. Afterwards meditating on Hari, offering Arghyaf 
he should recite the mantram of twelve letters a hundred 
times beginning in order with the seat of yoga, for ail the 
Regents of the quarters, Rtshis, Pitris, men and all creatures 
and ending with the mobile and immobile creation. Then 
having assigned his limbs [to the various deities] and putting 
a stop to the recitation of the mantrams he should eater 
into the sacrificial room. In this way in the adoration of 
the o tiler deities one should perform the bathing with the 
principal and other mantrams (4 — Sy, 

* This ceremony is necessary so that no impediment may approach 
the worshipper from any quarter. 

t A respectaUe offering oiT oblation to a god or a venerable person. 


Narada said:— I will now describe the mode of 
[offering} Puja (adoration) by performing which Vipras attain 
all objects of life. Washing his head, rinsing his mouth 
and controlling his speech one should well protected sit in 
a Swastika, Padma* or any other posture, with his face 
directed towards the east He should then meditate in the 
middle of his navel on the~^ man tram Yam smoke coloured 
and identical with the terrific wind and purify all the 
impurities of the body. Then meditating on the mantram 
Kskaum^ the ocean of light, situate in the lotus heart, he 
should, with flames going up^down and in contrary directions^ 
burn down all impurities. He should then meditate on the 
mantram Van of the shape of the moonf situate in the sky. 
And then the intelligent worshipper should sprinkle his own 
body extending from the lotus heart with nectarine drops, 
through the tufaulour organ SusumnS passing through the 
generative organ and other tubes (1—5). 

Having purified the Tattwas (ingredients of worship) he 
should assign them. He should then purify his hand and 
the implements. First he should assign, beginning with the 
thumb of the right hand, the fingers of the two hands to the 
principal limbs. Then with sixty two mantrams he should 
the twelve limbs to the body namely heart, head, 
imh ol-bair on head, skin, two eyes, belly, back, arms, thighs, 
knee-joints and feet Then having offered Mudrd and 

» These are the wiotis Asasnas or postures in which a Y<^n sits to 
practise ^5 devofion. A^ita is that ki v^ich he crosses bis legs under- 
^ae^ hkn and lag^s hold of his feet on each skfe with bis hands. 

f The word m the text is Skas&mtka literally meanii^ having a hare 

It is sm epkhet of the moon* 



recited his name one hundred and eight times he should 
meditate on and adore Vishnu (6 — 8). Having placed a 
water^jar on*’ his left and articles of worship-on his right he 
should wash them with implements and then place flowers 
and scents (9). Having recited eight times the adorable 
light of Omnipresence and consciousness he should take up 
water in his palm with the mantram and then meditate 
on Hari (10). With his face directed towards the south-east 
direction presided over by Agni (Fire-God) he should pray 
for virtue, knowledge, disassociation from worldly objects 
and lordly powers ; he should cast off his sins and physical 
impurities on the Yoga postures beginning with the East 
(il). In Kurma (tortoise) posture he should adore Ananta, 
Yama, the sun and ocher luminous bodies. Having first 
meditated on them in his heart, invoked them and adored 
them in the circle he should again place offerings, water for 
washing feet, water for rinsing mouth, and Madkuparkd^ 
(12—13). Then by means of the knowledge of the art of 
worshipping the lotus-eyed deity (Vishnu) he should place 
water for bathing, cloth, sacred thread, ornaments, scents, 
flowers, incense, lamps and edibles (14). 

He should first adore the limbs at the gate in the east 
and then Brahma. He should then assign the discus and 
club to the southern quarter and the conch-shell and bow 
to the cornec presided over by the moon (15). He should 
then assign arrows and the quiver to the left and right side 
of the deity. He should assign leathern fence and prosperity 
to the left and noarishment to the right (16). With mantrams 
he should worship the garland of wild-flowers, the mystic 
mark Srivatsa ^ and the Koustava jem and all the deities of 

* A mixture money, a respectful offering made lo a deity, a 
'or tS*e bride-groom on his arrival at the door of the father of the bride ; 

i^ual ingredie^ are five ^ 





the quarters in the outside— all these parapharnalia and at- 
tendants of Vishnu (17). Either Spartially or wholly he 
should recite the mantrams for adoring litirbs, and adore 
them, circumambulate them and then offer offerings (18). 
He should meditate in his mind I am Brahma, Hari” and 
should utter the word ‘*come*’ in the ceremony of Avdhana* 
(invocation) and the viox^s forgive me in the rite of Visar- 
jana'^ (19). Those who seek salvation should thus perform 
Pujd (worship) with the mantram of eight letters. I have 
described the worship of one form. Hear, I will now des- 
cribe that of nine Vyuhas (20). 

He should assign V^sudeva, Bala and others, first to his 
two thumbs and then severally to his head, fore-head/'moutb, 
heart, navel, buttock, knees, head and afterwards worship 
them« He should then worship one Pitha (the seat of a 
deity) and nine Vyuhas or parts of the body. He should 
as before worship in nine lotuses the nine forms and the 
nine parts of the body* In the midst thereof he should 
adore VSsudeva (21—23). 


^ARADA said: — I will now describe the Agnx or fire 
rites, by which one attains to all desired-for objects. 

Bfeasnring a piece of land, four times, twenty.four thumbs 
in length, with a thread, one should make a'square pit. On all 

^ It is a rel^kns rite ol the Hindus which they msfail life in 
^ fddi wade for worsh^ 

f A rhe in which ^ hie given is away and the idd is thrown 
away. These M peenfiar refigioas rites datJnctly show that the Hindns 
do not warsh^ tk idd hut the spirit which they lempgrartly invoke 
in that idol. 



sides of the pit, there should be left a space of two thumbs 
breadth as if making its girdle (l— 2). One seat of twelve 
thumbs in length, and eight, two and four thumbs severally 
in extent should be made in the East (3). One beautiful 
seat of ten, six and four thumbs in extent and with a mouth, 
two thumbs in width and lowering gradually should be made 
in the west (4). It should be of the form of a leaf of the 
holy fig-tree and should enter a little into the pit* A drain, 
quarter of a thumb in breadth and fifteen thumbs in length, 
should then be dug. The base of the drain at the seat will 
be three thumbs and the fore part six. 

I have thus described to you the pit of three mekhalas 
(altars). I will now describe the circular pit. A thread 
should be fixed in the pit and its remaining portion should be 
fixed on its side (5—7). Placing half of the rope in the pit 
and the other half on the side makes a whirling circle. One 
fares well by making this whirling crescent-shaped pit. After 
placing lotus petals and mekhalas in this circular pit. one 
should make a sacrificial laddie of the size of an arm for 
performing Homa (8~io). 

Then he should make a site, thirteen thumbs in length, 
and four in breadth. He should dig a pit on the space 
covering three fourths of this area and a make a beautiful 
circle in the middle (ri'). He should purify the space outside 
the pit to the extent of half a thumb and one fourth of a 
thumb, and with the remaining portion should reserve a 
teundary line all around. A space measuring half a thumb 
should be kept at the mouth. A beautiful space covering 
five thumbs should be kept. in the middle. The ground on 
-aii^sides should be level, and that in the middle "should be a 
little towered. The last pit should be beautifully made 
according to one^s own desire {12 — 16). 

The sacrificial ladle should have a handle, one hai^ in 
length. T&e circumference of the spoon aitadied to it 
should be two thumbs. Diving it a Uule kto the mud one 



ihocld draw with it a line on the fire named Vajra (17—18). 
He should first draw a line beginning with the corner presided 
over by the moon, then two lines between it and the east and 
then three lines in the middle towards the South. Having 
thus drawn lines with the recitation of the mystic syllable 
Om^ one, versed in mantras, should make the seat in which 
the power of Vishnu lies (19 — 20). 

Having adorned the incarnate form of the fire and 
remembered Hari he should throw it. Then taking ujy 
sacrificial twigs measuring the span between the thumb and 
the fore-finger he should offer them (21). He should then 
spread three-fold Ku^a grass in the east. He should then 
place Shruk (sacrificial ladle for pouring clarified bull) and 
Srzva (ladle) on the ground. He should then place vessels for 
keeping clarified butter, charii^ and the sacrificial grass Kuga. 
And then taking up w»ater with the vessel, he should fill up 
other vessels with it (22—23’. Then sprinkling all the vessels 
with sacred water thrice he should place before the sacrificial 
fuel. Then filling up the vessel with clarified butter he 
should keep it there. Then shaking it with the wind of the 
breath he should perform the purificatory rite (24 — 26). He 
should take up two Kugas whose tips had not been cut off,, 
each measuring the span between the thumb and the fore- 
finger, with the thumb and the nameless finger of the right 
band. He should take up with it clarified butter twice and 
cast it thrice. And again taking up with them the sacrificial 
ladles he should sprinkle them with water (27—28). 
Having rubbed them with the Kuga reeds and washing them 
again the worshipper should place them reciting the mystic 
syllable Om <29). He should afterwards perform the Homa 
€ereiao®j with mMirams each ending with Om. He should 
perform the prescribed portions of GarbhadhSna and other 
rites {30). He should perform duly all the (vows] 

♦ A sacrificial food by partaking of which one gains his object. 



and Adhikaras. A worshipper should consecrate all the 
ingredients by reciting the mystic syllable Om, A Homa 
ceremony should be performed proportionate to the means of 
an individual (31). First should be performed Garbhadh5na,^y 
then Punsavana,^ then Shimantonnayana,^ then Jatakarma,// 
then Nama^ and then Annaprasana/*, then Chudakarana,j^ 
then VratavandhaA and then numberless otber Vedic Vratas 
(vows). A qualified person should perform all these rites in 
in the company of his wife (32 — 34). Meditating on the deity 
in the heart and other parts, worshipping him he should 
offer sixty four oblations (35^ The worshipper should then 
offer the full oblation with the sacrificial ladle, filling it up 
(with clarified butter) and reciting sweetly along with it the 
mantram with the word Bhouskat (36). Having purified the 
fire of Vishnu he should boil the Charu (food) belonging 
to Vishnu. Having worshipped Vishnu in the altar and 
remembering the mantrams he should boil it (57). Having 
worshipped in order with sweet-scented flowers his seat, 
bed etc, as well as the ornaments for the various limba 
lie should meditate on that most excellent of all the deities 
(38). Then oblations of clarified butter should be poured 
in order to fires placed in the north-east and north-west cor- 
ners (39). Then having poured portions of clarified butter 

a One of the Samskaras or purificatory ceremonies pertormed after 
menstruration to ensure or facilitate conception. This ceremony 
legalizes in a religious sense the consummation of marriage. 

b It is a ceremony performed on a woroan^s perceiving the first signs 
of a living conception with a view to the birth of a son. 

c * Partiog of the hair’ one of the twelve Samskaras or purificatory 
rites observed by women in the fourth, sixth or eigth month of their 

d Ceremony performed on the birth a son. 
e Ceremony of giving nan^ to Ihe ch^d. 
f A ceremony performed when the child first tastes 
g The ceremony tonsure, 
h Investiture with sacred thread. 



in the south and the north he should perform the ceremony 
of Homa in the middle reciting in order all the mantrams (40). 
In the Homa of endless limbs (parts) he should offer obla- 
tions of clarified butter to the ten forms of the deity with 
hundreds or thousands of sacrificial grass, sacrificial fuel 
and sessamum seeds (41). Having thus performed the 
Homa ceremony he should invite his disciples to place be- 
fore the beasts of sacrifice fed by them and ^sacrifice them 
with weapons (42). 

Having united the disciples with his own self with the 
fetters of Avidya (ignorance) and Karma he should adore 
the Lingam to which is bound consciousness {43). Per- 
ceiving Its true essence by dhydna (meditation) he should 
purify it with Vayu mantrams. He should then adore the 
creation of Brahmanda (universe) with Agni mantrams (44). 
He should then meditate on all articles reduced into ashes 
on the pit. He should then sprinkle the ashes with water 
and meditate on Samsara (world) (45). He should then 
assign creative power to the seed of the earth enveloped 
with Tanmairas or subtle elementary particles (46). He 
should then meditate on the egg arising therefrom, its 
container and identical with itself. Be should then meditate 
within the egg on the form of the Purusha identical with 
Pranava (Ora) {47). He should then attach the creative 
organ, situate within self, purified before. He should then 
meditate on the various senses (48). He should then divide 
the egg into two parts and place them in the sky and earth. 
And between them he should meditate on Prajapati (The 
Creator) (49}* Meditating on his being born and supported 
bf Pranava and m^ing bis form identical ifith mantras 
be should perform the Nyftsa rite (assignme.nt, of limbs to 
various deities) as inscribed before {50). Meditating on 
tisit hantk and head Vishnu be should realize by Dhyana 
{spkltttai medilatioB) tl^ one is multiplied into many ($1)* 
Taking tbehr fingers and tying them to their eyes with a 



piece of cloth a mantrin should sprinkle them ivitb sacred 
water {52). After having made the Pujz the preceptor, per- 
fectly knowing the true nature of the god of gods, should 
make his disciples sit with their faces directed towards the 
west and their palms folded and filled with flowers {53). 
Instructed by their preceptor they should adore Hari after 
offering there handfuls of flowers (54). Having thus offered 
adorations without reciting any mantrams they should salute 
the feet of their preceptor ; and afterwards they should offer 
him the Dakshina or fee, if possible the half of their worldly 
possessions (55). The preceptor should instruct the disciples 
and they should worship Hari by reciting his names, ^ namely 
Vishwaksena, the lord of sacrifices and the holder of conch, 
discus and club {56). They should then place offerings 
with their fore-fingers to the circular altar, and dedicate to 
Vishwaksena the entire remnant of the offerings made unto 
Vishnu. Then bowing low they should sprinkle with water 
their own persons. And placing on their body the fire of the 
pit they should dedicate it to Vishwaksena, saying “May the 
hungry attain ail and disappear in Hari (57—59).'* 



jN^ARADA said:— I will now describe 'Hje marks of the 
adorable mantrams for worshipping all other members of his 
family, namely Visadeva, Sangkarshana Pradyemna and 
Aniruddha (i). Salutation unto the Lord, a, i, am, a«, om, 
salutation unto Narayana (2), Oa>. ?alctatioa unfa eternal 
Brahma, Om ^alutatiofi Vishnu. Om. Kshouni, Om. 



salutation unto the Lord Narasimha* (3), Om bhur saluta- 
tion unto the Lord Ear§ha.t He should then form tlje limbs 
of the mantram Swar, each duly ending in Oider with the 
syalloble swar, the nine Nayakas, the kings, red like Java 
flowers, green-hued, red-blue, crimson coloured, bright like 
lightning and tvyany like honey (4 — 5). He should imagine 
heart and other parts divided according to the Tantras. The 
characteristics of Vyajijana and other mantrams are different 
(6). They are divided by long vowels ending with and inter- 
persed with Namas. The principal and minor parts are 
composed of short vowels (7). Letters are divided in this 
most excellent mantram and the principal and minor limbs 
are composed gradually of long and short bowels (8), The 
consonants are used in order each ending with the mantram 
Swa in various divisions (9). Having made proper assign- 
ment a Siddha should recite these mantrams (10). With the 
twelve ramfiicadons of the principal mantram he should adore 
the hearty tjie head-gear, coat of mail, eyes, weapons and 
six limbs of Vishnu (ii). He should then make, in order, 
assignment to the heart, head, tuft of hair, weapon, {eye, 
belly, back, ^ arm, thigh, knee-joint, cheeks, and feet of the 
deity (13). 

Kam, tarn, pam. Sham, salutation to Vinata’s son 
(Garuda); Kham, thain, pham, Sham, salutatjon to the club. 
Gam, dam, Vara, Sam is the mantram for securing health ; 
Gham, dham, bham and Ham, salutation to Shree. 

Vans, Sham, Man, Kham [is the mantram for adoring his 
conch-shell] Pancbajanya.l Ghham, tarn,' pam is the 

of Vishnu, cn& of his incarnations hi which 

t The Vishnu in* which he raised up the earth hem 

% Kfisliea obtained this conchshell after destmying .a deinoo who 
assu med to for regaining the son of a Brabn^tna frOT his 

AGx\I PURANAR \.^^^1 }^jl 105 

mantram for the kauslava jem. Jam, Sudar- 

shana (discus). Sam, Vam, Dam, Cham, Lam for bis mystic 
mark Srivatia, (14). 

Om, Dham, Van for his garland of wild flowers. And Om 
is for the great Ananta. With these various letters various 
forms of the mantra should be made (15). The caste and 
name of the person should be added in the mantram for 
adoring the heart. And Praiiava should be added to each 
mantram which should be recited five times (16). With Om 
one should adore the heart, head and the luft of hair of the 

great Purusha, and adding his own name slmuld adore the 
coat of mail and the weapon (171. He shoubl say “Om salu- 
tation unto Antaka.” This mantram consists of one to twenty 
six parts (iS). Then with the lips of the little and other 
fingers he should adore Prakriti on iiis body saying “Prakriti 
is the second form of the great Purushn^^ .19). Om salutation 
unto the great Purusha. The air and the sun are his two 
forms. Fire is the third form. He should assign those with 
his fingers to his body (20‘. He should assign the air and 
the sun in the fingers of the left iiand. He should assign 
the various forms and limbs of the deity in the head (21), 
He should assign the extensive Rik Veda to his hand and the 
Yayus to his fingers and the two Atharvans to his two lotus 
palms (22). As before he should assign the extensive sky 
to his finger and body and the air and others to his fingers, 
head, heart, organ of excretion and feet. (23}. Air, fire, 
water, earth [with sky or ether] are called five elements. 
Mind, ears, skin, tongue and nose are the five organs of 
sense. (24). One should assign the endless mind beginning 
with the thumb in order to bead, mouth, heart, organ of ex- 
cretion and organ of generation (25). The prime form in the 
shape of jiva (sentiency) perme^vtis a^d everywhere, 
£arth, sky, heaven, tlie principle ef preatness, ascetidsnii 
truth should be assigned duly in body and fiirgers begin,, 
uing with the thumb. The lord of the world, first assigned 




to the palm, should be gradually taken to the body, head, 
forehead, face, heart, organ of excretion and crov'n of the 
bead. This is Agnisthoma rite. Next follows the sacrifice 
Vajapeyaka of sixteen limbs (26—28). In this Atiratra and 
Aptoyama are the two optional parts. The soul of the sacri- 
fice has seven forms. Intellect, egoism, mind, sound, touch, 
form, taste, smell, understanding should be duly assigned 
to the fingers and the body. He should assign teeth, and 
palms, to head, foi|ehead, mouth, heart navel, organ of ex- 
cretion and two feet. These are called eight vyukas or 
limbs. A person should assign sentiency, identical with in- 
dividual soul, intellect, egoism, mouth, sound, quality, air, 
form and taste to the two thumbs. He should gradually trans- 
fer them to the left hand through the fore and other fingers 
(29-32). Indra exists covering the ten parts of the body, 
head, forehead, mouth, heart, navel, organ of excretion, two 
knee-joints and two feet (33). He should assign fire between 
the two ihurabs. Assignment should also be made with the 
fore and other fingers. Mind, identical with eleven organs, 
ear, skin, eye, tongue, smell, speech, hand, crown of the 
head, anus, should be assigned to head, forehead, mouth, 
heart, navel, buttock and the two knees (34-— 35). Male 
organ, mind and ears should be assigned to the two thumbs. 
Additional assignment should be made to the two thumbs 
by eight fingers (36). Head, forehead, mouth, heart, nave! 
should be assigned to anus, two thighs, shanks, ankles and 
feet (37). 

Vishnu, Madhiibara, Vamana (dwarf) of three footsteps, 
Sridhara, Hrisbifcesha, Padmanabha, Damodara, Keshava, 
Narayaaa, BCadhava and Govinda are the naifies of Vishnu. 
He be invoked everywhere. The thumb, and other 

fingers, two palms, two feet, two knees, waist, head should be 
aosfgwed lo bead, crown of the head, waist and knees and feet 
(jlS— 1|0|. l^re are severally twelve, twenty-five and twenty- 

egmsm, mind, heart, touch, taste, 



form, smell, ears, skin, eye, tongue, nose, speech, hand, head,’ 
anus, male organ, earth, water, fire, air, sky. The Purusha 
has all these, in hairs — he should be invoked in the ten 
fingers, thumb and others (41-— 43). Having assigned the 
remnant in the palm, head or foreherd he should assign 
mouth, heart, navel, buttock, thighs, knee-joints in order to 
feet, knees, male organ, heart and head. Meditating on the 
great Purusha in all these twenty-six a wise man should 
adore Prakriti in the circular altar. 

In the first part of the day he should worship heart &c. 
in the corner presided over by the moon. As before he 
should adore (Vishnu’s) weapons and (his carrier) Vinata’s 
son in the quarter presided over by fire (N. E.) He should 
adore the guardian deities of the quarters in the middle of 
the fire (44 — 47). A man, having kingdom &c., should 
adore them by placing his middle fingers to the navel and 
having his mind fixed on the lotus (48). For conquering 
kingdoms, and for the preservation of all he should adore 
the universal form of Vishnu with all the parts and five limbs. 
(49). One should celebrate the sacrifice of Vishwaksena, 
having adored first Garuda and Indra. He will obtain all 
desired-for objects. The raantram is that of the ether i.e, 
Byoma mantram. (jo). 


I'^aRADA said:— I will now describe MudrA* which 
brings the worshipper nearer to the object of his worship. 
The first is called Anhalt or the folding of palms. The 

^ Certain positions of the fingers praUiscd in devotion 01 religious 



second is called Vandant (fingers interweaved) to be placed 
on the heart (2). Fold the left palm keeping the^ thumb 
erect. Then interweave it with the thumb of th^e right palm. 
These are the three ordinary Mudras. 

Besides these there are some other extraordinarny Madras. 
By the interweaving of the smallest and other fingers eight 
more positions are formed in order {2 — 3). The first eight 
mantraras shoulr* be recited. With the thumb he should 
bend low the youngest finger, the ring finger and the 
middle finger. Raising up the hand before his eyes the 
worshipper should recite ihe'nine mantrams. Having thus 
raised up the left hand he should ’slowly lower it down 
(4 — 5). These are the Mudras of the various limbs of 
Var^ha (Boar). Having folded the left hand into a fist he 
should gradually release the fingers. He should lower a 
little the fingers of the right hand. Then the left hand 
should be folded into a fist with the thumb up. This brings 
on the sueccss of Mudri (6 — j). 



]N[arada said : — I will now describe Dikshi (initiation 
ceremony) that grants all objects of desire. The worshipper' 
should adore Hart in the circle of a lotus. Having collected 
all the articles of sacrifice on the tenth day of a lunar 
fort-night, assailed and consecrated them with mantrams, 
reciting them a hundred times, designed for worsbippiiig the 
mma-lkm form of Vishnu, he should scatter on all sides 
UQssamtim seeds, destructive of demons, reciting the mantram 
eadftig mi% Ihfe syllable Phat (i~2). He should assign 



there Sakti* identical with all/ in the form of grace. He 

should next collect all the herbs and )=pread them with 


mantrams {3). A worshipper should consecrate a hundred 
times in pure vessels the Panchagavyaf by iht mantrams 
which are used in worshipping the five principal forms of 
Vasudeva (4). With the mantram ending with the word 
Narayana he should scatter them on earth thrice with the 
tips of a Kuga grass held by his right hand. Then seated 
with his face directed towards the east he should meditate on 
Vishnu in his heart. He should adore Vishnu with all his 
parapharnalia in the jar and Vardhani (a water jar) (5— 6), 
He should consecrate the Vardhani by reciting the astra 
mantram for a hundred times. And sprinkling it with a 
continous downpour of water he^should take it to the north- 
east quarter (7). Taking the jar on his back he should place 
it on the scattered sessamum seeds. Then collecting them 
with Kuga reeds be 'should adore the presiding god of the 
jar and Karkari (a water-jar with small holes at the bottom) 
(8). He should then adore Hari, clad in a raiment and 
adorned with five jewels, in the sacrificial altar, offering, 
oblations to fire in his honor and reciting [proper] mantrams 
for his adoration, as before (9). Tquchjng him with a lotus 
and annointing his person with fragrant unguents the wor- 
shipper should fill up the boiling vessel with clarified butter 
and cow^s milk (lO). Then seen by Vasudeva and Sang- 
karshana he should throw rice mixed with clarified butter 

* The active power of a deity regarded as his wife* In the Hindu 
system of worship every deity is worshipped along with his consort. 
No worship is complete unless this active energy in the shape of a 
female deity is adored. But Sakti, in Hindu mjrthoiogy, popularly and 
generally refers to Durga the consort of Siva. 

f The five products cff the cow' taken ’collecfively *. milk, ^rd, 
clarified butter ghee, urine and cow dung. All these arc regarded 
as sacred articles of paramount land essential importance for wor^ii^- 
xng a deity* 



into th« well-purified milk (ii). Meditating on Pradyumna 
the worshipper should stir it slowly with a Kuga reed and 
thinking of Aniruddha he should put down the, boiled food 
(12). Then washing his face and hands, besmearing (with 
sandal) he should put the sectarial mark with ashes 00 his 
forehead and then place the beautifully prepared and 
purified cAaru by the side of NSrSyana (13). He should 
dedicate one portion of it to the deties, the second to the 
jar and with the third portion he should offer three oblations 
(14). He should offer the fourth part to his pure-souled 
preceptor along with all his disciples. Having consecrated 
the tree of milk seven times with NarSyana mantrams, used 
a peice of wood thereof for cleaning the teeth, been cons- 
cious of bis sins, offered oWations to the hundred auspicious 
and most excellent lions, lying in the north and north east 
quarters belonging to lodra and Agni, rinsed bis mouth and 
entered the temple of worship the mantrin should circum- 
ambulate Vishnu with the recitation of mantrams (15 — 17). 

Thou art, O lord, alone the refuge of the beasts, sunk in 
the ocean of the world, for being released of the fetters. 
Thou art always fond of thy votaries. Thou dost always 
forgive the celestials fettered by Prakriti with her noose. 
By thy grace I shall release these beasts bound with a 
noose (18 — 19). 

Having made this declaration to the Lord of the celestials 
he should allow the beasts to enter (that temple). Having 
purified them according to the rules mentioned before and 
consecrated them with fire he should close their eyes. 
Menlbning the name of the deity he should pour handfuls of 
flowers there (20—21). He should then duly perform the 
rite of recitation and worship. He should motion the 
wauae of the iM on which flowers fall (22). He should 
Uidi lake up a red thread spun well by a maiden and 
m&srnt it six times from the tuft of the hajr to the toe 
aad ag^n muIUply it three times <23). He should then 



meditate on Prakriti as being present there, in whom the 
universe lies, and from whom the universe is born and who 
appears as manifold by her various actions (24). Having 
thus made nooses of Prakriti proportionate to the number of 
beasts he should place that thread on an earthen tray by 
the side of the pit (25). Thereupon having meditated on 
all the Tattwas* beginning in order of creation from 
Prakriti to the earth the worshipper should assign them to the 
body of his di«ciple (26’. All these are known by persons, 
devoting their thought to the ascertainment of the nature of 
principles, and are severally divided as one, five fold, ten- 
fold and twelve-foldf (27). With five organs of action the 
entire Juniverse is created. Having drawn all the Tanmatras 
(subtile particles) with self he should place the Miy& 
(illusion) rope on the body of the beast (28). Prakriti is the 
creative power— the agent is Buddhi (intellect) or Manas 
(mind). The five Tanmatras originate from Buddhi and the 
five elements from the organ of action (29). He should 
meditate on these twelve principles in the rope and body 
according to his desire. With the residue of offerings he 
should offer oblations to the work of Creation carried on in 
grad<^ (30). Celebrating one by one a hundred Homas he 
should offer the most perfect oblation. Then covering the 
earthen tray he should dedicate it to the presiding god of the 
jar ^31). 

Having duly performed the adhivasaX ceremony be should 
initiate his devoted disciple- Having placed in an [open] 

* See note on o 79, 

The first one .hvisian is Prakriti. The five divisions are Tanmatras 
or five subtle particles ; the ten divisions are the five instruments of 
sensation and the five instruments of action j with Prakriti and mlod 
added to these ten the twelve parts are made tip« 

J Preliminary rite of consecrating an idol before it is plac&l or a 
pupil before be is initiated. 



place where the wind blows Karani^ and a Kartari\ 
made either of silver or iron as well as other ivecessary 
ingredients and touched them with the principal mantram he 
should perform the Adhivasa ceremony (32 — 33). [He should 
then recite] **saIutation I offer this food to the goblins/' 
Then he should meditate on Hari as lying on the sacrificial 
grass. He should next adorn the sacrificial yard by spread- 
ing over it jars of sweet meats (34). He should perform a 
sacrifice in honor of Vishnu in that circular altar* and 
then pouring oblations to the fire he should initiate his 
disciples seated in Padma postures (55). Sprinkling water 
on Vishnu with his hand and touching gradually his head 
he should meditate on Prakriti and all her transforma- 
tions as well as on all the presiding deities present there 
(36). Bringing the creation in his mind he should gradually 
transfer it fo his heart. He should then meditate on all 
transformed into Tanmatras and on all identical with Jiva 
{or sentiency^ (37). Thereupon having offered prayers to 
the presiding deity of the jar and drawing the thread the 
worshipper should approach the fire and place it on its side 
(38). He should offer a hundred oblations with the principal 
mantram to the presiding god of the creation present there 
and then offer the most perfect oblation (39). He should 
then collect white dust and consecrate it .a hundred times 
with the principal mantram. He should then throw it on his 
heart reciting the mantram terminated by Hum and phat 
{40). Then gradually with mantrams formed by subtracting 
syllables he should offer oblations to earth and other 
Tattwas {41). He should gradually transfer all the Tattwas, 
fire &c to their abode Hari ; and the learned worshipper 
^onld then iMok ol the sacrifice {42). He should subtract 
the Tattwas and then attain quietitnde. He should then 

* An aitw ol a partkular shape, 

f A luiife. 



dSet oblation the fire. Offering eight oblations each in 
favour of GarcfftAdhSna, jAtakarma, Bhoga (enjoyment) and 
dissolution! be abould offer one to Suddhi or purification. 
Taking up pure ingredients he sliouuld offer the most perfect 
oblation. And gradually he should offer oblations to other 
Tattwas. Afterwards by Jnana Yoga he should immerse 
Jiva, freed of worldly fetters, in the Eternal ParamStman 
(43—46). The learnled man should think of the spirit of 
disassociation in the Ever blissful pure and intelligent 
(Atman)^ Afterwards he should offer the Puma (or most 
perfect) (Elation in honor of the deity and finish the rite of 
DikshS or initiation (47). 

I will now describe the Prayoga (working) mantrams 
associating the rite of Dikshl with Homa. 

Onii yarn, goblins, the pure Hum, pfaat. By this one 
should strike and separate the two. 

Om, yam, I destroy the goblins. Hear how this should be 
united with Prakriti after having accepted it. 

Om, Yam, Bhutan! Punscha: I will now relate the 
mantrams of Homa^ and those of PurnShutif (4S— 49). 

Om SwAfaa destroy these goblins. 

Om, am, om, Namas (salutation) unto the Lord Vtsudeva 

After offering the Purnlhti he should make his disciples 
do the same. Then the learned worshipper should purify 
all the Tattwas in due order with the mantram Swa preceded 
by Tavana and ended by Namas. 

Om Vim the Ojrgans of action. Om dem the organs of 
intellect &:• 

Om sum Tanmatra el smell. Om sum sum Prakriti. Om 
smn sum destroy all SHr&faa. 

* The oeremofiy oC <^eri^ oblarieos to the ^re. 
t The fimi oferisg to ^ fittu 




Then PiirnShuti should be offered in the northern 

Om Ram, the Tanmatra, the subtle element ot taste. 

Om Bhen the Tanmatra of form. Om Ram the Tanmatra 
of touch. Om am the Tanmatra of sound. Om bbam 
Namas. Om som egoism. Om nam intellect. Om om 

I have thus described the DikshA ceremony of the deity 
of one form and also described the dedication to nine 

Having consumed all a man should consign Prakriti to 
Nirvana, and he should then consign Prakriti to the Ishwara 
shorn of changes (50—53). 

Having purified the elements he should purify the instru.» 
ments of action, intellect, Tanmatras, mind, knowledge and 
egoism {54). Having next purified the gross body and th© 
soul he should again purify Prakriti. The pure Prakriti and 
Purusha ar6 stationed in Iswara (55). A person, qualified to 
understand the principles, should meditate on the deity, 
after Purnahuti and initiate his disciples whom he had known 
well and who had been freed from the bonds of Bhoga 
(endless law of retribution) (56'. Having meditated on the 
deity with his limbs and mantrams Jie should gradually 
purify equally all the Tattwas. Having thus meditated on 
the deity endued with all lordly powers he should offer the 
Purnihuti. This is the initiation ceremony of the 
worrfupper. hi this there is no necessity of any article or 
properly which is not within his means {57—58), 

Having irorsliipped the deity as before with all tjbe 
ingredients tlie foremost of votaries should initiate the 
disciple on twelfth day from that of the aditvdsa cere- 
mony (59)* The disciple roust be devoted, humble, endued 
with all the physical accomplishments and not very rich. 
Haviiig worshipped the deity in the altar he should initiate 
am* a disciple (60). The spiritual gmde should meditate 



in tli^ person of the disciple on the entire host of gods and 
all the .>elements spiritualized in order df the creation (6i), 
He, desirous of creation, should offer, in honor of Vasudeva 
and other agents of procreation, each sixteen oblations 
accompanied with mantrans beginning in due order from the 
corahiencement (62). Having released all the fetters of 
Karma which bind one to births the spiritual guide should 
purify them with Homa by the destructive Yoga (63). 
Having withdrawn them gradually from the body of his 
disciple the spiritual guide should purify all the Tattwas 
immersing them in Agni, Prakriti, Vishnu and other deities 

(64) . With PurnShuti he should purify the impure 
principles. After the disciple had attained his natural 
state of mind he should consume all the qualities of Prakriti 

(65) . As necessary or qualified to do he should either 
free or bind the beasts. Or in their absence the preceptor 
should perform the Sakti dikska (66). Having worshipped 
with reverence all the ascetics endued with spiritual powers 
he should place his son by Vishnu in the altar (67). The 
disciple should sit with his face towards the deity. And 
the spiritiial guide should sit with face directed askance. He 
should then meditate on all the sacrifices, instituted along 
with those performed pn the changes of the moon (68). He 
should by Dhyina meditate on the deity in the person of his 
disciple and touch it as before (69). He should then gradu- 
ally purify all the Tattwas on the altar of HarL And he, 
engaged in the enquiry into self, should touch it, take it and 
set k aside (70). He should gradually, according to their 
tiatiifei piirl^ them and unite them with tlie deity» And then 
he should cehect them with a purified mind (yr). He should 
by Jnina eww/rd and dhyina yoga purify them. When all 
the Tattwas are thus purified be -should place them in the 
< Tswara (72). Having burnt them he should extinguish, 
the fire aud engage bis disciples in ths service of the Lord; 
Then, the foremost of spiritual guides should conduct the 



worshipper in the road of Siddhi (73)* Having thns per- 
formed vigilantly ?II the rites a house-holder becomes a 
qualified person. He should so long purify his own self 
as long as his anger is not dissipated (74). Knowing himsdf 
shorn of anger and freed from sins a self-controlled person 
should confer the previlege of a qualified person either on 
his own son or his disciple (75). Having burnt the noose 
of cosmic illusion^ and stationed himself in self he should^ 
in his unmanifest form^ wait for the destruction of l»s 
body (76}. 


Narada sard:— I will now describe the Abhisbeka cere- 
mony of the preceptor and his son by which a worshipper 
attains siddhi and a diseased man becomes freed from di- 
seases (1). A king obtains kingdom and a woman acquires 
a son freed from sins. He should assign jars containing 
Jems in the middle and east. He should place in rows a 
thousand or a hundred of them in the circular altar under 
the canopy in the east of Vishnu (2—3). Having placed them 
all be should assign bis son in parts to all. He should then 
perform t}^ Abbtsheka ceremony. Men shotdd there offer 
aj»d other Pitakas (altars) for receiving favours. The 
preceptor sbotiM aanoance^ the condititms and a disciple^ 
kidded mio be acquires all be waats 


N ARAD A said :~Having worshipped the Lord Harl on 
a circular altar erected on a purified ground in the room a 
worshipper should practise mantrams in the temple (r). On 
a square piece of ground he should draw a circle and should 
write the word hhadra (auspiciousness) in all the minor 
compartments (2). Thirty six compartments should be made 
outside. Two rows should be made and two doors on two 
sides (3). He should make a lotus-like circle in the exterior, 
and should make twelve parts in the half of the lotus (4). 
Having thus divided it he should make four circles, one 
around the other. The first is the ground of pericarp, the 
second is that of filaments, the third is that of petals and the 
fourth is that of th6 tips of petals. He should join the points 
of the triangle with a thread (5--^). Having connected 
with it the filaments and the petals he should draw eight 
petals (7). Then the interstices between the petals should 
be drawn inside the figure. Then the tops of the petals 
should be drawn one after another. They should be again 
drawn on sides and on the exterior. Then filaments should 
be drawn between two petals (8-— 9). This is the ordinary 
lotus circle of sixty two petals. Then in proper measure 
the pericarps, in halves, should be drawn in the east in due 
order (10). By its side six Kandalis should be drawn in 
circles* Thus twelve fishes should be drawn in the lotus 
of sixty two petals (n). For attaining success* in the rite 
one should draw the figure of an unbroken fish with five 
p^aU. TheJine sky (VyomarekbA) should be drawn out* 
side the Pitha (altar) ; and then be should sweep clean Ih^* 
OKUpartinents (12). Two and two other figuresi for the 
feet, jsiunild be dca^u in the three corners. The hodi^ 



should extend on all the four sides (13). Tlien the fins 
should be drawn in the directions for forming the row. Doors 
should be made in all the four directions (14). ‘One the sides 
of the doors an expert man should draw eight graceful ex- 
pressions; and by them graceful expressions should be drawn 
(15). Then corners of minor ornaments should be made. 
In the middle compartment two figures each should be drawn 
in four directions (r6). On the four external sides figures 
should be made with clay. For beautifying it three figures 
should be drawn on each side of the petal (17). Similarly 
in the contrary direction minor ornaments should be drawn, 
three in number, without any gap in and outside the cone 

(18) . Thus the sixteen compartments are formed and thus 
the other circle is formed. In the sixty-second division 
a row of thirt5^-six petals should be drawm in the lotus 

(19) . One fin should be drawn at each door for beautify- 
ing it. In the circular altar of one cubit a lotus should be 
drawn with twelve fingers (20). With the thumb the door 
should be drawn one cubit in area. Then four altars should 
be made j the circular lotus should be two fingers in cir- 
cumference (21). The half of the lotus should be drawn 
with nine fingers, the navel with three, the doors with eight 
and the circumference with four {22I. Having divided the 
ground into three parts he should draw the* inside with two 
fingers. Then for accomplishing his object he should write 
the five short vowels and draw the radii {[23). Then accord- 
ing to his own desire he should either draw lotus petals, or 

leaves or the leaves of the lotus {24). The outer cir- 
cumference should be drawn from the root of the radius (25). 
He should roll the middle Arani (fire-producing stick) in 
fte iote^ce between the radii and at all the interven* 
i^S spaces leaves of equal dimensions should be 

4 should be divided into ^ven parts, 

wk of tiie» measurifig equally fourteen fagci^. Tlien two 


1 19 

hundred and ninety six apartments should be drawn. The 
word bhadra (auspiciousness) should be written there. They 
should be encircled with rows on which the names of the 
quarters should be written (27—28). Again on all these 
rows figures of lotuses should be drawn. Then in the middle 
compartment necks should be drawn in all the quarters (29). 
Four figures should be drawn outside, and after it three in 
each row, one after the other. Then an ornament should be 
drawn by the side of each neck (30). He should sprinkle 
thrice with water the seven extremities of the external cone. 
Thus is formed the circular altar of seven divisions where 
Hari should be worshipped (31). This is the circular altar 
of twenty five vkyuhas where the universal form of Vishnu 
is worshipped. Thirty two cubits of ground should be equally 
measured by a votary with his hand (32). Thus within six- 
teen (principal) compartments one thousand and twenty four 
minor ones are formed (33). Having written bhadm and. 
sprinkling water to the fire he should write eight bkadrakas * 
with six compartments in all the quarters. Then sprinkling 
the fins and the sixteen hkadrakas^ with water he should 
draw other fins on all sides 34 — 35). He should then draw 
the twelve doors, three in each quarter, six at the outside, 
and four severally in the end, middle and all sides (36)- He 
should draw, for beautiiying the figure, four doors, two outside 
and two inside. Xnd three minor doors should be drawn 
in ihe cxtremeties and five outside (37)* Then he should 
as before make ornamental drawings, seven in the externa! 
cones and three in the end (38)- 

He should worship Para Brahma in the auspicious twenty- 
five Vyhuas. Then gradually in the lotus drawn *.n the mid- 
dle begianing with the east he should worship V§sudeva and 
other deities {39). Having worshipped the Boar form of 
Vishnu la the first lotus he should adpre the Vyuahas till the 
of Uie tweatjusix is fiobl^d (40). In the lotus bp shio^Id 
sdpf^ ^ He should tten 



PrachetS in the shape of the sacrifice (41). He should regar d 
Achyuta as divided into many forms such as truth He 
should then portion out the ground of forty fingfers (42). He 
should first divide it into seven, then again into two, then 
into four, six, seven, hundred and thousand (43). The 
hhadra of the compartments should be encircled with sixteen 
of them. Then rows should be drawn on the sides along 
with the bhadras (44). Sixteen figures of lotuses should be 
drawn, then twenty four lotuses for rows and thirty two 
!o uses for fins (45). Then with forty rows and three fins 
the principal and minor ornaments of the doors should be 
orawn in all the directions (46). Two, four or six doors 
should be drawn in all the directions ; either five or three 
should be drawn outside for ornamenting them (47). Either 
on the sides or in the end of the doors six figures should be 
drawn ; four being in the middle. And six minor ornamental 
figures should be drawn there (48). All should be collected in 
one side and there should be four sacrificial ladles (49). In 
every side there should be three doors. Five rows should b» 
drawn severally in the five corners. There should be eight 
compartments of the auspicious circular altar (50). 


j^ARADA saud:— p-One should adore the lotus-navelled 
with all his limbs, in the middle ictus. In the lotus 
m northeast comet fee should adore Prakrit! and Purifsha 
m the lotus in the north (i). In the south of the Pumdia 
Sre-gpd ^ould be wc^shtpped and the mnd*god in sonth- 
evptqnaitef presided overhy Vanina, The suii rinmld be 

AGm puranam. 


adored in the moon, lotus and the Rik and Yajus in the Aisha 
lotus (2). Indra and other deities should be worshipped in 
the sixteen lotuses of the second row, as well as the Saman, 
the Atharvan, the sky, air, fire, water, earth, mind, ear, skin, 
eye, tongue, nose, &c., {3 — ^4). Having worshipped the prin- 
ciple of greatness, asceticism, truth, Agnisthoma, Atyagnis- 
thoma, Sodashi, Vayapeyaka and Aiir§.tra he should adore 
Aptayama. He should in due order meditate in the lotuses 
on mind, intellect, egoism, sound, touch, color, taste, smell,— 
all these twenty-four Tattvvas, as well as on Jiva (sentiency), 
the Ego, the lord of the mind, and the sound form of Prakriii), 
(5—7). He should then worship the image of Vasudeva 
and others identical with ten organs such as mind, th"e eai% 
skin, eye, tongue, nose speech, hand, feet and others in 
thirty-two lotuses. He should then adore twenty-six forms 
of Purusottama, &c., in the eternal circle (8 — lo). The 
lords of the months should he worshipped in order in the 
lotuses of the Chakra^ as well as the eight, six, five ami 
other forms of Prakriti (ii). Then the Rajapata (shedding 
of blood) ceremony should be performed in the circular altar 
drawn in the following way. The pericarps should be of 
yellow colour and the lines should be white {12). It should be 
two cubits in length and one thumb in breadth. Half of it 
should be white. It should be united with white, black and 
dark-blue lotuses. The filaments should be crimson and 
yellow-coloured and the corners should be filled up with dark 
colour* Thus the Yo^a Pitha should be bedecked with all 
the colours according to one’s own desire (13—14.) The 
Vithikas or rows should be bedecked with creepers and 
leaves. The door of the Pitha should be paintea principally 
with white, black and yellow colours. The minor decorations 
should be done in violet aiid all the corners should be 
painted with white. Thus the Bhadra&a pitha and other 
piihas sbmitd he filled op with coteurs {15 — 16), The three 
cf^ners should be decided with white, blue and black 



colours, the two cornors with blue and yellow and the centre 
with dark (ry). The radii should be painted with yellow 
and blue colours and the circumference with biue and dark« 
blue. The outer part should be drawn with white, dark« 
blue, dark and yellow lines (i8}. The powder of Shali-rice 
is white : it becomes blue on being mixed with safflower, 
yellow on being mixed with turmeric and black on the rice 
being burnt (19}. It becomes dark-blue with Shami leaves. 
One lakh of Veeja mantrams should be recited ; four lakhs of 
mantrams should be recited,; one hund:-ed and thousand 
means of acquiring learning should be mentioned; ten 
thousand means of the science of enlightenment should 
be mentioned; and a thousand verses should be recited. 
First of all reciting one hundred thousand of mantrams the 
ceremony of the purification of self should be performed 
(20 — 21). Then with another Lakk the mantra should be 
dedicated to the earth. Thus the Homa-like Purvasevd of 
Vyas is described (22). The Purvaseva rite should be 
performed with ten parts of the Mantras, With the Puras^ 
chara ceremony of the mantrams the monthly Vraia should 
be performed (23). One should place the left foot on the 
ground without accepting the donation due to him. . By 
doing so twice, or thrice, the middle class and the most 
excellent Siddhis are acquired (24). I shall now describe 
the Dhyana (meditation) of maiiirams by which the fruits 
thereof are acquired. One should receive outside the gross 
body of the deity which can he described in words (25). 

luminotis subtle form exists to the heart and is withiii 
the reach of thoi^lit. Par&m or the great is beyond the 
rf thoi^bl The boar, lion etc, are principally 

tbe gross forms. form of VAsudeva is . beyond the range 
Unn^hl (ay)* The other miner forms exist i» the heart 
ai^ane wilhia the range of thought. The Vint or tho 
ttmoifial ierm is the £toss hodjr and the sahile idem is des%n-: 
atediif Xhe form that is beyond the rea^ 



of thought IS described as Iskwara* One should meditate 
on the Veeja (the essence of mystic syllables) of the shape of a 
Kadamva flower, which is consciousness, the eternal light 
residing in the lotus of the heart. As a lamp lies obstructed 
inside a pitcher so the lord of mantrams lies restrained in 
the heart. As the beams of light come out through a per- 
forated pitcher so the rays of the Ve^a come through the 
organs of the body. Then uniting themselves with the 
power of the deity they exist in the body (29—32). Coming 
out of the heart the tubular organs come within the ken 
of the instrument of vision. Then the two organs coma 
to the top of the nose. Then having conquered the airs of 
the body by means of the tube passing through the organ 
of excretion, a mantriity ever engaged in^meditation and the 
recitation of the names of the deity, enjoys the fruits of the 
mantram (33^34)* With the gross elements and Tanmat ras 
(subtle particles) purified, practising Yoga with some object 
in view, disassociating himself from ithe world he acquires 
AnimSL and other siddhis and leaves the elements in the 
AlldntelUgent (35)- 


A.GN! said I win now describe the Marjana (cleansitig 
rite) of one’s own self as well as of others by wh3di a man is 
freed from miseries amd attains to felkity (i). 

Om salutarioQ iiato the gre^dest object, Purusiia, the 
gteat ascetic, to Him of one aad many forms, present aS 
over the universe, the Great Soal, him freed from sias, pare 
aad ever engaged in me^ttive coatemplatton^ wh^ 



][ say prove true (2—3). Salutation unto the Boar, Man-lion 
and Dwarf form (of Vishnu) the great Muni. May what I 
say prove true (4). Salutation unto Him of three foot-steps, 
Rama, Vaikuntha and Nara. May what I say prove true. 
O Boar, O Lord, O Man-lion, O Lord Dwarf of three foot- 
steps, O Lord of Hayagriva, O Loro of all, O Hrishikesh, do 
thou destroy all evil« (5 — 6). With these four most excellent 
weapons, discus and others, ever victorious and of unbroken 
power do thou destroy all wicked beings (7). Remove such 
a personas calamity and do him all good. Destroy the fear 
of the fetters of death which is the result 0£ calamity. Des- 
troy the magical incantations set with meditation tor working 
evils, creating diseases and decrepitude (8 — 9), 

Om salutation unto VSsudeva, Krishna, unto him having 
lotus eyes and Keshava, the first holder of the discus (10). 
Salutation unto his clean raiment rendered yellow with the 
filaments of lotuses, unto the discus hurled on the shoulders 
of the great enemy of Harass as well as unto the holder of 
the same (ii). Salutation unto the holder of the earth up- 
raised by his tusks (Boar-form), unto him having three forms, 
unto the great sacrificial horn, unto him lying on the hood 
of the serpent Sesha (12). Salutation unto thee, the celes- 
tial lion (man-lion form), having manes of the hue of molten 
gold, eyes bright like the burning fire, and claws hard as 
adamant (13). I bow again and again unto thee adorned 
with the Vedas, Rik, Yayush and Saman, who hadst cover 
the earth with thy one foot in thy Dwarf form (14). O Boar, 
O thou a huge tusks, do thou grind all the evils and the 
effects pt all the sins {15). O dreadful man-Iion, O thou 
having fire horning within thy teeth, O destroyer of dangers, 
^ thou break down all his enemies (16)* O thou the origi- 
natiMT of Rik, Yayush and Sama Vedas, O thou the Mder 
of Dwaif-form, O lanarddana, do th^w allay all bis miseries 
(17)* 0 Govinda, do thou cure all forms of fear, — coming 
iprery every alternate day, ijverjr third and fourth day. 


the high fever, the Satata fever,* one attended with com- 
plications, mixed remittent fever and accidental fever. Do 
thou cut off the sufferings (i8 — 19). The diseases of the 
eye, the complaints of the head, diseases of the belly and 
stomach, difficulty of breathing, excessive breathing, burning 
of the body, trembling, diseases of the organ of smelling 
and feet, leprosy, consumption, fistula, all the forms of 
dysentry, diseases of the mouth, chest diseases, stone in the 
bladder, strangury (difficulty in passing urine), diseases of 
the generative organ, gonorrhoea and other dreadful diseases^ 
those originating from the wind, bile and phlegm respec- 
tively and those caused by the derangement of all these three, 
accidental diseases, boils, pustules, Erysepelas— may all these 
disappear on being cleansed by Vasudeva (20—24). May 
ail these be destroyed by the recitation of Vishnu's name ^ 
may all these innumerable ailments be completely done away 
with on being struck by Hart’s discus^ (25}. The recitation 
of the names of Achyuta, Ananta and Govinda destroys aU 
the diseases. Verily, verily do I say so (26). 

The poison of animate beings and inanimate objects, the 
artificial poison, that of the teeth and nails, that of the 
sky, that of the spider and various other insects— may 
all these and various other dreadful poisons be destroyed 
by JanArddana on the recitation of his name (27—28). The 
planets, evil stars, the female goblins, Vetalas, Pishacas, 
Gandharvas, Yakshas, RAkshasas, ^akuni, PutanSL and other 
she-devils, Vaiua i^, I AS, Mukhamandins, the wily Revati, the 
old Revati, the evil planets called Vriddhakas, the Matri- 
Grahas— may the recitatioo of the early life of Vishnu 
destroy all these evil agencies which try to destroy the 
children (29 — 31). May the looks of the Mandion con- 
sume alt these evil agents which infest old age^ hoy- 
hood and 'youth (32). May tte grim-visaged and fa%biy 

* One of the varieties of if^en&ktent ieter whidi has tm paioxysns 




powerful Man-lfoa destroy all these innumerable agents of 
evil and do good to ^the world (32). O man-Iionj O great 
iion, O thou having a garland of fire, O thou of fiery 
mouthy O lord of all, O thou having fiery eyes, destroy 
all these innumerable agents of evil (33). May the Great 
Atman Janlrddana, identical with all, destroy all the 
diseases, the great portents, ail the poisons, ail the evil 
stars, the obnoxious creatures, the bad influence of the 
stars, all the dangers of corn-fields, such as fire, ashes &c. 
( 34 *~ 3 S)- Assuming one of thy forms, do thou destroy all 
these, O Vasudeva, Hurling thy discos Sudarshana engar- 
landed with a dreadful fire, do thou, destroy all evils, O 
Achyuta, O foremost of gods (37 — ^38). O Sudharshana of 
fiery effulgence and great sound, destroy all these evil agents* 
May the demons meet with destruction, O Vibhiskana (39)* 
May the deity Man-lion of terrific roars, identical ^(vitli all 
the quarters, east, west, north and south (40), may the Lord 
Janirddana of many forms protect all the quarters, heaven, 
earth, sky, the rear, sides and the front (41). Vishnu protects 
the entire universe consisting of Devas, Asuras and men. 
May by this fact all the evil agents be put down (42). The 
very remembrance of Vishna immediately dissipates all sins. 
May all the evil agents be similarly suppressed (43}. Visbitu 
is the great ^oul sung in the Vedanta or the gnostic portion 
of the Vedaft may by his power all the evil ‘agents be sup- 
pressed* Vislinvf is lauded by the celestials as the lord of 
sacrifices ; may by bis power all that I say may prove true 
45)» May peace and auspidousaess prevml and evils meet 
with suppression^ i press the Koca reeds originating from 
the petsun Vfisadeva (46)* May Govinda, Nara and 
: Marayaiia deaate tbeui* The redlatiow of Hari’s name 
ttwo^es all nwMies (47). insiraiiieiit of cleansing 

wwids eS sil diseases I am Hari; Vi^nu is the Ku^ reed 
dfaea s e is destroy^ by me 


A.GN 1 said : — In the initiatory rites for attaining 
emancipation an intelligent man should perform forty eight 
Samskaras (purificatory rites). Hear them by practising 
which one becomes a god (i). The ceremony of Garbh4- is performed as soon as the conception takes place, 
then Punsavana, then Seemantonnayana, then j4takarnEta, 
tben Naming ceremony , then Ann4shana, then Cbudtkarana 
and then Brahmacharya. There are (seven) Vratas. (vowed 
observance) the four are Vaishnavi, Parthi, Bhoutiki, and 
Shroutiki. Then the giving of kine, Snatakatwa* and P4ka^ 
yajnat these three make up the seven. 

There are eight Pirvana Sraddhas performed in the: 
months of Sr 4 vana, Agrahlyana, Chaitra and Ashwin. There 
are seven Hariyajnas;t hear their. names; they are Adb4na, 
Agoihotra, Dash| Pournamasaka, Chaturmasya, Pashuvandha 
tod Soutrlmani. Hear of the [seven Somasaixstha, viz the 
foremost of sacrifices Agnisthoma, Atyagnisthoma, UlUai 
Sodasha, Vajapeyaka, Atiratra and Aptayama. There ate 
thousand others. They are Hiranyananghri, Hitanyaksha, 
Hiranyamitra, Hiranyapani, Hemaksha, Hemasutraka, Hi^^ 
nyashwa, Hirany4nga, Hemajihva, Hiranyavan and so forCE. 
Ashwamedha is the king of them all. Hear now of the eight 
virtues ( 8 — 9 ). They are compassion unto all^creatures, forgive- 
ness, simplicity, purity, industry, seeking the welfare of all, 
liberaiityi and want of avarice. A hundred oblations should 
he offered with the principal mantram. These are the Soura, 

* Entering upon the dut^ of a housriiolder alter finishing the Vecfic 
studies wkhin dte prescribed time, 
t A »mple dorae^sc sacrifice. 

i Sacrifices m whkh eblatitm of are ofefed. 



Sakteya and VishmTisha Dikshas. Being purified by these 
purificatory rites a ipan obtains emancipation, enjoyment and 
freedom from ali diseases and lives like a god., By reciting 
the name of, adoring and mediating on the deity one meets 
with well-being (lo — 12). 



Agni said : — I will now describe the Pavit, a-arohana 
(sacred installing) of Hari as well as the fruits of his worship 
all through the year. The first day of a lunar fortnight 
either in the beginning of the month of Ashida or the end-of 
Kartika gives riches (i). Beginning with the second day of 
the lunar fort-night the Adhana ceremony of Shri, Gouri, 
Ganesha, Saraswati, Guha, Mirtanda, the Matri-Durgas, 
Siva and BrabmS should be performed,. That day is sacred 
for a particular deity of which he is fond. The regu- 
lations are the same in the Adhana. ceremony but the 
mantras are different. Making nine folds of a thread made 
of gold, silver, copper, silk or cotton or any other thread 
spun by a Brihmana, well purified, one should perform the 
rite of Pavitraka (consecration). It must be highest one 
hundred and eight (fingers) in length or its half. He should 
Ibeo teaclaiia « O lord 1 'Whatever thou hast sjiid to me lest 
the rite nay not be stopped I have done it for the conse- 
cr^<» ceremony. May there be no impediment here. O 
ford, grant me success (2—7)." He should then 
fe It IB the first part of the circular altar after reciting the 
•oMowine ISayiWtri (sabn^d wrse.) 



Om Narayana Vidtnahe; Vasudeva Diumahi, Tanna Vishnu 
Prachodayat. He should consecrate the knees, thighs, and 
navel of the idol and adorn the feet with a garland of one 
thousand and eight flowers. The garland should be made 
duly thirty two fingers long (8 — lo). In the circular lotus of 
one finger the pericarp, filament, leaf, the first mantram and 
the outer circumference of the circle should be consecrated 
(li). In the altar with fingers, the threads for the self, the 
preceptors and the parents should be consecrated. Twelve 
strings should be consecrated to the end of the navel and a 
similar number of purified scents. Then two garlands should 
be tied with two fingers with the recitation of one hundred 
and eight mantrams (12—13). Then with the ring and 
middle fingers twenty four and thirty six garlands should be 
severally consecrated for the sun. Then with fingers begin- 
ing with the youngest twelve strings should be placed at the 
purified origin of the sun, fire &c as in the case of Vishnu. 
Then the sacrificial thread should be, according to one's 
might, placed in the articles of the worship of Vishnu on the 
altar in the pit encircled by a girdle (14—16), A person, 
who performs ablution and Sandhya, should dye the seven- 
teen strings of thread, divided into three parts, with Rochana 
(yellow pigment), Aguru, camphor, turmeric, red lac or sandal. 
Then in the sacrificial room on the eleventh day of both the 
dark and light fortnights he should adore the Lord Hari 
(17 — 18). He should offer edibles on the altar for his entire 
family. He should offer them to Khetrapala at the end of the 
door and adore Shree on the door. He should then adore 
Dh§ta, Daksha, VidhatS, Ganga, Yamuna, the conch-shell, 
Padma Nidhi and then in the middle his house and then his 
bow. He should then perform the purificatary rite of the 
elements (19—20). 

Om, hum, Has, Phat, Hum, I restrain the subtle particle 
of ^ smell. Salutation. 




Om, Hum, Has, Phat, Hum, I restrain the subtle particle 
of taste. Salutation. 

Om, Hum, Has, Phat, Hum, I restiain the subtle particle 
of colour. Salutation. 

Om, Hum, Has, Phat, Hum, I restrain the subtle particle 
of touch. Salutation. 

Om, Hum, Has, Phat, Hum, I restrain the subtle particle 
of sound. Salutation. 

Drawing up the five vital breaths one should meditate on 
the subtle particle of smell, colour and earth and on the 
presiding god Indra, yellow-hued, holding a strong thu-.der- 
boit within his two feet. He should then restrain the pure 
subtle particle of taste in that of colour and similarly the 
remaining others. 

Om, Hriffl, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
subtle particle of taste. 

Om, Hrim, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the subtle 
particle of colour. 

Om, Hrim, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
subtle particle of touch. 

Om, Hrim, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
subtle particle of sotind. 

In the interstice between his two thighs he should meditate 
on the presiding deity Varuna, holding a white lotus as his 
emblem, white-hued' and crescent-shaped. Drawing up the 
four vital breaths he should ^restrain the pure subtle particle 
of taste in that of colour (21— -24). 

Om, Hum, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
- abtle particle of colour. 

Om, Hwn, Has, Phat, Ham. salnta^n, I reatr^ tjte 
aubile particle of touch, / 

Om, flam, Has, Phat, Hum, salnUtion I restrain tfc' 
stmtie particle of sound. 

Having drawn up the three vital breaths he should 
••^opAe V»nki\m<fn4ala having three Woers, as 


13 * 

weii as on the presiding god of 6re, crimson-coiourd, holding 
an emblera of Swasthika, in his navel. He should then 
immerse the pure colour in the subtle particle of touch. 

Om, Hrim, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
subtle particle of touch. 

Om, Hrim, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation I restrain the 
subtle particle of sound. The circle between throat and 
nostril is the seat of Vayu. Having drawn up the two vital 
breaths he should meditate on the smoky-coloured wind-god 
having the moon for his emblem. Then by means of 
meditation he should restrain the subtle particle of touch by 
that of sound (25—27). 

Om, Hrim, Has, Phat, Hum, salutation, I restrain the 
subtle particle of sound. 

Having drawn up one vital breath he should restrain the 
ether, clear and transparent like glass, on the tip of bis 
nose (28). 

In this way a worshipper should gradually purify his. 
various limbs. He should' meditate on his dry body from the 
tip of the foot to the end of the tuft of hair on the crown 
(29). With the mantram Yam and Vam he should adore the’' 
essence, covered with flames, coming out of the cavity of the 
brain (30I. Having meditated on Vindu be shouid besmear 
rile body with ashes; and then with the mantram lam 
he should convert it into a celesrial body (31). Having 
made NySsa or assignment of the various fingers and parts 
of the body he should practice mental yoga and adore 
Vishnu with all bis limbs in ft lotus of the heart with 
mental flowers (32). T^en with principal mantram he-shonld 
adore the lord of the deities gives enjoyment '^d eniao> 

dparion praying *0 lord of go^, wdcbnt^ unto fliee. O 
Kesfaava, come near nae. Accept my mental adorarioa, jibe 
tene spirit ol which has been thought over hy me.” 


and others, in the senses other impure beings, in Satttra and 
other qualities the lotus, in m 5 y% or avidya (illusion) the 
principle of ftime, the sun and other luminous bodies and 
the king of birds should be adored. Then Vayu and other 
deities of the quarters, the preceptor, Gana, Saraswati, 
Narada, Nalakuvara, the great preceptor and his sandal 
should be adored in the middle. In the filaments the pre- 
vious Siddhis, the after Siddhis, the Saktis, Lakshmi, 
Saraswati, Priti, Kirti, Shanti, Kanti Pushti, Stuti, Mahendra 
and others should be adored. In the middle Hari, Shriti, 
Sliri, Rati and Kanti should be adored. Achyuta should 
be placed with the principal maatram, saying “ Om, have thy 
faces towards me, be thou near me." Having placed Arghya 
and other articles and offered them he should adore him with 
scents, garlands and the prindpal mantram .(35—40). 

“ Om strike terror, strike terror to the heart and head ; 
terrorise it again. Grind the flames of the fires, weapons 
and armours (41). 

Protect, protect, destroy, destroy, salutation to the amulet. 
Om, Hum, phat, salutation to the weapon." 

Then with the principal mantram he should adore the 
limbs. He should first worship the fprm of -Daksha and the 
moon. Vasudeva, Sangkarshana, Pradyumna, Animddha, 
Agni &c, Shri, Dbriti, Rati are the forms of Hari. In the 
east and eastern corners should be adored the conch, discus, 
club and lotus; beyond it the ShrSnga bow, mace, sword and 
the garland of wild flowers. Indra and others, as well as 
Aaanta and Varuna should be adored in the south west 
quarter; BrabmS and ludra in the nortb-east: and their 
weapons in the outside. Airav^, the goat, ' the bnffalpe, 
tte inmikey, the deer, the hair, the bull, the to ■♦oise and the 
swaa shoidd be adored outside. T' . ate-ke^rs, Kumuda 
and others of Krishna, should be adored is at the gates 
east to tlie north. The»« salufSng Hari rme should 
Sajiag “SalulainB lie uttoadantu of 

Ami pmAUAM\ 


Vishnu’’ he should place the edibles ou the sanctified a)tar« 
He should offer adoratiort to Vishwa, Vish^aksena and Ishftna. 
He should then tie the thread of protection in the right hand 
of the deity, saying, “ I have worshipped him for full one 
year. Now salutation unto the sacred rite of installation which 
yeilds consummate fruit 3(42-^50)* He should observe the 
vow of fasting before the deity saying, “ Being engaged iu 
fasting I do propitiate the deity.” May lust, anger and 
other passions not reside in me. O lord of gods, from to- 
day it is the last of them. The observer of vow should 
adore the deity according to his might and perform religious 
rites day and night. Having lauded Vishnu and offered obla-* 
tion to fire in his honor he should perform Visarjana (life- 
destroying rite.) This is the every day mode of worship. 
(The mantram is) *“Om, Hrim, Srim, salutation unto Shri- 
dhara, unto him who enchants the three worlds (52—53).” 


.A.ONI said:— With the following special mantram the 
sacrificial ground should be adorned. 

“Salutation unto the deity Brahmanya, Sfaridhara of 
undecaying self, unto Vishnu whose forms are the Rile, 
Yayush and Saman and whose body is the sound.” 

Having drawn the figure of Mandala or circular altar he 
should collect all the articles of sacrifice (i— * 2 ). Havisg 
was^ied the bead and fingers a mao should take up Argbya 
wfth y$ Servers. He should then sprinkle the head and 
gate-ways with Ai^^ya. He should then begin the sacrifice 
of the gate (Dwitaylga) a&d adore ail the presiding dciUci 



or the doors* Ashwatha (fig-tree), Udumvara, Vata and 
Plaksha are the trees of the east The Rik is the ornament 
of Indra in the west ; the Yayush is the highly auspicious 
one of Yama ; the Sainan is of the water-god and 
Atharvantis of Soma (3— .5). The end of the gate, the flags, 
the lotuses and the two pitchers should be adored in every 
door by their respective names ; and in the east a pitcher 
full of water. He should then adore the guardians of the 
door — the two sons of Ananda, Virasena and Sushenaka in 
Daksha and Sambhava and Prabhava in Soumya. Having 
recited the names of the weapons and scattered flowers he 
should remove all the obstacles. Having performed the 
purificatory rite of the elements as also NySsa one should 
perform Mudra (6—8). Having recited the fire mantram 
terminating with the word Phat he should throw mustard 
seeds on all sides. The urine of the cow should be sanctified 
by VSsudeva, the cow dung by Sangkarshana, the milk by 
Pradyumna, and the curd produced therefrom should be 
dedicated to Nlir^yana. One, two, three or more divisions 
should be made with clarified butter (9—10). When these 
articles are mixed in a vessel of clarified butter it is called 
Pancha-gavya (or five products of a cow). Some of them 
are used for sprinkling the sacred temples and others 
for food (11). Indra and other guardian deities of the 
quarters should be adored in ten pitchers. And they should 
be made to bear the command of adoration. And they 
should be installed by the command of Hari (12). Having 
kept safely all the articles of sacrifice he should scatter 
articles which are inteuded for scattering. Then reciting 
the fMrinetpai manlraui for eight hundred times be should 
take up handfuls of Kugl grass. Having placed a pitcher 
and Vardhaai* fin the north-east quarter he should adore 
Hart mid all his limbs in the pitcher and the weapon in 

^ of a partioilar shape. 



Vardhani. Having gone round the temple of sacrifice and 
sprinkled water in broken drops by the Vardhani he should 
take the pitcher and adore it on a fixed seat (13—15). He 
should adore Hari with scents and other articles in the 
pitcher adorned with five jems and cloth, and on the left 
hand side, his weapon in the Vardhani having gold inside it 
(16). Near him he should adore the presiding goddess of the 
earth and the god of the ground. In the same way on the 
last day of the month he should arrange for the bathing 
ceremony of Vishnu. Having placed in the nine corners 
nine jars full of water he should throw into them water 
for washing feet, Arghya, water for rinsing mouth and five 
gavyas (18). In the jars placed in east, north-east &c 
the five sweet articles should be placed. Curd, milk, honey 
and hot water are the four ingredients for worshipping 
feet (19). Letus and dark-blue grass are the ingredients 
for worshipping the feet of Vishnu’s consort. Barley-seed, 
scents, flowers and Akshata being united with the above 
four make up the eight articles (20). Kuga grass, flowers and 
sessamura seeds are the articles of adoration. He should 
offer water for rinsing mouth together with cloves and berries 
(2X). He should sprinkle the deity with five sweet articles 
reciting t. principal mantram. He should sprinkle purified 
water, from the middle pitcher, on the head of the deity 
(22). With the tip of the Kuga grass, a man should touch 
the water poured from the pitcher. He should offer Padya 
arghya and Achmanas with purified vrater. Having covered 
his limbs with a silk raiment he should take him to the altar. 
There he should adore the sky after restraining ,pill the vital 
airs (23—24). Having washed thrice the hands and the 
marks on the palms going towards the east, those running 
between north and south and those running towards the 
north, and sprinkled them with the arghya water he should 
display YonimudrL Having meditated on the form of Agni 
a man should throw fire into the Y^ni Kunda (well) 

13 ^ 


He should afterwards bring vessels with Kusa, Shruk and 
Shruvas (sacrificial 'ladles) ; and then fuels should be placed 
at an arm’s distance (27). Then the vessel for.pburing clari- 
fied butter as well as that for holding it should be brought. 
Then two rows of rice with faces bent downwards should be 
made (28), Then a Kusa, with its face towards the west, 
should he bent in this vessel for pouring clarified butter. 
Then having meditated on fires consecrated with prayers he 
should adore the deity. Then having filled the quarter 
the pouring vessel and adored it he should consign it to ^he 
south. He should consign ckaru (food) to the fires; he 
should assign Brahma to the south. Having spread Kusa in 
the east he should place the line of circumference (29—31). 
According to the rites of Vishnu a man should perform 
GarbhadbcLna and other rites namely GarbhadhAna, Punsa- 
vana, Simmantannyona, Naming ceremony; and in every 
case he should offer eight oblations. Then with the Suk and 
Shruva (sacrificial ladles) he should offer Purndhuti (the last 
and consummate oblation). Having meditated on Lakshmi, 
in her menses, in the midst of the Kunda (well) he should 
offer an oblation. Prakriti of three gunas or qualities is 
called the presiding goddess of the Kunda (sacrificial well) 
(32 — ^34). Vishnu is the source of all creatures, all forms of 
learning, mantrams and Ganas. Fire is the instrument oi 
emancipation, the great soul and the giver of liberation (35). 
His head is described to be in the east, his arms are placed 
in nortb-east and south-east corners and his two thighs in 
the north-west and south-west. His belly is the Kundala ; 
the organ of generation is made by the same. The three 
gunas are the Mekhalas (girdles). Having tKus meditated 
on the fire he should offer fifteen pieces of sacred fuels with 
musii-mudrs^ after reciting Pranava (Om). Again in the 
vessels of the north-west and south-east corners oblations 

* The femiation of affst* 




•sliotild be offered. And in the north-e^st corner an obla-^ 
tion ot a portion of clarified butter should he offered accom- 
panied with the recitation of the principal nis*:. ram. In the 
north and south he should meditate on the C‘. isecrated fire 
stationed in the middle of a lotus with VyaJiritis, With 
one hundred and eight oblations this form of Vishnu, having 
seven tongues, effulgent like a Kofi of suns, having the 
moon for his face and the sun for his eye, should he adored. 
Then with fifty^eight oblations atid the principal mahtram 
!iis thousand limbs should be adored 


said Having offered the residue of offerings one 
should perform the sacred rite of Adhwasa!^ The secret 
man-lion raantrams should be recited with the weapon (i). 
The clothes covering the vessels as well as articles contained 
in them, should be consecrated with mahtrams, The vessels, 
for pouring clarified ^butter, should be consecrated once or 
twice with hel leaves and mantrams (a). Having placed by 
the pitcher a piece of wood for cleansing the teeth and 
emblic myrobalan and having communicated the news 
thereof a worshipper should have them consecrated through 
Sangkarshana in the east. In the south ashes, sessamum 
seeds, cbw-dnng and earth should be consecrsfted through 
Pradyumna. The western quarter should be assigned to 
Aoiruddha ; the same corner should be assigned to Narayana. 

. The sacrificial grass and water should be assigned to the 

« * 

* Consecratloii cl an linage hdbre the oommancement of 

a sacrxfictaT 



heart. Kumkuraa and Rochan^ should be assigned to the 
fire. In the north-east corner the incense should be assigned 
to the head ; and tuft of hair should be assignedito the south- 
west. The principal celestial dowers should be assigned 
through an amulet to the north-»vest corner. Sandal, water, 
Akshata, curd and Durva-grass, should be placed in cups 
made of leaves (3 — 6). 

Having surrounded the house with three threads he should 
again throw articles conferring Siddki. Then in the order 
of adoration he should offer scents and other sanctifying 
articles accompanied with mantrams at the foot of the gate 
or in the pitcher of Vishnu. 

He should then adore the beautiful spirit of Vishnu's 
energy destructive of all sins, saying “ I hold on thy limbs, 
the deity who grants all desired-for objects.” Then worship, 
ping him with incense, lamps, &c., he should approach the 
gate-way (7—9). He should then offer holy scents, flowers, 
and [fried, grain, saying— " For achieving virtue, desire and 
worldly profit, I do hold on my limbs the sacred energy of 
Vishnu destructive of all sins.” He should then offer sancti- 
fled articles to the other members of the family and the 
preceptor. Having worshipped him with scents and flowers 
saying— "May these scents, flowers and fried grain be 
converted into the energy of Vishnu” ; he should dedicate 
them to Hari (10—12). Having offered those articles to 
him stationed in the fire the worshipper should pray to 
the deity, [Saying] :— 

“ Thy body lies in a bed upheld by a huge serpent in 
the ocean of milk. I worship thee in the morning, come 
■ear me, O KeiAava.” Then having offered offerings te 
In^ and c^er gods he should dedicate them to the 
^teoda^ of Vishoo (13—14), Then be should place a 
p^er ia front of the deity covered with two pieces of cloth. 
It ahopid be fiUed with water mixed with Rochana (a kind 
el ydtew %aMat) camfrfior aod saSros, Having gone to the 



door o{ the Mandala be should place in due order in the three 
Mandalaf, the five gavyast charu and Wood for cleansing 
teeth. By lisCening to the recitation of the Puranas, recit- 
ing the hymns, keeping up nights, by maidens, women, and 
objects of enjoyments, one, without holy scents, performs the 
rite of AdhivSsa (13—18). 


J^Lgni said r^Haviog; bathed in the morning and wor- 
shipped the gate-keepers the worshipper should enter the 
secret room and collect and place all the articles, raiments, 
ornaments and scents offered previously in the AdhivSsa 
ceremony. And having removed the remains of the offerings 
he should place the [image of the] deity ajd worship it with 
five sweet articles, silk raiments, purified scents and water# 
He should next offer cloth, scents and flowers as offered pre- 
viously in the AdhivSsa rite. Then having offered oblations 
to the fire, he should offer the daily prayers to the deity and 
bow unto him. Having performed [these preliminary rites] 
be should offer to the deity Naimittika* adorations (1-^4). 

He should thus pray [to Hari for consecrating the gate- 
keepers, Vishnu pitchers and Vardhanis. With the principal 
mantram and the following be should consecrate the pitcher* 

"O Krishna, O Krishna, salutation unto thee.- For puri- 
fying all accept this purified article capable of yielding ite 
fruits of the year and adoration. Do thou purify all the sins 
that had been committed by me. O God, O ford of the 
celesitals, by thy favour I will be purified/* Tbcn ^riaUtag 

* Au flcnational diet a pcriofical cecemony* 



his oWDsetf with the purified water as welt the pitcher et 
Vishnu he should go near the deity (5 — ^8). 

He should then offer to his purified self the tie o^ safety^ 
praying : — O lord, take this Brahma thread that had been 
made by me, sq that the accomplishment of my religious 
rite may not be vitiated by any imperfection." 

He should next offer purified water to the gate-keepers 
and the leading preceptors (9—10). Garlands of forest 
flowers should be next offered to the younger deities* Then 
all the purified articles should be offered to the heart, 
Vishwaksena and others (ii). Having offered oblations to 
the fire he should offer the purified presents to Vishnu and 
others stationed near the fire. Afterwards be should offer 
PurnahuH which is the root of the expiation of sins (12)* 
[The prayer is :— •] 

thou having Garuda for thy emblem, with one hundred 
and eight or five Upanishadas, with garlands of pearls and 
sapphires and MandSra flowers this thy annual adoration 
is made. As, O god, thou dost carry always on thy breast 
the Kaustava jem «md the garland of forest flowers so do 
thou carry thb sacred thread and adoration on Ihy breast. 
Willfully or unwilfully whatever regulation I have practised 
in thy adoration it has been perfected by the rite shorn of 

Having offered this prayer, bowed unto "him and secured 
forgiveness be should put the purified article on his head 
(15—16). Having offered edibles dedicated to Vishnu in the 
south he should please his preceptor and the Vipras by offer- 
ing ibem food and clothes either for a day or for a fortnight 
(ly). Havihg gone into the water at the liine /of bathing he 
should offer il^'purifi^ article there. He should then him- 
seif o^ntmnaUy ^dislrflnite food amongst the htmgry (18). 
Halving wordUpped fire, in the Vtsa^ana cereaaony ^ooid 
de&mle purified i^licles and say Having thus duly per- 
tmimi my adp^qai ^ i|domed| 

14 * 


to the holy region of Vishnu.” In the. middle he should' 
adore Somesha and Vishwaksena. nuving adored the puri- 
fied articles he should, dedicate them to the Brabmanas. 
According to the Qumber of purified articles offered he should 
live gloriously for thousand^ of Ifugas in the region of 
Vishnu. Having placed his fantiify, ten generations before 
and a hundred after, ia Ute region of Vishnu be should hiin- 
seif Mquirc rever,eDtial faith (^9-7-22). 


.AlGHI said Hear in brief- the hol« ^*-oiana rite ot aif 
the deities. He should first of all purify all the necessary 
articles (l). Then approaching tne Creator of universe with 
all the members, of bis fam^X he should say “ I invite inee— 

I dedic^ these pure articles, unto. thee. SalutatipO Ufito 
thee, Q creator of the universe. Do thou 'hpcept these 
purified articles. O thou the master of those conversant, in 
the Vedas-rl makelthjd tbr annual adorattoq with garlands 
of oearls and sapphires and Mandfira fioirers. (2— ci. Having 
duly peirfprmed this mv annual adoration^ go. O purified 
article, well, adorned, to heaven. Salutation ontp thee, 
tl ^{ui . accept this ourified article (6). 0 Shiva, salutaficiO 
antp tihee, accept, this ourified artide. qomerring the fnnts 
of-the Tear atuLadondion, for purifying all (7). O Ganesfar 
wara, aalntation unto thee, accept this purified article cop^.. 
ferriagt^ f'”:ts of the year and selorapop for pujrifymg. 
iB ^ ' Sal^^B opto diee. Q gftddmi? j#akM, dp then 
accept shtf pu ri fied artide. conferring ti}e fruits ot, the. Tea?. 
i|d aU. Fof 



dedicate unto thee this most excellent thready identical with 
NArlyana and Aniruddha; which gives the fruits^ of the 
season and adorationj wealth, crop, longevity aad freedom 
diseases. I dedicate unto thee this most excellent thread 
identical with KAmadeva and Shangkarshaoa which gives 
learning, offspring and good luck. I offer unto thee, this 
thread identical with Visudeva which gives religious profit 
and emancipation and which is the instrument in crossing the 
deep of the world. I confer on thee this thread identical with 
the universal form, which gives all, destroys sins and saves 
die past and future generations. With mantrams he should 
gradually dedicate it to four younger deities (10^14). 


j^GN! said I will now describe the fruits of making 
temples for the residence of VAsudeva and other deities. 
He who attempts to erect temples for gods is freed from 
of a thousand births (i). Those who think of building 
a temple in their minds are freed from the sins of a hundred 
births. Those, who approve of a man’s building a temple 
for Krbfana, freed from sins, repair to the region of Achyuta. 
Having desired to build a temple for Han a man immediately 
taims a mallkm of bis generations, past and future, to the 
f^^gioii of Vishnm The de|iarted manes, of the person who 
builds a ien^ie for Kmbna, freed from the stiff Ariogmf hell 
weff fdomedt five ia the jregba of Vidinu. The cons- 
^ m tenq^ for a daily dissipates even ffiema of 
Wf biAdtag a Imple one re^ fie 
be do«^ aet even by ce^bcn^Ns a ftr 


the sacred shrines (6). The construction of a temple, which 
gives heaven, by a religious or an irreligious man, yeilds the 
fruit reaped’hy oersons slain in a battle unaertaKen on behalf 
of the celestials (7), By making one temple one goes to 
heaven ; by making three one goes to the region of Brahmi ; 
by making five one goes to the region of Shambnu ; by 
making eight one goes to the region of Hari (8). By 
making sixteen-one attains all obiects of enjoyment and 
emancioation. liy making the biggest, middling ani smallest 
temples of Hari one in order acquires heaven, the region of 
Vishnu and emancipation. A poor man, by building a 
smallest tempie, reans the same oenetit which a rich man does 
by buildityg a biggest temple for Vishnu. Having acquired 
riches aid built a temple with a small portion of it a person 
acquires piety and gets boons from Hari, By making a 
temple with a lakh of Rupees, or a thousand, or a hundred 
or fifty a man goes where the Garuda-emblemed deity 
resides. He who, in his child-hood, even sportively makes a 
temple of VAsudeva with sand, repairs to his r^ion. He 
who builds temples of Vishnu at sacred places, shrines and 
hermitages, reaps three-fold fruits. Those, who decorate the 
temple of Vishnu with scents, flowers and sacred mud, repair 
to the city of the Lord. Having erected a temple for Hari, a 
man, j^either fallen, about to fall or half-fallen, reaps two fold 
fruits. He who brings about the fall of a man is the protector 
of one fapen. By making a temple for Vishnu one attains to 
his region. As long as the collection of bricks of Hari’s 
temple exists the founder of his family lives gloriously in the 
region '"of VishnUt He becomes pious and adorable both in 
this world and in the next (2—19). 

He who builds a temple for Krishna, the son of Vasudeva^ 
is bom as a man of good deeds and his family is purtfi^ 
io). .Hh who builds teai{d^ f<» Vwhnu, Rudt^^tbe sun-god 
md other deiUi^ f^uires fame. What is the use of weaWk 
liU Jim which h hoarded 19 by %aeniiit mea? (ai). Hat* 



iis's is the acquisition of hb riches, who, with hard named 
money, does not* have a tertpln built for Krishpa, whose 
wealth is not enjoyed by the Pitris, Brahinanas>, the celestials 
tnd friends. As death Is certain unto men so is his destruc- 
tion (ai — 23). The man, Ivho does not fepend his money for 
bis enjoyments or in charities and keeps it hoarded up, is 
stupid and is fettered eveii whfen alive (24). What is his 
merit who, obtaining riches eittihr b]^ kn accident or by 
manliness, does not spend it for a gloriods work bt for religion 
(^ 5 )- [What is his merit] who hatring giveh away his 
Wealth unto the leading twice-born, makes his gift circulated 
or who speaks more than he gives aWay in charities (^6) ? 
Therefore, a wise man should have temples built for Vishnu 
and other deities. Having entered the region of Hari he 
acquires reverential faith in Narottama {27). He pervades 
all the three worlds containing the mobile and immobile,* the 
past, future and present,: gross, Subtle and all the inferior ob- 
jects. Frpm Brahrtia to a pillar every thing hkk originated 
from ViShnb. Having obtained entrance into the region of 
the Great Soul, Vishnu, the omnipresent God of gods a man 
b not horn again on eslrth. 

By building temples for other gods a man* reaps the same 
fruit which he does by building one for Vishnu {28—30)* 
By building temples for Shiva, BrahmS, the, sun, Chandi and 
Lakshmi one acquires religious merit. Greater merit ill 
Squired by instaUing images (31), In the sacrifice atten- 
dant upon the setting up of aft idol thbre is fto end of fruits. 
Gae made of wood gives greater merit than What is made of 
olay ; one made of bricks yields greater than a wofoden one. 
One made of stonei yields greater than what b made of bricks, 
lisages j 4 ade ol gold and other metals yield the greatest 
*lre%h^ aserk. acenmuiated in sevefn births mre 

sipated even the eamftienceftleftt (32-7-33). Oee 
hiding ateinpfe goeu to heaven he ii^ver* 

iklkd Me hundtedar MriamiHr4e bAeelheektft 



the region of Vishnu {34). * Yama said to his emissaries 
** Do not bring to hell persons who have built temples and 
adored idols (35). Bring those to my view who have not 
built temples. Range thus rightly and follow my com- 
mands (36). 

** Persons can never disregard your commands except 
those who are under the protection of the endless Father of 
the universe (37). You should always pass over those persons 
who have their minds fixed on the Lord. They are not to 
live here {38). You should avoid them from a distance who 
adore Vishnu (39). These, who sing the glories of Govinda, 
those, who worship Janarddana with daily and occasional 
rites, should be shunned by you from a distance (40). They, 
who attain to thar station, should not be even looked at by 
you. The persons, who adore Him with flowers, incense, 
raiments and favourite ornaments, should not be marked by 
you. They go to the region of Krishna. Those, who besmear 
the body (of Vishnu) with unguents, who sprinkle his body, 
should be left in the abode of Krishna. Even a son or any 
other member, born in the family of one who has built a 
temple of Vishnu, should not be touched by you (41-43). 
Hundreds of persons, who have built temples of Vishnu with 
wood or stone, should not be looked at by you with an evil 
mind (44).” 

By building a golden temple one is freed from all sins. 
He, who has got a temple' built for Vishnu, reaps the great 
fruit which one does by celebrating sacrifices every day. By 
building a temple for the Lord he . takes his family, a 
hundred generations past and a -hundred to come, to the 
region of Achyuta. Vishnu is identical with the s^ven 
worlds. He, who builds a temple for hifn^^ saves the 
endless worlds and himself attains to immortality. As long 
as the. bricks will last, the maker (of the temple) will 
live for so many thousand years in heaven. The maker 

the idol attains to the region of Vishnu, and he who coo; 




series the installation of the same is immersed in Hari. 
The person who builds a temple and an image as well as he 
who consecrates them come before him (45 — ^49). 

This rite of Praihtha (installation) of Hari was related 
by Yama. For creating temples and images of the deities 
Hayasirsha described it to Brahma (50}. 



Havagriva said -O Brahman, hear me speak about 
the consecration of the images of Vishnu and other gods (i). 
I have already dealt with the principles of Pancharatra* and 

♦ The word Ratra signifies knowledge, and the Narada Pancharatra^ 
which is one of the standard religious works upholding the principles 
of the ?ancharatra School of philosophy, defines the term as meaning 
the sum total of the five distinct sorts of knowledge we have, of the 
external world through our senses- 


!t may be safely asserted here that Vatsnavisni owes Its origin to [this 
school of philosophy, which with the aid of several subsequent 
of an artide of fmth or practice from the sister schools, has 
the nature and formation of its namesake in modern times. Sankara- 
fAatya. once goestioiwd the soundness and orthodosyof the tenets << 
Paafhaaatn sdiool. and even s^tempted to prove their iacoiBpat9)di^ 
with the principles of the Vedas. 

iFi* Sarirafc &«ra^2-2-43, *-2*44i and 2-425,) 



SaplarStra schools of philosophies which are classed by the 
Munis under twenty-five different heads as discussed in the 
following books or Tantras, viz., i the Haya^irsa Tantram, 
which is the first and original book of the PancharStra school, 
2 the Trailokya Mohun Tantram, 3 the Baibhabura 
Tantram, 4 the Pouskaram Tantram, 5 the Prahlad Tan- 
tram, 6 the Garga, 7 the Galabum, 8 the Naradya Tantram, 
9 the 5^ampracnum Tantram, 10 the Sandilya Tantram, 
II the Vaishvakam, 12 the Svatatum, 13 the Shounakum 
Tantram, 14 the Vashistam, 15 the Gayansagar Tantram, 
16 the Shaimbhubam 17 the Kapil Tantram 18 the Tarksa 
tantram, 19 the NArayanikum, 20 the Atrayaiim, 21 the 
Narasinha Tantram, 22 the Anandaksa, 23 the Arun 
Tantram, 24 the Boudhyan Tantram, 25 the Arsam or 
the Bicvoktam tamtram which is a synopsis of the 
preceding one (2). Only a Brahmin of the Madhya Dega 
and such like places shall officiate in and perform the conse- 
cration ceremony, and the Brahmins of Cutch, Kayari, Kan- 
kan, Kamrup, Kalinga Cachi, Cashmere and Kosala shall 
not take any part therein. The earth, wind, fire, water and 
the sky (ether) are known as Pancharatras or the objects of 

Ramanuja however, held a contrary view, and quoted slokasfrom the 
Mahabharata and other tantras to show that not only the Pancharatra 
school embodies within itself the highest principles of Indian Spiritua- 
lism, but that it is quite in harmony with the revelations of the Vedas 
like the Sankhya philosophy which too was denounced by Sankara on 
account of its heterodoxy— 

irarmf triwi w 1 

w ra ^ masud w 1 



knowledge acquired through the five senses ot man (2-— 7), 
A Brahmin of that country (Madhya Dega), with his spiritual 
consciousness darkened by illusion, and tho-ugh otherwise 
deficient in his knowledge of the Pancharatra or the 
five proper sensibles of man, shall deem himself Bramha 
or the resplendent Vishnu (8). And he is to be looked 
upon as the Guru (preceptor) and the master of all the 
Tantras though otherwise bereft of the necessary virtues and 
attributes. The image of a god shall be consecrated with 
its face towards the city and never with its back turned upon 
the same (9). In Kurukestra, Gaya or in places adjoining 
the banks of rivers the image of Bramha should be in the 
centre of the town, the beautiful representation of Indra 
being to the east thereof (lo). The images of Agni, Matris, 
Bhuts and Jama shall be placed in the south-easterly quar- 
ter of a town, and those consecrated to the Pitris, Daityas 
and Chandika shall be in the south. The temples of Varuna, 
and Varuni shall be located in the south-westerly direction, 
while those dedicated to VSyu or (wind) and the Naga 
shall be in the north-westerly quarter. The temples of 
Yaksha and Guha are to be erected in the north, while those 
of Chandisha and Mahesh shall have their locations towards 
the north-east, the tenaples of Vishnu occupying sites in 
any direction whatever (ii— 13). A temple of a god should 
not be knowingly so curtailed, increased or be made equal 
in size or so built as to encroarch upon the grounds pre- 
viously consecrated to anothar. Under the circumstances a 
learned man shall leave a space intervening, measuring twice 
( the elevated area of the said two temples and shall cause a 
new temple to be erected instead of curtailing the areas of the 
two (14). After having purified the earth, the consecrator of 
the temple shall take possession of the ground (15). And shall 
cause the offer ing known as BhiAahtdi to be made all ^ong 
the area up to the smtoundi^ wall, the component parts of 
the offering betag, card;, powdbr, barley, fried paddy, Mas 

» ' ’ ''i* ’‘I* ^ ^ 



(a sort of kidney beam) and powdered roots of turmeric (l6)- 
Then barley powders shall be cast in all the eight directions 
accompanied^ by the mantram, known as Asiaksarz, and 
then the following prayer is to be read aloud. '' Let all 
those Rakshasas and Pichasas who dwell in the earth, depart, 
that I may prepare this place for the God Hari. Then the 
oxes shall be yoked to the plough and the land will be 
ploughed (17 — 18). Eight Paramanus make one Ratharanu, 
Eight Ratharanus make one Tasraranu. Eight Tasraranus 
make one Balagram. Eight Balagrams make one Likhya. 
Eight Likhyas make oxit yuha* Eight yukas make one Java 
Madhyama. Eight Javas make one Anguli, Twenty-four 
Angulis rnalc^. one ; one kara and four Angulis make 
one Pad^a Hastaka (19)- 


X HE God said In the former limes there was that 
material principle dangerous to behold. The gods cast him 
down into the terrestrial globe and he is known as the Vistu 
Purusha (i)* 1“ mystic diagram known as Mandal, and 

which is divided into sixty -four small squares, worship and 
propitiate the God Isha on the head of the Vdstu Purusha, in 
the first half of the corner of the first rectangular division, with 
clarified butter and sun-bnrnt rice and after him propitiate 
and worship the god Parjanya (the god of rainliwho occu- 
pies one such whole rectangular division ( 2 ). Propitiate and 
worship the god Jayanta, who occupies two such rectan- 
gular cbEmbeis with water and lotus fiowerst the god 



Mahendra who occupies one such whole little square, with 
banner, and worship and propitiate the sun god in the cham- 
ber of the diagram known as Sarvarahta 1‘rom its being 
coloured all red (3). Worship and propitiate the god of 
Truth, who occupies only the half of such a chamber, with 
sacrificial offering, and with a copious quantity of clarified 
butter in the next room, reckoned in due succession, and the 
sky-god (byoma)in the half of the corner chamber, with bird^s 
flesij (4}, Worship and propiteate the god Vanhi (Fire) in the 
bail chamber, with a sacrificial laddie, and the god Pusa 
with fried paddy, the god Vitatha (Untruth) in the next two 
adj-.cent chambers, with gold and a churn and home grown 
sun-dried rice (5). Worship and propiteate the god Dharmesh 
in the two chambers with meat and rice from boiled paddy, 
and the Gandharva occupying two such rectangular divisions, 
with perfume and bird^s tongue (6). Propitiate and wor- 
ship (Jagna), occupying both the upper and lower halves 
of a similar rectangular division, with a piece of blue cloth, 
the Pitris, who firstly occupy the half of a mandal- 
chamber, with a dish composed of milk, sessamum and rice, 
and then in the next entire room, with the small branches 
of a tree used as tooth brushes (7). Worship and propitiate 
the two door keepers or porters Sugriva and Puspadanta, 
and to whom the next two chambers of Jthe diagram are 
held sacred, with Javak and a bundle of barley ; and the 
god Varuna (Neptune) in the next entire and adjoining 
room with lotus flowers (8). Worship and propitiate the 
Asura with wine in the next two chambers, the serpent god 
Shesa with water and clarified butter in the next adjoining 
one, the spirit of sin with barley in the one-halt of the next 
room, and the Disease in the other half with munda (a kind 
of liquid preparation) (9). Worship and propitiate Naga in 
the next chamber, with flowers known by the name of Naga- 
pt&pa aad the chief of the Nagas whose place is in the 
next two chambers with edibles, the Vallaia with kidney 



in and rice (from boiled paddy) in the next room, antf 
the moon with the same sacrificial subhstance in the one 
adjacent thereto (10). Worship and propitiate the two 
Rtshis with honey and ‘"'Payasha** (a sort of porridge com- 
posed of rice sugar and milk boiled together), Diti with 
annointing in the whole of the next chamber, Aditi in 
the half of the next and in the entire whole of the adjoin- 
ing one (il). Propitiate Apa with milk and cake, in the 
chamber below one situate at the north east corner, and 
Apavatsa with curd, in the room below that of Apa (l2)* 
Propitiate Marichi in the four eastern chambers with balls 
of sweet-meat, and the god Savitri with red flowers in the 
corner chamber below one situate at the Brahma corner (13), 
In the half chamber below offer water and Kusha grass 
to Savitri and red sandal paste to Vivasvan, in the next 
four chambers of the diagram (14). Offer rice with turmeric 
to Indra in the chamber below; one situate at the south- 
west corner of the Mandal and rice and clarified butter 
to Indrajay in the corner room below that (15). Treacle 
and Payasha (a composition of rice sugar and milk boiled 
together) should be offered to Indra in the four chambers 
and boiled meat to Rudra in the chamber, below ^one situate 
at the north west corner (16). In the corner chamber below 
that, offer wet fruits to Yaksha, and rice, meat and Mas (a sort 
of kidney bean) to Mahidhar (17). Offer Til (sessamuna orien- 
tale) and rice to Bramh^ in the chamber at the centre 
of the diagram, Mis and clarified butter to ^Charuki and 
garland and Krisara (a dish composed of rice and milk) 
to Skanda (i8). Red lotuses, gourd, fruits and rice (from 
boiled paddy) should be offered to Kandarpa ; Putani should 
be propitiated with fruits and biles, while the offering made 
to Jamvaka should consist of meat and blood (19). Appease 
with blood, biles and bones. Off^r blood, and garland^to 
Pilipanja, meat and blood to Isha and other gods of his class 
in absence whereof the sacrifice should consist of sun-dried 



rice only (20). Offer sacrifices in due order to the Matrisj 
Pishachas, Pitris and Ksetrapalas; edifices of gods should 
not be consecrated without first propitiating and offering 
sacrifices to the afore mentioned spirits and demi-gods, after 
which Hari, Laksmi and Ganas should be worshipped at the 
spot consecrated to and set apart for Bramha in the mystic 
diagram which is known by the name of Bramhasthan 
(21). Offer in the central pitcher the final and crowning 
oblation to Brahma and other deities presiding over the 
different quarters of the firmament, and a pitcher together 
with a small jar filled with water to the god Maheswar who is 
the guardian deity of all homesteads. After having performed 
all these, ^nake obeisance and utter the mantras of benedic- 
tion. PAi^^the small water jar round the mandal^Xtt drop 
jets of water along the border lines of the diagram and sow 
along them the seven sorts of seeds used in the sacrificial 
ceremonies as before (22—^25). Begin that way the com- 
mencement of that excavation and make a hole in the centre 
one cubit deep (26). Make hole smooth the to the width of 
four fingers, contemplate and worship the four-handed Vishnu 
and offer Argha (oblation) to him from the pitcher (27). 
Fill in the majestic conch shell called Daksinavarta with 
water out of the small jar, put white flowers into the same 
and fill in the same with earth and sedds (28). After having 
performed the above Arghadtn ceremony, make presents 
to the Guru (the priest performing and officiating at the cere- 
mony etc.,) of cows and clothes and worship the Vaisnavas and 
the sculptors who are well-versed in astronomy (29). After 
tliat carefully make excavations until the water is reached* 
A Shaiya lying underneath the god Vishnu ceases to exert 
any baneful influence A skeleton Shaiya rends asunder 

I (^letem A badman a pernideus being or any other 
etahc substance lying underneath the soil and supposed to 
ji influence. 


. 1^3 

the walls of a house, and the happiness of the inmates there- 
of; and the Shalya is to be ascribed tc the being whose 
name is heard. 


The God said : — I shall speak to you about the conse- 
cration of the foundation of a divine edifice, and also about 
the ceremonies attendant upon the lying down of the foun- 
dation stone. The temporary sacrificial shed shall be raised 
at first, and four receptacles shall be excavated therein for 
holding the sacrificial fire (i). The placing of bricks, and 
pitchers full of water, shall be carefully attended to, and the 
doors and pillars of the blessed sacrificial shed shall he erect- 
ed and finished. The excavation between the padas and the 
central circle of the mandal, shall be tilled up to the limit of 
the former, and the Bastupurusha shall be worshipped at 
the same time. The Bricks shall measure twelve fingers in 
length*, with a breadth and width of four fingers respectively, 
and shall be well burnt (2 — 3). Bricks, measuring a cubit in 
length, are to be looked upon as the best ; and they can be 
cut of stone, where stone slabs are used in stead. Nine 
Ghatas or copperpitcbers and bricks shall be placed, and the 
bricks shall bev laid upon the eaith, being poured over with 
pure water, water saturated with a composition known as 
Pancha-Kasayeif and water containing solution of Sarbou- 
sadbi and sandaipaste. You shall besmear the bricks with 
sandaipaste, and shall shatter over the same the seeds of the 
golden Brihigrass, and shall thrice otter the purifying 
saantras begining with Apciisia^ Shanno Devi, Taralsaman- 
diri Pabamanij Udatamani Varuoami Kayanash Varunasyati 




mantram, Hansa and the mantra known as Srisukta, After 
having placed the bricks and the pitchers with these mantras, 
worship the God Hari in a bed, in the Eastern part of the 
mystic diagram (mandal), and light up the the sacrificial fire 
and offer oblation to the god Agni with twelve pieces of 
samid (br;inches of sacrificial trees) (4 — 9). The Ag^arajya 
(the quarter residue of the sacrificial clarified butter after 
dividing the same into four parts in the sacrificial pot, three 
quarter of which can be offered as oblations without purifica- 
tion) shall be purified with the pranab mantra (Om), and the 
eight oblations, and subsequent to that, eight oblations of 
clarified butter will be given with the mantras known as 
Byaritis (10). After that, offer oblation in fire to the gods 
Lokesha, Agni, Soma, Abgraha and Purusottama with the 
Byariti mantras (ir). After that the guru or the Brarohin 
performing and ofiSciating at the sacrificical ceremony, shall 
perform the Pryaschitta, (ceremony for the expiation of sins) 
facing ,the Eastern quarter of the firmament, in the eight 
pitchers, and shall separately spatter black Tils (sesamum 
orientaie) in all the eight directions, soaked in clarified 
butter, and shall place pitcher and a brick in the centre, and 
invoke therein the following celestial emblems and aninaals 
viz., the Padma^ Mahapadma^ Makar, (a kind of sea animal) 
Kacchap (tortoise), Kumadam, Nanda, Padma, Sankhya and 
Padmini (14— 15). The pitchers must not be removed, and 
a brick is to be immersed into of those eight pitchers, 
starting with the pitcher to the east of the Mandal, and ^ 
ending with one situate at the north east corner thereof 
The [Sakti (personifications of divine energy) Biraala and her 
companions are the presiding deities of the aforesaid bricks, 
and each one of them is to be invoked in her proper pitcher, 
the Safeti Anugraha being invoked in the central one (i6). 
The priest, who is- the inhabitant of that excellent country 
Madhyadesha, shall cause the bricks to be immersed with 
iht foUowing mantras. 



Oh thou Brick— the beautiful, full-bodied and youthful 
daughter of the Angira j — r.establish thee,— grant me 

my desired obje ct ; and with this he shall carefully excavate a 
hole in the centre, twelve fingers wide and-;four fingers deep, 
and place the pitcher in the midst thereof, the hole with the 
pitcher in it, standing as it were for the impregnated womb 
of the whole project. Invoke the goddess Padmini over the 
pitcher, and in the said womb or (hole), place loose earth, 
flowers, gems and iron, and invoke the arms of Dikpati 
therein (17—20). Worship the earth-goddess in a lotus- 
shaped copper receptacle as following— 

Oh thou the absolute mistress of all animal beings I — god- 
dess for whose thrones, the mountains hold up their decorated 
summits, be thou impregnated mother whose dominions are 
guarded by the seas ! Be thou glad with all the Vasus 
(a class of demi-gods) and all the people inhabiting thee. 
All glory to thee goddess, who once knew the Rishi Vasishta 
as her lord, and who once formed the property of Bhargaba, 
and who givest all glory to men her oSsprings f Goddess 
perfect in thyself, and who once was in the possession of 
Angira, dost thou grant me my hearths desire {21 — 22) ! Fill 
my mind with bliss, mother blissful— Thou who possessest 
all seeds, all gems, and all cereals within thyself (24). Glory 
to thee thou gladsome goddess of colour and beauty ! thou 
who art the daughter of the God of creation, and whose 
bosom appears so very smooth and flat to the onlookers ! stay- 
est thou here in bliss — thou goddess, of majesty (25) ! Stayest 
thou in this house thou blissful beautiful, goddess of wonder 
and mystery, bedecked with scented garlands — Thou who art 
ever resplendent and everywhere worshipped j Stay in bliss 
in this room, and give us plenty and progress more and more, 
—thou whom the gods, the kings and the patriarchs of families 
simultaneously possess. Increase the progeny of Jbrutes for 
the comforts of man \ Saying this he must pour into the 
bole the urine of cow 1 {26—28). After that put down the 



bricks jems etc, which (form the contents of the womb as it 
were) into the hole (which stands for the womb) and the 
impregnation will take place in the night. Give cows and 
clothes to the Gurit{iht officiating priest) and feasts to the 
other people (29). After the throwing down of the bricks 
etc, "into the hole, the same is to be filled up. Make excava- 
tions commensurate with the length of the divine edifice (30). 
A Pithabandha (excavation) which is more than half the 
breadth of the edifice, is to be deemed as the best, a quarter 
less than that measure is middling, while that which is half of 
the first kind, occupies the lowest place in ths scale of merit 
(31). After making excavation; perform the Vastujag once 
more. The person who performs the consecration ceremony of 
the foundation stone, is purged off of all sins and resides in 
Heaven in perfect felicity (32). The bodily sin of the man is 
destroyed, the very day he forms the resolution of a building 
an edifice for the Gods, it being superfluous to describe the 
virtues of those who have duly built and consecrated such 
structures. It is beyond the power of man, to enumerate all 
the merits which a person acquires in the eyes of Heaven, by 
raising a divine building, though not composed of more than 
eight bricks, and the proportionate merit of building a divine 
palace may be accordingly inferred from the above fact (33-— 
35 S A divine edifice, built in the central or eastern part of 
a village, shall have doors opening on the west, and in all 
other angular quarters of the heaven, such houses shall face 
the west, while those erected in its northern, southern or 
western parts shall face the east. 


Havagriba said ; — Hear me speak about the construc- 
tion of a divine palace. A plot of square ground is to be 
divided into sixteen equal rectangular divisions (i). The 
four central squares of which are to be filled up with 
iron, the remaining twelve being left for the walls to be 
raised upon. The plinth shall extent over four such quadri- 
lateral spaces, and the height of the wall shall be twice that 
cf its length. The cornice shall begin at this point and 
an open platform having the quarter breadth of the space 
enclosed between the plinth and the cornice shall be raised all 
round the edifice. Two equal openings having the same width 
as the latter, shall be left on the two sides for exits (2—4)* 
The ground elevation, is to be made at first, equal to the length 
of the roof, or twice that length, as the law of beauty may 
require (5). In front of the palace, and on the lines 
running parallel through the sides of its inner chamber, 
construct the structure known as Mukha Mandap, or the 
Entrance hall, adorned with pillars and being of the same 
length with, or longer than the principal palace by the length 
of a fada ; and build the anti-chamber known as Paschta- 
mandap some 8l padas or steps from the site of the prin- 
cipal habitation. Worship the parrots at the front-door, 
the gods at the back exit, and the thirty-two Antagas in the 
surrounding wall. This is the genera! rule which prevails 
in most places about the rearing up of the divine edifices. 
Now I shall speak to you, about another so?t of palace, 
built according to the measure of the image installed 
therein (6—9). The blessed stool or Pindika is to be con-^ 
structed, of the proportionate measure with the image, the 
adytum of the temple will be half of the Pindika, the walls 
shall have the width equal to the length of the adytum, 



height will be equal to the length of the wall, and the 
top or the pinnacle shall have double the height of the 
wall (lo — ii). The walk around the temple shall measure 
quarter of the height of the pinnacle, and the entrance 
chamber or the Muka Mandapa shall be comprised of 
the same measure and shall be in the front (12). The 
eighth part of the Adytam shall be set apart, for opening 
exits for litters etc., which shall be three in ni’mb;er, 
and are to be placed under the three arches, on the 
left side of the temple (13). Four lines are to be flung 
upward from the spring lines for the construction of the 
vault. The keystone is to be ascertained, and a lion is 
to be built over the middle part of the vault, in the same line 
with the keystone. Tbi lion is not to be represented in a 
drooping posture, nor is he to be made very fierce looking. 
Lay down two such strings or lines at the sides. On the 
top of the vault construct a little platform or top chamber 
known as Badi, which shall have a length equal to twice 
its breadth, and put upon the same the conical ornament 
generally placed over the pinnacles, of temples and known as 
Kalasha {14 — 18). Put the two globes over the Kalasa, to- 
gether with the auspicious branches and circles of metal 19). 
The images of Chanda and Prachanda are to be carved 
into the door-frame, and they shall occupy the quarter part 
thereof {20). In the globe over the Kalaslia, carve the image 
of the goddesses Lakshmi as an extremely beautiful maiden 
sitting upon a lotus-flower, and the Dik-gajas (celestial ele* 
phants who reside in the different quarters of the heaven) 
pouring water over ber, out of the pitchers raised with their 
tmnlcs (u). 'The height of the walls surrounding the palace 
will be equal to the quarter part of the latter, while the 
mr the principal gate will be less than the same in 
in height by a pada. A divine image measuring five cubits 
shall have a pedestal measuring a cubit only. A mandap 
or shed known as Garnda mandap shall be raised in the 



front, and eight turreta or pinnacles shall be raised over tlie 
vault on the head of the image one in ‘ each quarter of the 
heaven (22 — 25). Invoke the Baraha manifestation of Vishnu 
in the east, Nrisinha in the south, Sridhara in the west 
Hayagriba in the north, Jamadagna in the south-east, Rama 
in the South-west, Bamana in the north-west, and Vasudeva 
in the north-east turret. The palace is to be decorated with 
garlands all round, which may be hung so low as to r^ach 
the seven -eighth part of the door, the first one-eighth portion 
being forbidden as inauspicious (24-— 25). 



The God said :~0 Brainhan ! Now I shall speak to 
you, about the installation or establishment of the image of a 
God in the palace. The image of the god Vasudeya, shall 
be placed in the centre of a chamber of that peculiar struc- 
ture, which is known as Panchayatan, while those of BSman, 
Nrisinha, Hayacirsa, and the image ’ of the Boer incarnation 
of Vishnu shall be respectively located in the south-eastern , 
south-western, north-western, and the north-eastern, corners 
of^he same (1—2). After that invoke Narayan in the centre, 
Ambtca in the south-east, the sua in the south-west, Brahma 
In the north-west, and the Linga or Rudra in the north-east. 
Or in a Nabadhama chamber, locate Vasudeva in the centre, 
and Indra other deities, who preside over the different 
quarters of the heaven, in the eastern portion thereof, each 
to the left of the other. Or in a Nabadhama make « 
Panchayatan, and loc^ the god Vishnu in the centre, Laksmi 
and Vakrahann in the east« MiUria is the south, wd Sktuda, 

aGNI puranam. 


Ganestia, Ishan, tlie Sun and other planets in the west. Place 
the ten iiicarnations of Vishnu, such as Matsa etc, in the north 
the goddess Chaiidika in the south-east, the goddess Ambica 
in the south-west, and the goddess Sarasvati in the north- 
west corner of the said chamber (3—7). Or in a Trayaoda- 
shalaya, locate the goddess Padma in the north-east, the god 
Narayana at the centre, Kesava and other manifestations of 
the god Vishnu, in the four quarters begining with the east, 
and the god Hari himself in all the other corners of the room 
(S— 9). The images are generally made up of seven different 
substances, such as clay, wool, iron Jems, stone, sandal, and 
and flowers, which being worshipped at , the time grants 
and fulfills all desires. I shall now speak about the stone 
image of Vishnu, where the custom of making a stone image 
obtains (10 — ii). In the absence of hills, the stone is to be 
dug out of the Earth, those of red, brown, black or yellow 
colours being regarded as the most auspicious. In case a 
stone of one of the afore mentioned colours is not obtain- 
ed, its loss or absence is to be atomed for, by means of the 
sacrificial mantras and ceremonies known as Sinha Vidya. 
A piece of stone, which after the performance of the Homa 
ceremony known as Sttthcthointi^ becomes trimined with, 
white, or. assumes a black colour and emits sparks of fire, or 
produces sound like Indian bell or bell 'metal is to be deemed 
as belonging to the male sex (12—14). The stones, in which 
the above signs appear but in a less marked degree, are to 
be suposed as of the female sex, while those that exhibit 
sigBS, peculiar to both the classes, are to be considered 
as aei^. A stone which bears the sign of a mandal 
oc riag in :ts saiddle, is to be held as an impregnated one, 
aad is to be rejected accordingly J[i5). A man must goto 
^wood for an image, and there he shall excavate and 
raise the sacrificial shed Mandap, which being made smooth 
^ idastered over, shall be the place wb«e the God Hari 
is (a be worshipped ea the occasba ®f the Baaajag (saciiSdb 



in the weed) oecemony, to be performed in connection 
therewith (i6). The Tankas (sculptors’ chisels) being the 
instruments *.o work with, are to be worshipped, and the 
scarfice shall be offered to them, and the Homa ceremony 
(the offering of clarified butter in the fire accompanied 
by mantras) is to performed unto them, and after that the 
stone is to be bathed with rice water (i6 — 17). Protect it 
with the mantra of Nrisinha, and worship it with the princi- 
pal or original mantra. Perform the Homa ceremony, and 
offer the final oblation, and after that let the Guru or the 
priest officiating’at the ceremony, offer the Bhutabali (sac- 
rifices to the Ghosts, and other evil spirits), and propodate 
the ghosts, demons, Gujhyakas, and Siddhyas and other 
spirits, who may be risiding in the place as follows (l8— -20). 
“We have come here for the purpose of making an image 
of the god Vishnu, and we have undertaken the journey at 
the instance of the god Keshava. Any thing done to please 
the god Vishnu, is also pleasant to you. Therefore (juietly and 
quickly depart ye spirits, quitting this place, being pleased 
with the sacrifice, we have offered (21).” Thus pacified, the 
spirits will go away wherever they please, and he and the 
sculptors shall live upon the sacrificial porridge (charu) that 
day, and shall tel! the following dream mantras in the night 
(23). Obeisance to the omniscient and almighty Vishnu ! 

I bow unto thee thou universal being, manifest in the universe, 
who art the presiding deity of all dreams (23). O thou 
Lord of all the Gods, instruct me in dreams how to execute 
all the works I have in my mind (24). I shall sleep by the 
side. “,Om. Om, Hum, Fat Visnaba svaha’’ is the mantra 
to be told for having dreaps. A good dream augurs 
every thing well, while a bad one requires the ceremony 
known as Sinka Hama to be performed. Offer oblation to 
the sicme in the morning, and wor^p the implements wkh 
the astraka mantras (25)* The spades and chisels 'shall be 
with honey and clarified battefi the priest shall ifeem 



himself the god Vishnu, an^ shall look upon thd sculptor 
as Vigvakarma (26), An implement, (such as chisel etc.), 
which has been imbued with the spirit of Vishnu, shall be 
given after its back and edge having been tasted. Now the 
sculptor, who has put all his passions under curb and rein, 
shall take the chisel in his hand, and cut out the stone into 
a square block, a smaller one forUhe purpose of making the 
Pindika or Pedestal, which must be made a little less in 
size- The said blocks shall be brought in a car to the 
house of the sculptor, covered over with a piece of cloth, 
and he shall make the image out of the same after having 
worshipped it in due form (27—28). 


The God said: — Now I shall speak to you about the 
essential points of an image of VSsudeva and other gods 
in detail. After having placed the aforementioned block of 
stone, facing the north or the east, in the northern part of a 
divine edifice, and after having worshipped the same with 
offerings, the sculptor shall divide the block into nine parts, 
along a line drawn through its centre {1—25. The stone is to 
be divided by lines each a finger apart, and such a division is 
to be called a Svaugui according to the surpa measurement 
A part or division of the stone enclosing a space measerisg 
such fingers, is knows by Uie name of Golaka or Kala- 
satra {3). Divide one of the afores^ nine divisions into 
three parts, and make with one such the part of the bodyirom 
elow the calves or the insteps ; and with such an one both 
the neck mid knee joints respectively {4)* The , crown or 
bead*dress shall measure the length of a thumb and a i^ddle 



finger, and the face, throat and the depression (Hridsya) at 
the chest shall be of the same length (5), The space be- 
tween the naval and the genital shall measure the lengths 
of a thumb and a middle finger, the thighs shall be of twice 
that length, while the parts between the calves and knee 
Joints shall be commensurate with the lengths of the thighs 
(6). Now hear me speak about the laying down of the curve- 
lines on the different parts of the body. Two such lines are to 
be laid down on the legs, two about the part between the calves 
and the knoe-joints, two about the knee-joints and two 
about the thighs (7), One such line is to be laid down 
over the region of the genital, another about the waist, 
while the other is to be carved along the upper portion 
of the umbilical region, for the purpose of fastening the 
girdle (8). The region of the epigastrium, or the depression 
between the two muscles of the breast, is to be made out by 
such a line, while two such are to be placed about the 
throat, to bring out its rotundity. One such line is to be laid 
down across the forehead", while another is to be used in order 
to exhibit the roundness of the head. {9). O Bramhanf 
one such line is to be placed over the crown or the head- 
gear, and seven vertical lines are to be carved in the same to 
show its erect position (lo). Lay down six such lines over 
the space, compzised between the lower part of the spine, 
and the end of the lower garment, winch after the cloth is 
carried round the body, is brought up behind, and tucked 
into the waist band. These lines are to be understood, as 
exclttsi ve of the middle or the central one (i i). The nose, the 
forehe ad, and the mouth, shall respectively measure four 
finge rs in length, and so also the neck and the ears (12). 
The cheek bones shall be made two lingers in breadth, being 
equal to the breadth of the chin, and the forehead shall be 
made eight fingers broad (13). Over and above that, the 
temple^ diall measure two fingers each, over .which fte 
diaU he made lo buDg, and the intervening space 



between the eyes and ears shall respectively measure four 
fingers (14). The ears shall be two fingers in thickness 
and the cavity of the ears shall be placed in the extension 
of the line joining the tips of the eye-brows (15). An ear, 
not pierced through by any ornament, shall measure six 
fingers, while one not sinjilarly treated, shall measure four 
fingers like the chin, for which the same rule is to he 
observed (16} ; and after that, finish the outer ear or the open- 
ing of the external auditory passage, together with its mem- 
branes and appendages* The whole lower lip shall not 
take more space than two fingers, and half asmuch shall 
be left for the upper one (17). The breadth of the eye 
shall be half a finger, while that of the opening of the 
face may extend up to the four, the thickness in relief 
being one finger and a half in both the cases, provided that 
the mouth is curved shut, which in the opposite case must 
be made three fingers wide (18). Th#" height of the nose will 
be one finger at its root, and shall terminate at the tip, in the 
form of a Karavir flower, its sanctioned height at the part 
being two fingers only (19)* The space intervening between 
the two eyes will be four fingers, while the corners of the 
eyes shall be two fingers, and the space between them shall 
measnre two (20). The corner shall be one-third of the 
eye, and the iris will have a length of the fifth part thereof 
(21). The expanse or space, taken by the whole organ, shall 
be three fingers in length, and the whole cavity of the eye 
^ail measure half a finger in width, over which the two eye- 
brows shall be placed equal to each other and commensurate 
the length of the aforesaid cavity (22}. A tspace, two 
fingers wide, shall be left between the starting points of the 
two eye-brows, wifich will be four fingers in length, and the 
measure nmnd the bead will be thirty six fingers |(23)« The 
head measure of stm image of Kesava, or other manifestatima 
of the God Vishnu shall be thirty 4 wo fingers, and the head 
measure oi a& Aoee who are^ ^rt neched^ shall increase 



by ten fingers. The intervening space between the neck 
and the breast shall be thrice the length of the neck, and 
shall be thrice as much broad plus eight fingers (25). The 
shoulders shall measure eight fingers, and the two blessed 
shoulder regions sixteen fingers. 

The arm shall measure seven natras in length, and 
the Prabahu sixteen fingers only (26}. The extended arms 
shall be three Kalas in length, and the Prabahu will be of 
equal measure with the same. O Bramhan, the arm shall 
have a breadth of nine Kalas at the upper part (27), seven- 
teen angulis at the middle and sixteen angulis above the 
elbow-joint, its circumference being thrice as much (28). 
The measure round the Prabahu shall be sixteen angulis, 
while that of the forearm twelve (29). The palm of the 
hand shall be six angulis in breadth, and seven angulis 
in length (30). The middle finger shall measure five fingers 
in length, the fore and the ring fingers being respectively 
less than that by the width of half a finger, and the thumb 
and the little fingers shall measure four fingers each (31). 
The thumb shall have only two marks of joint or phalanges on 
its back, and the remaining fingers shall have three, and the 
nail is to be placed at the top of each finger (32)- The stomach 
shall be of the same dimension with the chest ; and the 
naval shall be a finger broad, and deep according to propor- 
tion (33). The Intervening space, between the navel and 
the region of the genital, shall a lal broad, and the girth 
about the umbilicus shall be forty two fingers (34). The 
breasts shall be placed a la/ apart, and the chins shall mea- 
sure ajaba each, and their roundness will occupy two pada 
measures of spaces ( 351 ^ The measure round the breast 
will he sixty four fingers, while the girth round its lower 
extremity shall be of four mukhas (36). The circumfer- 
ence round the waist shall hi fifty-four fingers, and the 
lireadth about the thighs shall be twelve (37). The middle 
paijt of the thigh shall be broader than its upper part and 



shall be narrower as it reaches downwards. The knee-joint 
shall be eight fingers in breadth, and shall measure thrice 
as ranch in girth {38). The middle of the knee-joint shall 
be seven fingers in breadth, and its girth will be three times 
its breadth. The front or Tower part of the knee joint shall 
measure five fingers, with a girth of thrice the measure of 
its width. The feet shall be of a tat measure, and shall 
be raised by four fingers (39— 40). The parts in front of the 
calves shall be made four fingers. The legs, when extended, 
shall measure three padas and the female organ of genera- 
tio shall be three fingers in length with a girth of five 
fingers. The fore-finger of the feet shall also measure five 
fingers in length, and the rest of the fingers shall proportion- 
ately go on decreasing in size, each next being less than the 
preceding one, by the one sixteenth part of the former 
(41 — ^42). The height of the toe will be a pada and a finger 
and its nail shall measure a little less than a jaba, and the 
remaining fingers shall be less than one other by the 
breadth of half a finger. The scrotum shall the three fingers,^ 
in length, and the male organ of generation shall be four 
fingers long (44). The girth about the upper part of the 
scrotal sac shall measure five fingers, while that about its end 
or lower part shall be six fingers {45). f The image shall be 
decked with a large number of ornaments, and the emblems 
shall be placed in its hands in the follow^ }g order, in which 
they are usually met with (46). The . ;pon Chakra” is 
to be placed in the upper right hand, the lotus in the one 
below that on the right, the Sankhya (conch) in the upper 
left band, and the cudgel in the one below that on the left, 
as one usually comes across in an image of the Vasudeva 
(47). The images of Sri and PusU, one carrying a lotus 
and fte other a harp are to be made, these images reacbbg 
up to the thighs of that of Vasudeva. The images of 
two Vidyadhars, bolding celestial garlands in their bandsi 
Are to be ear?ed into the space occupied by the Halo of the 



head of the principal image, and the images of celestial 
elephants are to be carved in the region of the halo. The 
pedestal shall be of a whitish red colour, on w|)ich the image 
is to be worshipped as follows. 


The God said.— Now I shall describe the essential 
points of a Pindika or a divine stool, which shall have a 
length, equal to the breadth of the pedestal of an images 
half of its height, and shall have four times its thickness^fx). 
Leave aside the two lower steps, and polish on all sides 
the rectangular space, on the top of the third from the 
bottom, and similarly the space, at the foot of the third 
step counted downwards, and lastly the quadrilateral space 
intervening between the above two, (thereby meaning the 
space at the top of the third step from the bottom) together 
with its two sides. Divide the first two steps from the top into 
four parts, }and polish the two rectangular chambers at the 
foot of the second step from the top, made thereby (2—4). 
The height of the steps shall be equal to one such part, and 
their beadth will be half as much, leaving an indent to the . 
width of such a part on each side (5), and leaving a paia 
breadth of space on the exterior side. The exits for water, 
shall be made over the indentures of the first three steps 
from the top, one at the end of each (6). This absptcions 
and blessed divine pedestal, is usnally constructed in a 
large number of different shapes (7). The inxages of Laksmi. 
and other goddesses shall measure eight talas in length* 
In all such tmages, the eye-brows shall be to the length 
ol a /ova, and the xtooe a bit tattler than them. The face 



shall be straight, elongated and raised, and shall measure 
more than a golaka (8). The eyes shall be large, measur* 
ing less than three jabas by the third part.of a jaba, and 
their breadth shall be half of the aforesaid measure (9). 
The ears shall be made beautiful in shape, and shall extend 
to a line passing through the tips of the lips. The shoulders 
shall be made sloping, and to measure 3. kala less than the 
dimensions of the ears (10). The neck shall be made to mea- 
sure a kala and a half, with a breadth not affecting the beauty 
of the same. The thighs, knee-joints, and the pedestal shall 
measure a nafra less, and the waist, buttocks and the tipper 
part of the feet shall be made proportionately (ii). The 
fingers shall measure less than the seventh part of the above, 
and ^ali be made straight and tapering, so as not to look 
knotty or crooked (12). The thighs, waist and the knee-joints 
shall be greater than the above in breadth by a natra^ and the 
sides and thejmiddle part, together with the two compact and 
elevated .breasts, closely pressing each other, shall be of the 
same measure in roundness (13). The two breasts shall mea- 
sure a and the waist a kala and a half. The ornaments 
and appendages will consist of a lotus Sowar in the right hand, 
atid a Bal fruit in the left The two maidens, represented 
in the attitude of wafting chowries, shall be placed, one on 
each ^de of ^the image, and the image of the long nosed 
Gatnda shall also havea place therein. Now I shali^ speak 
about the Salagram stones and of other 



The God said:— No« I siiaii describe tbe process A 
****^PI^^ tte in^e a Skalegrama etc.j wbi^ 



imparts both enjoyment in this world, jind salvation 'in the 
next. A Shalagram stone, known as Basudeva^ is marked 
by a black colour around its mouth or lateral apertirre, and 
possessing the impressions of two chakras^ or like 

marks inside the same (i). The Saiagram stone, 
ing to the class SaHkarsan^ is of a red cojoiir. possesses two 
such chakras or circular impressions within its cavity, and is 
to be looked upon as one of the very good classes of the stone ; 
while one of the class, known as P'radumjiya^ bears upon its 
surface a large number of impressions like pin holes, is of an 
elongated shape with a blue colour, and is marked with a very 
faint impression of a within (2). Anirudkya 

is circular and yellow, marked with two or three lines around 
its outer surface, and bears the impression of a lotus flower 
within its cavity ; while the particular class of Shalagram 
stone, known Narayanan is of a black colour, with its 
cavity comparatively raised up, and smaller in length. The 
Para masti stone is perforated at the back, and have dot 
like spots over the surface, the internal cavity being im- 
pressed with the mark of a lotus flower ; and the class of 
stone known as Vishnu resembles the weapon gada in shap^, 
and carries a line about the middle part, fhe ctfcular pres- 
sion within, being comparatively thicker (3). The ^rtsinka 
stone is of a brown colour, has the sahie sort of chakra 
mark as the auoye, and is dotted with fire spots ; while a 
Baraka resembles a Saktiin shape, and ' O chakras are 
rugged and unequal (4). A Salagram of tW^ j^risna. class is 
black, round and elevated at the back,^^ chakra in the 
inside bearing the mark of an Avarta (spiral), while a sihala 
stone which is very auspicious, assumes the colour of a Jefn 
called Indr a Nil (sapphire), and is girdled by three lines (5)^ 
The stone belonging to the class Hayagriba is blue, dotted with 
spots, and resembles an Ankush in shape ; while one of the 
Baikunta class, is known by its jemlike colour, the lotiis like 
mark in its chakra which is siDgle, and by the appearance 



ance of tail like marks on its surface (6). The characteristic 
features of a Salagram; stone of the Matsa class, are its 
elongated shape, the three dot like spots on the surface, 
its glassy colour, and the absence of any cavity or chakra. 
A stone of the Sridhar class, is differentiated by the 
mark of a garland of wild flowers in its internal cavity, its 
roundness, and by the five line marks around its body (7). The 
Bamana is a stone of a puny size, round and dotted with 
a spot, and is of a round shape ; while the Tribikrama class 
bears the line mark at the right side, and the dot spot on the 
left (8). A Salagram stone, appertaining to the class Ananta^ 
bears an impression like the hood of a serpant, while one 
of the Naikava class^ assumes a variety of shape and colour, 
and is varied in attributes also ; the Damodar class being 
recognised by ifae attributes of thickness, the possession of 
two slender points on the exterior, and by the existence of the 
characterestic circular mark or chakra in the central part of 
cavity (9—10}. The Sudarshan class has got only a single 
chakra^ the existence of double or two fold chakra, characteri- 
ses the class Laksmi Narayan, the essential features of the 
Achyuta or Tribikrama class, being the existence of three 
or interpal circular marks as spoken of above (ii). 
Four chakras mark the Janardan class, and five such are the 
essentials of a Vasudeva, and the existence of six or 
seven such chakras is to be met with in the Pradumna and 
the Sankarsan class of Salagram (12). A Purushotama 
stone possesses eight, a Nababuyahu nine, a Dushdvatar 
ten, an Anirudka eleven, and a Dvadashatma class of 
twelve circles; a Salagram, bearing circular im- 
presstoaA in Its inside more than tweire, is designated as an 


The goo said: — Hear me describe the process of 
worshipping the god Shalagram, whoses image is decked 
with the circular marks known as chakras ^ and the rites and 
ceremonies, essential to the worship of other manifestations of 
Vishnu, which admits of three distinct divisions, according as 
the worshipper performs the same i with a view to obtain 
any special or particular boon, 2 or with the disinterested 
object of assigning all the merit acquired by the performance 
thereof, to the deity himself, or as a matter of daily- 
practice, by which, he does not gain any special merit, and 
the nonperformance whereof, takes away something from his 
former virtues, as a positive failing, and 3 lastly that which 
partakes of the nature of the both (i). The worship of the 
five manifestations of the god Vishnu, beginning with incar- 
nation of the divine Maisa^ may be classed either under 
the first or the last grap; while the worship of the 
incarnations such as Baraka (the incarnations in the shape 
of a Boar), Nrisinha (incarnation in the shape of a centaur 
like being, upper half lion, lower half man) and Baman (the 
Dwarf incarnation) leads to salvation (2). In order that you 
may attain salvation by the performance thereof, now I shall 
take up the subject of the three fold worship of the god 
Shalagraro, marked with the mystic circle called chakra etc. 
of which the best form is the disinterested worship, or 
the worship without any desire or supplication on the part 
of the devotee. The form which centres round an image, 
and enjoins the worship to he performed in a rectangular 
diagram, described round the figure of the spherical mystic 
lotus Sower, is to be looked upon as comming off as 
the next; while that, whicA is done with an ol^ject, occu- 
pies the lowest in the scale of merit (3}» Tfie 



devotee shall locate the mystic symbol Om in the solar 
plexus at his breast, practise the Sadangnyasa^ or the 
rite of locating in the six different parts of his body such as 
hands and the body etc., the mantras peculiar to each,- fold up 
the fingers into different postures known as Madras^ outside 
the mystic rectangular diagram, and shall first worship his 
spiritual preceptor or the guru in the east, Gana in the west, 
Dhata (the god of fate) in the north-west, Bedhata, in the 
south-west and Karta and Harta in the north, and the 
south respectively, Vishvaksen in the north-east, and 
Ksetrapala in the south-east. At the outset the Vedas 
such as Ric etc. are to be worshipped, then the cushion 
on which the devotee will sit during the worship, then 
the serpent Ananta who is supposed to bear the Earth 
on his hoods, and then the Earth, and then the Peetha and 
lastly the three mystic diagrams, Arka, Chandra and Banhi 
respectively (4—7). The padmasan shall consist of the twelve 
letters forming the God’s own mantra, and the God is to be 
Placed therein, and to be worshipped with all the Bija or 
the principal mantras appertaining to his worship, uttered 
jointly and severally in turn (8). Commence the worship 
with Om and the mantras of Gaitri, Jitadi etc. and after that 
show the three mudras, (combinalion of the hands in different 
postures) of Visvahsen Chakra and Ksetrapala respectively, - 
as the worship of the god Shalagram which falls under the first 
group is absolutely disinterested and claims no merit (9—10). 
Draw a raandal or mystic circle consisting of sixteen 
radii and containing the image of a lotus flowers at its 
centre, as stated above ; and worship the spiritual preceptor 
and others with Shankha (conch shell) Chakra (the circular 
weapon of Vishnu) Gada (a cudgel) and a sword as pre- 
viously mentioned (ii). Locate the Bow the arrows in the 
east- and north, with the Pranaba mantras and establish the 
st«>ne (Shalagram with the twelve letters which enter 
into the composition of the mantra Om Namo iBhagabata 



Vasudavya (12). Now ! shat! describe another form of 
worshipping Shalagram. A totus flower consisting of eight 
petals is to be drawoi and worship the guru and other 
gods upon the ground as above* The Asan or seat shall be 
offered with the eight letters forming a portion the god's 
said principal mantra, and establish the shila with the same^ 
and worship it by uttering the same eight letters ten times 
and Vishnu with the gaiatri (13). 


The God said:— Now I shall reproduce to you, the 
psalm in honour of the twenty-four incarnations of the God 
Vishnu, which forms an arostic in relation to the principal 
mantra of the God, designated as the Dvadashahasri (Om. 
Namo Bhagabata Basudevaya) mantra, from the number of 
Sanskrit letters entering into its composition. The hymn is 
as follows : 

I bow down to thee O Ksbava ! whose image is the one 
universal principle manifesting itself in the three«fold form 
of creation (literally emanation, the doctriue of creatioa 
having no place in the Sanskrit theology, the universe being 
supposed to have been evolved out of the universal self 
through the medium of M§ya, or only apparent as the 
reflective effect of the juxtaporition of the two uutversal 
principles known as Prakriti and Purusha, which will be 
dealt with later on the loose and promiscuous use of these 
terms and their equivalents, having much to be blam^ for 
their popular acceptance in the modem times,} contiauance 
and flaat merging bade the anhrarse into the self, 

through the prcH^ess of and of v^ch prindpie ^ 



Om'' is the Vedic symbol ; and who boldest the divine lotus 
flower, conch shell, the circular w^eapon Chakra and the Gada 
or Cudgel, in thy four hands (the lotus flowe*- with its petals 
symbolising the different stages of the universal emanation 
or evolution, the conch shell standing for the voice or sound 
as the embodiment of thought which is the test of conscious- 
ness, the circular weapon representing the cycles ot exist- 
ence to be gone through before the final stage of evolution can 
be reached, and the Gada standing for the principle, enfor- 
cing the confirm ability to the universal Law, whether phy- 
sical, moral of spiritual. Salutation unto thee, O Narayana, 
in which shape thou boldest the divine conch shelf, the lotus 
the Cudgel and the Chakra in thy four hands (standing for the 
rotatory motion of the heavenly bodies) in the order (a little 
different from that in which they are placed in thy manifestation 
as Kesbava) (i). After that I make obesiance to Madhava, in 
whose hands are the divine Cudgel (Gada), Chakra, sbankhya 
(conch shell) and the lotus flower, and also to the mighty 
Govinda (the preserving principle of the universe) who doth 
weild in his arras the weapons Chakra, the Gada or the Cudgel 
named Koumadaki, the lotus, and the conch shell (2). 1 lay 
myself prostrate before thee O Vishnu, who givest salvation 
to man, and boldest in thy bands, the celestial Gada (Cudgel), 
lotus flower, Shanfchya (cqnch shell) and the Chakra^ I bow 
to thee O Madhusudana who art armed with the divine 
Shmikhya, Chakra, lotus flower and the Chakra (the first-two 
weapons fading in all cases in the two right hands, and the 
rest two bdog in the left both upper and lower) (3). With 
llie most heart fek reverence, I fall at the feet of the Tribi- 
krama maajfestatioa of Visnu, who is represented as carry^^ 
in bis bands, ^divine loins flower, Cudgel, Chakra 
and SiankkyR (coodi}; and may the Baman (dwarf incarna- 
tioo of Ibe God Vidinu), who wields in his four arms, the 
Qakic^ Gada and Ibe lotus flower in the order, to 
beint^^reted to the direction given abovoi preseil^e 



me at all times from harms (4). Sridhar is the opener and 
exposer to men of all ways leading to salvation, and is re- 
presented as carrying a lotus flower, a Chakra or a circular 
sharp edged weapon flung from a distance, the Shankhya (a 
conch shell) and may be the divine manifestation who is known 
as Hruhikesha and whose four arms are armed with Gada, 
Chakra, lotus flower and coach shell guard us from all evils 

(5) . I make obesiance to Padmanava^ who is the grantor of 
all boons, and carries in his hands, the divine conch-shell, 
lotus flower, Chakra or the ring weapon, and the Cudgel ; 
and also to Damodar, who holds in his lOur arms, the 
heavenly lotus flower, conch-shell ;cudgel and the ring weapon 

(6) . May Vasudeva, who carries a cudgel, conch-shell, a 
ring weapon, and a lotus flower, purify the universe ; and may 
Sankarshana in whose hands are the divine Cudgel, conch- 
shell, lotus flower, and the ring weapon, preserve us from all 
evils (^). Preserve us O Pradyumna 1 Thou art the lord of 
the universe and wieldst in thy hands the Cudgel Chakra, 
conch-shell, and the lotus flower; or the Cudgel and the conch- 
sheli in thy right hands in stead. Preserve us O Anirudha! 
Thou who art every where irresistible and invincible in the 
universe, and who dost carry in thy arms, the Chakra, Cudgel 
conch-sheil, and the lotus flower (8). May Purushottam, who 
is the lord of the gods, and who holds in his hands the celestial 
lotus flower, conch-shell, the goddess Sri, and the Cudgel, 
preserve you all, and likewise the god Adhokhyaja (literally 
whom the senses cannot perceive, and who is beyond the com- 
prehension of mao), who carries in bis arms the heavenly lotus, 
Cudgel, the conch shell, and the ring weapon or the Chakra 
(9). I bow down to thee Nrisinha !— Thou half-lion, half-man 
iocarnatioa of Vishnu, and whose four arms are equipped with 
the celestial ring weapon, lotus flower, Cudgel and the conch 
shell ; and may the incarnation of Acbyauta, who holds in 
hb hand, Sree, Cudgel, the celestial lotus flower or the ^onch 
shell, grant you all an immunity from the worldly evils (io)« 


And fikewis#* the incarnation known as Upendra, who is 
Inanifest in the form of a child, and carries the divine conch 
shell, Cudgel, Chakra, and the lotus flower both in the right 
and in the left hand, in the order they are described; And 
similarly, may the manifestation of Vishnu, revealed to man 
as Janarddana, and who takes away all sin and misery from the 
hearts of his worshipers, and who carries in his four hands the 
divine emblems and weapons of a conch shell, a lotus flower 
Chakra, and the Gada, or Cudgal named Koumadaki, btess me 
with the enjoyment of good cheers in this world, and grant 
me salvation in the next ; and for which I also beseech thee 
O krishna, to the portions of whose votaries, fail enjoyment in 
this life and salvation hereafter, and who wieldest in thy arms 
the celestial coach shell, club, lotus flower and the Chakra 
(ii— 12). The first and original manifestation of Vishnu 
was iu^ the form of Vasudeva, out of that issued the image 
t Sankarshana, out of which the manifestation of Pradyumna 
was ev^oived and revealed, arid which finally blossomed 
into the image of Auirudha {13). Eeach of the above-' 
mentioned manifestations, was split up and resolved into 
hree different images such as Keshava, etc., thus making up 
in all the twenty-four images, which form the subject of the , 
present hymn composed of twelve letters, by reading qr 
hearing whkb, a man is purified, and becomes purged off of 
aii sin and attains every desire of the heart (14). 


XaB God said Now I shall desoribe the charaeteristics" 
of die tea iacarnatioiis of Vishnu, such as MaUa (the fish 
maaifcstaUw ) etc* The mamfestation should be ma de to 

mm PuitANAM. 


reseml>Ie a ^sh is sbape, while that of the divine fortoise^ 
should be so made as to look like the prototype of the animal, 
from which it has received its nomenclature (l). The incar- 
nation of the terrestrial Boar, should be endowed with a 
homan body, and as carrying agada (club) and other weapons 
in his right arm, and the divine conch shell, the goddess 
Laksmi, or a Iotas flower in the left (2}. The goddess Laksmi 
should be represented as resting on bis elbow, and the Earth 
and the serpant Ananta of the nether regions, (the mythec^ 
support of Hie Earth in space) following his lead. O Brah- 
man, the installation of such an image by any person, 
ensures his acquisition of a kingdom, and" helps him to 
cross this ocean of mnndane existence (3}. NarssinJut 
should be represented as having a lion^s head on a hnmaa 
body, possessing four arms, in the two of which be sbotdd 
bold the effulgent gada, and the celestial riogweapon, and 
the other two should be made to appear as tearing open 
the entrails of the Daaava (Hiranyakashipu), and pqlting 
them round his shoulders, and ^fae Danava should be re- 
presented as lying dead on the thighs of the Crod {4). The 
Bamanm incarnation of Vishnu should be represented as a 
dwarf, carrying a stick and an umbrella, or sfaoold he made 
as possessed of four arms, while ParAskuram sbooid be 
represented as carrying a bow and an arrow, Ifjgether with 
a sword and a battle-axe (5). Rama shontd be represented 
as carrying a bow and an .mrrow In his two hands, and 
equipped with a sword and a conch shell as welL Rama 
{Balarama) shoidd be represented as having four arms, or 
should he made as possessing two arms only, carrying a gada. 
and a plough la each, or the ^ough and the conch sbeH ^auU 
be plasced is the two upper and lower left hands, the mmmi 
and the^dhyoa oespectivdy being in the two 
^iddha, simuid he scidptured as a man of lair complrxioa^ 
wearily a doth^ and siHii^ on a lotcm Sower with its petads 
turiied upwards. His ears should be made CMfwativdly 



longer, and the calmness of the heart within should be made 
to reflect in his countenance, as he is the bestower of all 
blessings, and the protector of all beings from evils and harms 
(g). The divine incarnation of Kalkt\ is to be represented as 
arBrahmin, carrying a bow and a quiver, and engaged in the 
act of exterminating the Mlecfihya race, or is to be depicted 
as a Brahmin bestriding a horse, and fully equipped with a 
sword, a chakra, a Javlin^ an arrow and a conch shell to blow 
upon the warcall (9 — 10). Now t shall speak to you about the 
essential points of the nine manifestations of the god Visnu, 
such as Vasudeva etc. The gada is to be placed in the upper 
right hand, and the excellent celestial ring weapon (chakra) in 
the upper left, or in the alternative the image may be made as 
having four hands, the conch being placed in the lower right 
hand, while the lower left is to be depicted in the attitude 
of confering blessings ; and the images of Bramba and IshS 
are to be located on both sides, as the two constant compa- 
nions of the god (ii). Rama is usually represented as carrying 
a plough, a Mushala {mace)a^^^^(club) and a lotus flower ; and 
Pradumnya as wielding a thunderbolt and the divine conch 
shell in his right hand, and a|bow and an arrow in the left two, 
or as carrying, out of Xovtygadas in all the four. Anirudha as 
well as Narayan should be represented with four hands (12— 
13), Bramha (the creator) is to be represented as possessing 
foor hands and four faces, looking towards the four quarters 
of the Armament, and riding on the celestial swan, and his 
long breast and clotted hairs reaching down his prodigious 
belly. In his right hands are the rosary and the sacriflciai 
laddie, in his left.a water-pot and a vessel to hold the sacri- 
fldsd clartfled butter, and the goddesses SaraswatJ and Savkri 
should be made as* respectively waiting on the right and 
the left (15). Vishnu is to be represented as possessing eight 
hands, and riditig on the celestial bird Garuda, and as bold- 
ing in 14 s right bands a sword, a gada and as arrow, and a 
bow and a Kbataka In the left) while the remainiiig two 



liands are to be represented in the attitude of imparting 
benediction (16). The image of Narasingha is to be furnished 
with four handc, the two holding the celestial ring weapon and 
the conch shell, and the other two engaged in tearing open 
the entrails of the great demon (17). The Baraha or the 
Boar ir carnation of Vishnu shall be possessed of four hands, 
in one of which he shall hold the serpent Vasukz\ the 
left or 2 holding the earth. The goddess Lakshmi should be 
repres mted as sitting at his feet, and the earth also as 
fsHV j prostrate thereat. The celestial bird Garuda, who 
holds the whole universe bound up in charm, should be 
located on the right side of the god's statue, and should be 
provided with four couples of arms, the right hands hold- 
ing the weapons known as Chakra^ sword, mace and 
Ankusha^ and the left arms carrying the weapons and the 
divine emblems of conch chell, lotus flower, Gada and pasha 
(noose). The images of Lakshmi and Saraswati, the former 
carrying her own emblem of a lotus flower, and the latter 
holding the divine harp in her hands, are to be installed 
on the left hand side. And on the right hand side of 
the statue, the image of Biskvarupa is to be installed, — 
Btshvarupa who has got four faces and twenty bands, those 
to the right wielding the celestial arms known as Mudgar 
(club), Pdska (noose), Shakti (spear) Skula (pointed iron 
rod) arrow, thunderbolt, sword, bell, Damuru (small drum),“ 
and the snake, and those on the left carrying the divine 
conch shell, lotus flower, Gada (club), Pasha (noose), Tamara 
plough, axe, stick, knife and the shield. On the left-hand 
side install the image of the Sbankaraka manifestation of 
Hari, who is the destroyer of all sin and its iwrogeny of 
misery. ’ The God is to be represented as endowed with 
three ej^es, being symbolical of the knowledge of the past 
present and the future, and as Ijing afloat on his left side, over 
the water of the primordial ocean, and whose unibilical cord 
like the stem of a lotus flower, has blossomed into the four* 



faced creator of the universe. Exhibit therein the goddess- 
Lakshmi as champooing a leg of the God, and the female 
personifications of the divine energy known as J&imala, 
etc., as blowing chowries unto him (20—24). The manifes- 
tation of Vishnu, designated as Rudra Kesava, is to 
be represented as carrying a trident and an Asti in his 
two right bands, and a gada and a Chakra in the twp left ; 
The right half part of the body shall have all the featu.^es of 
the image of Mahadeva, and the left half shall have tho of a 
statue of Vishnu^ and the images of Lakshmi and Gouri are to 
be located on each side (25), The image known as that of 
Hayaczrsa sfiall hold the divine conch shell, gada (club), lotus 
flower and the Vedas in his four hands. Its left leg should be 
placed on an image of the serpant Ananta^ and his right on 
the back of a carved tortoise (26). Datvatraya shall be 
represented as having two arms, with the goddess Lakshmi 
seated on his left lap, while an image of Bishvaksen which 
closes the list of the divine figures of Vishnu, be made to 
wield the celestial ring weapon, gada {glub) a plough and a 
conch shell io his four arms. The whole picture (as 
delineated in stanzas 23—24) is to be construed as a mystic 
representation of the first coming of the universe into being. 
There lay expanded the infinity of the primordial nara^ 
(water of the devine energy) coeternal with the immutable 
self of Narayan (the receptacle of nara or the forces of 
the universe), and from his umbilicus, round which in a man, 
aoxirding to the spiritual psychology of the Brahmans, the 
§ry plexus known as Dmkadal chakra is placed, and wbichi 
by analogy in this cBse, represents the centre ol ||ie 
Kifi^ic and necessarily that of the Caloric energy of the 
nniverse as wefl, springs up the fotns stem, the material 
essence terma^ng is a full blown lotus flower,— the 
evidviiig, exl^wal ; m material aspect of Nature, its petals 
standffig lol the or^ of evolution, which it shall have to 
ga snbjm to the coatrd of the God of fate 



(Brahma); who *‘sits upon it. Lakshmi (lighO, the iit- 
seprabie companion of all manifestations, is represented 
as waiting at the foot end of the divine bed, perhapi 
brooding upon her sojourn through the infinite space, 
then about to begin ; and Bimala (pure energy) and her sister 
forces have been represented as blowing chowries, a fact which 
is emblematic of the advent of the ether and the wind 
as the resultant of the birth throes of the universe. Thus at 
a very early age, the Sanskrit Philosophy recognised the 
absolutely free and unlimited condition of the Being, and re- 
cognised also the limited, qualified nature *of the Becoming,-^ 
the Real, which is absolute and unequalific^d, underlying and 
freely ev^ving itself out in to the Phenomenal, the process 
of evolution being subject to conditions which are at once 
the strength and laws of the absolute Ego. 


T HE God said -The Goddess Chandika, is to be repre* 
seated as having twenty hands, out of which, the ten situate 
on the right, holding and being armed with the celestial 
trident, sword spear, chakra^ Paslia (noose) Kheta, Ayodha, 
Abhaya, , Datnaru (drum) and Saktika, and the following 
weapons are to be placed in the remaining ten hands on 
the left sidj^, the Nagpasfaa (snake used as a noose) 
Khataka, axe, Ankusha, bow, bell, banner, Gada, (mace), 
mirror and the Mudgar. The buffalo should be represent^ 
ed below, with its bead entirely severed, and the Asuni 
(demon) shcmld be sculptured as rushing out of that severed 
neck, foaming witli rnge, and brandishing bis sword in 



the air, and vomiting blood : — his hairs clotted with blood, 
and blood streaming forth from his two eyes, and drippling 
down round his breast like a garland. The .goddess is to 
be represented in a standing posture, with her right foot 
resting on the back of the lion, and her left on the shoulder 
of the demon, round whose neck is twisted the serpent 
noose of the goddess, and who is pounced upon by her celes- 
tial lion biting at his arm (i — 5). This image of Chandika 
is to be made as possessing three eyes, fully armed and 
cr:Mng the enemy of the God, and is to be worshipped in 
the* mystic diagram containing the images of nine lotus 
flo^vers and known as Nabapadma (6), and at the commence- 
merit, centre and the Eastern and other quarters of the same 
from the representation of the goddess, with the nine tatvas 
in turn. The image should be made as possessing eighteen 
arms, those on the right carrying a human head, a Khetaka, 
a mirror, aTarjani, a bow, a banner, a Damaru, and a noose, 
ana the left arms being equipped witli the following weapons, 
such as spear, club, trident, thunderbolt, sword, pike, arrow, 
cJtairaa^nd shalaka, in the order in which they are enumerated. 
The images of the remaining nine manifestations of the 
goddess, such as i Rudra Chanda, 2 Prachanda, 3 Chandogra, 
4 Chandanaika 5 Chanda, 6 Chandabati, 7 Chandarupa, 
8 Atichandika and 9 Ugrachanda shall be made as 
jpossessing sixteen arms, by omitting in each image, the 
arms bolding the Damaru (a little drum) and the Tarjanu 
and as having a white red or t yellow complexion like the 
substance named Gorochana {7— ii). Or they shall be made 
of a blue white, yellow or dusky complexion respectively, 
riding on a lion, and clenching in their fists the tuft of the 
<femoQ*s hair, who is to be represented as rushing out of the 
severed body of a buffolo (12). The images of the nine 
d£^enl m^ifestations of Durga, should be made as standing 
fa that parlioilar attitude which goes by the name of 
(the alliinde tn shooting, in which the right knee is 



advanced and the left leg is retracted). The installation of 
the above images together with those of Gouri, Chandika 
etc., and of Kundi, Aksarrada and Agnidhrik is conducive 
to the increase of progeny etc. (13) She is identical with 
Ramva or Lalita, who being worshipped in the wood, gives 
salvation or spiritual success to men, and is to be represented 
as holding in her left hand, a severed human head with the 
neck attached, and a mirror in the right (14). The images of 
Souvagya, UrdhikS, holding in their palms the offerings of 
fruits, are to be installed in the right hand side of the 
goddess, and that of Lakslitni, holding a full blown lotus 
flower and a Bal fruit in her right and left hands, is to 
be located in the left {15). The images of the goddess 
Saraswati carrying in her hands a book, a rosery and a lyre, 
and of the white-complexioned river goddess Janhavi, as hold- 
ing a pitcher and and a lotus flower in her hands, and be- 
striding a sea monster (Makar), together with the image of 
the river goddess Jamuna, represented as a damsel of a dusky 
hue, and carrying a pitcher, and seated on a tortoise, and 
that of Tamvuru, set forth as a white coloured man, carrying a 
harp and a trident and riding on a bull, are to be worshipped 
in the front of the image of the goddess (17), The four- 
faced Brambi is to be represented as of a fair complexion 
and riding -on a swan, and carrying in her hands Kunda, 
Aisapatra, a rosary and a sacrificial laddie, while Sankari 
is to be represented as seated on a bull, carrying a bow and 
an arrow in her right hands, and a Chakra in her lett (18). 
Koumari should be represented as of a red colour and ^ing 
on a peacock, possessed of two arms, and wielding a spear 
(19), Barahi should be ‘made as a maiden, equipped with a 
danda (stick), sword, mace and a conch shell, and bolding 
in her two right hands the clestial conch and the rii^ 
weapon, and the earth, mace and the lotus flower in her left^ 
hands, and as sitting on a buffalo (ao)* Aindri who. be^ows 
mccessioB on her YOiaries, ^ouid be represented^ as having 



at thousand and holding the thuuder-bolt in her left 

hand, while Chamunda should be sculptured as having 
made arfoot stool of the dead body of a man, and as possess- 
ed of three eyes sunk in their respective sockets, and as a 
woman who has lost ail desh, and has been reduced to 
skeleton, with hairs angrily standing up erect on her head 
and wearing a tiger’s skin round her extremely emaciated 
beliy,-^er left arms being equipped with a Pattisfaa (spear) 
and a human skull, a .trident and a small sword (karti) 
being in the other two (21—22). Beniak should be made 
as having the body of a man, and the head of an elephant 
and possessing a huge trunk and a belly. He should be 
endowal wUh the sacrificial thread peculiar to a Brahmin, 
and known as Upabita^ His face or mouth should measure 
seven italas in breadth, while the Inink should be made 
to measure thirty-six fingers in length. The neck should 
have a length of a kala and a half, with a girth of about 
twelve Hie region of the throat should be made thirty- 

* six fingers in length and the space about the region of the 
anus should have a breadh of ball a finger (23 — 2$). The 
space about the region of the Umbiiicas diall measure 
twelve fingers ; and similarly the feet, and the space between 
the calves and the knee^'joiats, shall respectively commen- 
surate with the naval region. He ^ould he represented 
as having made an axe of one of his own tusks, and holding 
&e same iu kh right hand, while a luddock (a hall of sweet 
and a lotus Sower should be placed is his two left 
hands (a6}u The image of Skmnda^ the Commander-in-Cbief 
taf the cefeillal forces, and who is also known as Shakha and 
Biihalra, and is the lord ^ dbe uaivmse, should be r^iesented 
as a hny possessing two and riding on a peacock, with 
dm i mage s of Summiii and Bidalaisi installed on his two 
mdcn* The god may be rtpr^ented as endowed whth one or 
in incm;i m possessing ^ mr •twelve bmids. Bat in a wood 
^^pn vill i yi Imi bemadelo appear with two 



bands only, carrying the celestial weapon Sakti in his right 
siad a Cookuta in his left hand, or in the case of his having 
twelve arms, the six on the right should be equipped with 
the divine weapons respectively known as, Saktij arrow, 
Pcska (noose), sword, totrada, iarjani and the Sakti 
the left six being armed with the Saktis only (27 — 29). The 
feminine manifestation of the divine energy, revealed as 
Rudra Chandika, should have an image possessing eight 
hands, weilding in them a bow decked with peacock's* 
feathers, a kheta, a banner together with the weapon called 
coocutay a hunian skull, a Kariariy (a kind of small two 
banded sword beaked like a Tomahawk), a trident and" a 
noose respectively both on the right and the left, one hand 
being represented in the attitude confering blessing. The 
goddess should be represented as wearing the skin of an 
elephant, and her legs should be made to appear as raised up 
in the .attitude of dancing, the trappings of the little drums 
and human skulls girdled round her waist measuring time 
with her dance ; and hence she is called the queen or ih 
goddess of dancing, and is also known by the epithet of 
Rudra Chamunda {30—31). The aforesaid goddess sculptured 
in a sitting posture, and as having four faces, is known as 
Manalakshmi. The same figure represented with three eyes 
and ten hands, of which the five on the right hold the skasfra 
sword and the Damarus (drums), and the five on the left, 
wield the bell, Khaiaka, Kkatianga and the trident, and 
also represented as eating, men^ horses and buffalos held 
secure in her gripe, goes by the name of Siddha Chamunda, 
and grants all success and specially that in practising the 
Yoga to her votaries. The goddess- admits of being repre- 
sented in another form, in which she should be made of a 
redish complexion and armed with a noose and an Ankuska 
The goddess Bhairabi, who is the embodtinent M the uni- 
versal BeauiUtii, is to be imaged as possessed of twelve 
bwd^ Tlie Bidya (the maoife^ialio&s ol the diviae eaergy 



io female shapes) spoken of above are to be looked upon 
as appertaining to, and emanating from the sterner or awe 
inspiring aspect of the divine nature, and ^are connected 
with the cremation ground fof the universe, when the flames 
of the millineum-fire shall consume and reduce it to its 
original nothingness, together with the space and time its 
habitation and life) ; and the above portion of the Chapter 
dealing with the aforesaid manifestations is called Ambas* 
takam (36). 

The goddess Ksama should be represented as a woman old 
and possessing two arms, with her mouth widely opened, 
and surrounded on all sides by jackals ; and the manlfesta* 
tion of the goddess known as Ksamaklri should be imaged 
as having very large teeth, and in a kneeling posture (37). 
The Jaksinis (wives of a class of demi-gods, and female atten* 
dants of the goddess Durga and her different manifestations) 
should be made as maidens with large, motionless eyes ; the 
ShRkini’si. should be made with eyes looking askance. The 
Maharamyas should be endowed with yellow eyes, and the 
Apsaras should be always represented as extremely handsome 
damsels (38}. 

Nandisha, the porter of the goddess should be represented 
as cairying a rosary in one band, and a trident in the other ; 
and Makaial should be imaged as equipped with a sword, 
a human head, a mace, and a Khataka weapon (39). Bbriogy 
should be made to appear as an extremely emaciated person 
Kusmanda should be Wulptinred as a man of small stature in 
a dancing attitude ; while l;li^|^tradants known as Btrvadras 
etc. Arnold be endowed with tWheads and ears of elephants 
mad cows (40). Gbantakuma should be represented as 
posses^g ei^teea bands, ei^t on each side, and carrying 
a thiiader<4^t, a sword, a dab, a ckakrd an arrow, a mace, a 
pike and a club on the r^;lit; and a targani, Kkefa Siakh) a 
bumaa bea^ a nenne, a bow, a bell, an axe, on the left, 
wd a cemidsiag indi tim two hands silicate on 



both the sides, and as crushing the sin begotten and 
erysipilatous diseases, glrdted by a row ot bells round his 
waist (41—42)/ 


7he sun rides in a chariot provided with a single wheely 
and drawn by seven horses, c^rying in his two hands the 
two celestial lotus dowers, the emblems of light and anima* 
tion ; and on his right band side stands his attendant Kundi, 
holding in his hands a pen and an inkstand, symboli-sing 
the computation of the age of the universe by the process 
of the suns, and the recording of the merits and demerits 
of the beings dwelling there in, in the register of the heaven 
(!)• On his left, stands his porter Ptngala, mace in handi 
the ins^nia of his master’s divine sovereignity ; and on bis 
two sides are stationed the two celestial damsels wafting 
chowries unto him, ever proceeding on his luminous^ infinite 
and ethereal journey, with his shadow queen (NispravS) by his 
side (2). In the alternative the sun god Bhaskara shouldi 
be represented as alone, and riding on a horse back ; and 
the Dikpalas or the presiding deities of the di£Eereiit 
quarters of the firmament should be imaged as each carry* 
ing two lotus flowers and weapons in their hands, and also 
as conferring blessings, each in his respective order (3), 
Agnis and such like gods, carrying clubs, trident, chakrasi 
and lotus Sowers are to be located in the angular quarters 
of the heaven; and the different manifestations of the 
sun god beginning with ArjaTM^ and finishing with 
should be each represented with four arms, and located in 
the diagram of twelve prtals (4), and is to be railed by 



the following names, as he successively passes into each of 
the twelve signs of the zodiac^ and travels over the tropics 
of cancer and the capricorn, between the morfrhs of Marga- 
cirsa and Kartika each year, the names being, Varuna, Surya, 
Sahasraogshu, Dhata, Tapana, Sabita, Gavastika, Rabi^ 
Parjanya, Tasta, Mitra, and Visnuka (5 — 6). The 
sakhs, or the solar energies to be located in the ends 
of the petals of the aforesaid mystic diagram, are to 
be of black, red, reddish, yellow, pale yellow, white, 
amber, yellow, greenish, greyish, smoke and blue colours 
respectively, and they respectively pass under the deno- 
minations of Ida, Susamna, Bisvacchi, Indu, Pramardiny, 
Prabarsiny, Mahakali, Kapila, Prabodhiny, Nilambara, 
Ghanantstha, and Amrita (7—9). Similar colours are to be 
put down in the ends of the petals of the mandal for Varuna 
(a manifestation of the sun god), and his companion (planets). 
The god Teja (Light) is to be represented as always effulgent 
and extremely crooked (from its undulating propagation), 
and as holding a sword and a lotus ffower in his two hands 
(as emblamatic) of its power of rending asunder the veil of 
night and darkness, and of the beauty and animation which 
everywhere follow in its train (10). The moon god is to be 
depicted as carrying a sacrificial pitcher and a rosary in 
bis hands. The Mars is to be endowed with a spear 
and a rosary, the Mercury being imaged as wielding a bow 
in one hand and bolding the seed of Rudraksa in the 
othefi and the Jupiter as holding a sacrificial pitcher and a 
rosary (ix). The Venus should be made to resemble the 
Jupiter in his appearance, while the Saturn is to be represen- 
ted as encircled wkh a row of girdle like bells. * The Rahu 
(the shadow of the earth and her satilite) should be, imaged 
as having the mark of a half lunar disc on his forehead, while 
the Ketu (the solarspots and the occultation suffered fay the 
stars and their satilities) should be personified as a man carry- 
ing a iaipp and a sword (t a). Ananta, Takmka Karkoi Padma 



Mahabja, Shuaku, Kulika and Sustrina are to be understood 
as all resplendent creatures with hooded heads (13.) Indra is 
to imagined as’ riding on an elephant, and wielding a thunder- 
bolt j and Agni as seated on a goat, and holding a spear in 
his hand, Yama (the god of death) is to be depicted as riding 
on a buffalo, and carrying a dub, and Nairita is to be pic- 
tured as brandishing a sword (14). Varuna the god of the 
ocean) is to be delineated as riding’ on a sea-monster 
(Makara) and carrying a trident in his hand, while Bayu (the 
wind) is to be depicted as driving an antilope, with a full 
furled streamer gaily flying by his side. Kuvera should be 
pictured as carrying a mace and riding on a sheep, and Ishan 
with his clotted hair as sitting on a bullock (15), Lokopalas 
should be represented as having two hands only, Visvakarma 
as telling a rosery, Hanuman as wielding a thuder-bolt and 
oppressing the earth with his feet {16). The Kinnaras should 
be imagined as inhabiting the skies, and playing on harps 
in the air, and likewise the Bidhyadharas as bedecked with 
garlands. The Pisaches should be represented as extremtf 
emaciated in their bodies, and the Vetalas as having distorted 
faces. The Ksetrapalas should be depicted as equipped 
with tridents, and the Pretas as having big bellies (17}. 


The God $aid:^Now I shall describe tp you, in ite 
following eight couplets, the Yoginis who dwell in the differ- 
ent quarters of the $ shall sta^ wi^ the East and 

finish whh the north-east qaar^r of the fixmamenL Tbehr 
aames^ art as follows 



The Yoginis named AksovyS, Raksakarni, Rakhsi, KripanS 
and Aksaya inhabit the eastern quarters of the sky (i). 
The Yoginis known as Pishangi,? KsayS, Ksema, Ila, LilS, 
Lola, Laktij Balakeshi, LaiasSi and BimalE dwell in the south- 
eastern quarter of the firmament (2). The Yoginis who are 
named HutasbS, Bishalaksi, Hunkarij Barabamukhij Maha- 
krurS, Krodhana^ Vayankarii and Muhanan§i reside in the 
south (3). The Yoginis who are styled SarbagnS, Sarali, 
TarS| RigvedR, HayananS^ SaraksyS, Rudrasangrahi, SambarR 
and Taijhangika, are the inmates of the south-western 
heaven {4), The Yoginis denominated as Raktaksi, Supra- 
sidfaa, BidutjivhRi [Karankini^ Maghanada, Prachandogora, 
Kalakarni and Baraprada are the residents of the western 
firmament (5)* The Yoginis known by the epithets of 
Chandra^ Cfaandrabali PrapanchR, PralayantikS, SishubaktrS, 
Piahachl, Pishitasha Lolupa occupy the north western direc- 
tion of the heaven (6). The Joginis called Dhamani, Tapanii 
Raginij BikritSnanai Bayubega, Brihatkuksi, Bikrita and 
Bisharupika, hold sway in the north (7). While the Joginis 
described as Jamajevha Jayanti DurjayR, Jayantika Bidalii 
Rabat!, Putana and Bijuyantika hold sovereignty over the 
north-east (8). These Joginis should be represented as 
having eight or four hands as the case may be, and wielding 
arms according to their own choice^ and who impart all 
success to their votaries, on being duly worshipped and 
propitiated. Vairaba should be depicted as carrying the 
sun in his band, Kurpurasya being represented as wearing 
large, clotted hairs/and bedecked with the moon in the fore- 
i^ad {9). KrtHhasa is to be delineated as wielding on the 
one side, the weapons sword, pike, axe, and an arrow, and as 
folding a paJm in the attitude of imparting benediction to the 
nniraae^ together with a bow, a trident, a Kbatvanga, and a 
hatf noose on the other. His garment shall be of the ddn 
of an eiephanti held in its place by his two hands j and 
venomous snakes shall be repmemed as resting on h*f body. 



serving the purposes of ornaments ; or in the alternative thd 
god Panchanan^ who is another manifestation o{ the same 
god, is ^to be worshipped amidst the Mairzkas sitting on the 
deadbody of a man, and with al! the letters of the alphabet up 
to the'Jetter Ra and with his mantra Otn Shroi^ Houm namas 
ShtvSya and the eight long voweled mantras such as Eentj 
Woom, Aim, Ayin, Om, Oun and As (10—13). Biravadra should 
be represented as having four faces and riding on a bullock ; 
while Gout i is to be depicted as possessing two and 
three eyes, and carrying a mace and a mirror (14). Lalita 
should be depicted as carrying a trident, pitcher and a galan« 
tika, (a pitcher with a whole at the bottom) and with one hand 
folded in the attitude of imparting blessing, or as a com* 
panion of the god Skanda, carrying a brush and a mirror (15}* 
Chandika should be represented with xo hands and m 
carrying a sword, a trident a chakra a spear in the right, 
and a snake noose, shield, pike, axe and a bow in At 
left and as riding on a lion with her trident firmly fixed into 
the breast of the buffalo demon (16}. 



The Goo said:— Hear me describe the essentia! points 
of a faljc emblem. A rectangular block of stone is to be 
marked as divided length wise into two equal divisions ; the 
lower half of which is to be divided in its turn, into eight 
equal parts* Five such are to be left out, and the le* 

maining block formed of thb remaining five^ should be 
divided breadth wise into three parts, the first of which is 
to be called the 1 ^ second Vishnu part, the 




last or the lowest part being known as the Ckivavagat which 
shall be larger than the other two parts, and over whose 
four angles of division at the upper extremity, a sqore is to 
be drawn, thus dividing the part known as Visnubkaga into 
an octagonal block. Divide the same again into a block 
containing thirty two sides, and then the same again into 
one of sixty.four and then turn it into a round shaped block 
(f— 4). The Brahmin (sculptor) who must be an inhabitant of 
the country known as Madhyadesha^ shall then cut out the 
head of the falic emblem in the shape of an umbrella, with 
a breadth equal to the half of the linga divided into eight 
equal parts ($ — 6). A linga which has a breadth equal to 
three-fourth of its length, is to be deemed as the grantor of 
all human desires (7). The pillar or prop part of such a falic 
emblem shall he a quater of the entire length of the latter, 
which is the measure usually adopted by the gods in their 
worship (8)."" 

Now I shall describe the general features and attributes 
of all sorts of falic emblems. The learned should divide a 
linga measuring sixteen fingers, into six parts through the 
central Jine passing through the Brahma and Rudra Vagas 
The spaces comprised within two such lines of division shall 
measure eight Javas each in the first two cases, each latter 
measuring a Java less than the preceding one (lo). The 
lower part should be divided into three parts, the upper one 
should be left aside, and the remaining two parts should 
be divided into eight divisions, the three upper ones of 
which are to be left aside (i i). The upper three divisions 
iftk., tki»e above the live sections spoken of above, should he 
projected to form the circnkons belt, and thejr blending 
AmXd be bixHight about after leaving such a part inter- 
vesing (12^ '|'hese are the characteristics of the falfc em* 
hiems m gmieral, and now I shall speak to yoa about thr 
ass^liai feati^ea of their pedestals (13)# O tfaofi well-verse** 
cmiaieficefBeiil or startiog ^ecttoa of the 



emblem, together with its height, and the part known as 
Brahina-Vaga (part sacred to Brahma) should be ascertained 
at the outset, and then the latter should be placed over the 
slab disignated as the KarmasUild 

The different dimensions of the pedestal should be. made 
according to its elevation. The Pcetha or the part actually 
occupied by the emblem should be of two such parts 
in height, with a length comnaeiisurahle with tliat of the 
liaga (15). The internal space or cavity of the Peetha 
(stool proper) should be divided into three parts, its breadth 
being equal to one siKlh part of its length (16). The belt 
or the girth round it should measure one third part of its 
breadth, and the depth of its cavity will be equal to or shall 
be one-sixteenth part of its belt with a gradual slope, the 
height of the stool being decorated with ornamental 
„ works {16—18.) 

A part of it will remain imbeded in the ground, a part of 
it will be the height of the stool proper, three such parts will 
be the height «p to the topmost brim or border of the ped.estal. 
The second or upper step shail be of two such parts in height, 
while the last or the lowest step shall have the height 
of such a single part which is to be taken up by each flight 
of steps leading upwards, until the topmost border is reached 
(19—20). Indents to the breadth of such a part are to be 
set apart on each flight of steps until the lowest one is 
reached, and they shall be cut into to three by the three exists 
for water, which shall measure a fore-falanx of a finger m 
breadth at their base, and one-sixth of a floger at tlieir ends, 
and whose beds shall slope a little towards the postern side- 
These are the general characteristics of tl^ falic 
and their pedestals (21—22). 


The god said : — Oh Brahman hear me describe in the 
following manner, the respective measures of the different 
classes of the falic emblem* I shall presently speak about 
those made of common salt and c 4 arified butter, which tf 
worshipped increase the intellect of their worshippers (i). 
A linga made of a piece of cloth, together with one 
made of clay, whether soft or burnt, being worshipped 
for the time being, gives wealth, a burnt one in the latter 
case being held better than an unburnt one (2). There is 
more merit in worshiping a wooden linga than an earthen 
one, and so on a falic emblem of stone is better than a 
wooden one, one made of pearl is better than one of stcne^ 
and lastly the worship of a linga of gold or iron ensures 
greater q[»erit to the worshipper than the worship of all the 
preceding ones respectively (3). The falic emblems made of 
silver, copper or brass, impart enjoyment and salvation to men, 
while those of 2inc and mercury are'.said to be very auspicious 
and confer similar boons as above (4). The installation of a 
falic emblem made of mercury or iron, or of mercury iron and 
other metals combined, and with gems laid up in their insides, 
increase the glory of their worshippers, and grant them 
success and all the blessings their hearts can wish for (5}* 
Edifices dr temple may be raised to these emblems, some 
^wbat to their west, in the event of any body wishing to do* 
the same* JEven the circular luminous spot which the sun 
ca st s on a mirror, and which, for its resemblance to the shape 
of a iingam, » called the falic emblem of the solar rays, is 
to he worshipped* f n fact the god Hara can be worshipped 
every where, his full and complete worship or his worship in 
its enttrety being possible in a liogam only, which in the 
case of being a stone or a wooden one shall ^asnre a 



cfbit in length (7)» A fnlic emblem of the chala class shill 
measure up to BfteeQ fingers according to the finger measure 
(see CoupIetSi. zg-at* Chapter 39th), those usually wor- 
shipped in a household measuring from one to fifteen fingers 
each (8). These emblems are divided into three classes 
such as the Kanyasa (small) the Madhyama (middle) and the 
Yasta (l^rge) according to their respective dimensions, those 
of the first class consisting of thirty six emblems (four 
sets of nine) those of the middle being comprised of four 
sets of nine (thirty six) and those of the third or the Yasta 
class containing equal sets of nine with the middle. The 
Lingants of the Kanyasa class shall measure one to five 
fingers each, the chala einblems of the second class shall be 
of six to ten fingers each, and those of the Yasta or the third 
class of the chala (removable) falic emblems shall measure from 
eleven to fifteen fingers respectively (8—12). The falic em- 
blems made of the precious stones known as the Makaratna 
AaH measure six fingers each, those made of the other gems 
shall have a length or height of nine fingers each, those of 
gold shall measure twelve fingers, and the rest fifteen fingers 
respectively (13). The couple of the two sets of corners from 
the top shall be successively cut into four or sixteen equal 
sides, and those again into thirty two and sixty four in 
tom so as to make it a polygon of sixty four equal sides 
(14). The two sides being thus lopped off, the neck of a 
falic emblem of^lhel^Aiz/tf class shall rather measure twenty 
six parts from the rectangular space at its foot (15), The 
face of the linsfom^ shall gradually go on decreasing by four, 
six and eight parts from its base, and similarly the middle 
part of the ombiem shall be gradually less tbaa Uic height at 
its commencement by a pada (x6}. 



1 he God said ; — Now I shall speak to yon about the 
pedestals of the divine images, which shail equal the image 
in length and shall be half as much broad (r). In the alter- 
native the breadth shall be equal to the half or one-third of 
the measure of the height, and its belt shall he equal to the 
one-third of its breadth (2). The hollow or cavity in the 
inside shall he of that measure, and shall be sloping towards 
its posterior part^ and a space measuring a quarter part of the 
pedestal shall be set apart for the exits or passages of 
water (3). The S£!mam2ilas (waiter passSLgts of equal base)* 
shall •hav'e a breadth equal to the half measure of the space 
set apart for water passages, and their beds shall he equal to 
the third thereof (4I. The water passages of equal base, shall 
have a breadth at the extremity equal to the half thereof ; and 
jthe channel will have a breadth equal to the one-third part of the 
breadth of the pedestal (5^. The image of the god Mahadeva 
may be as long as the pedestal, or may he half as much in 
length. In the former case the height of the pedestal is to he 
divided into sixteen parts as before ; and the six divisions be- 
fow should be made, as occupying the two parts of its entire 
height, and its neck or th^ extreme upper border should be 
laid about with the three parts thereof, and the foundation, 
inde,nts, steps and tfie platforms shall conf>prise such a part 
or a bhaga respectively. The measures of the different parts 
stated above, shall hold good in the eases of all ordinajry 
images (6 — 7). The front of the image shall be propor- 
tfonote to the door of the temple, and the elephants, tigers, 
and other beasts of p'rey shall be carved into the region 
occupied by the halo of the image (8). The pedestal of an 
image of the god Hari should be made in a way as to show it 

AtiNi ' PuSA^AIA.’ 


fo the best advantage possible. The measures !ai<I down cow* 
cerning the images of Vishnu shall apply* to the images of all 
the other gods, white those set forth in conneclioO with the 
images of the goddess Lakshmi, should be observed and 
adapted in the images of all the other goddesses (9). 



The God said:— Now I shall deal with the five differ-^ 
ent divisions of an installation ceremony. The image is 
to be looked upon as the embodiment of the Puriisha or flie^ 
Supreme Being, the real and subjective principle of the* 
universe, who is known by the denomination of Narayana 
and the Pindika or the pedestal is to be consfdered as d 
symbol of Nature or the goddess Lakshmi ; and the cere- 
mony of installation consists in bringing abbut the union 
of* the two, which has the universe for its offspring (i), ed 
generally perform these ceremonies with a view to h^ve 
a fulfilment of their lieajrtfelt desires. The guru or' the priest 
officiating at the ceremony shall cause the sacrificial jsheds to 
be raised in the front of the temple or the divine edifice^ 
on the extension of the two parallel side lines of itsi 
a^tum. These sheds may - be made to rneasbrb eigBf^ 
sixteen, or twenty cubits and the sheds, shah iccufjy 
half the space included between them, for the "accoAihlbdlif- 
lion of the sacrificial bathing seats, pitchers, andf 
stances deemed essential and necessary to the sacrifice 
The auspicious sacrificial platforms shall be made as lb* occopj^ 
an entire one-third part of the above space, and shall be fiuiig 
over with a canopy, and be'decked with pitchers target amd 
small (4). All substances to be used in the sacrifice 



washed with the composition known as the Panchayabfa^ (the 
dung and urine of a cow together with its milk and . curd) and 
the priest officiating at the ceremony, shall wear ornaments, 
and deem himself identical with the god Vishnu, and shall 
commence the worship subsequent to that (5)» The wor- 
shippers of the idols who are efficient in their worship shall be 
propitiated with rings and bracelets, and shall be established at 
the front of each sacrificial Kunda (cavity for sacrificial fire) 
(6). The branches of the Pippala, Oudumbara, Bata, and 
other sacrificial trees should be posted at the different doors 
of the shed, which may be rectangular, semi-circular, lotus- 
shaped, or circular in construction. A branch of the Plakhya 
(Indian sacrificial fig) should adore the east gate of the 
Mandapa^ a Subhadra branch should decorate the south, and 
the northern and western doors of the Mandap should be 
ifecorated with the branches of the Sukarma and Subatra 
trees respectively (7—8). The pitchers should be placed 
five cubits apart at the foot of the each column of the 
^crificial gates, and should be worshipped with the mantra 
beginning with the terms *‘Syonna Prithvy,'* their mouths 
having been previously filled up with the new born shoots 
pf iiiango trees <9). The Chakra or the ring shaped metal 
blade should be placed at the top of the sacrificial shed, 
together with a banner five cubits long, and sixteen finger’s 
broad# Or in die alternative a streamer may measure seven 
cnt^ in height which ' shall be made of a reddish, fiame- 
like, blade, wb^ yellow, blood-red, or of a white colour 
htk imn (10— la). Othou best of the gods, the presiding 
dekies of the flags hoisted in different quarters of the heaven, 
b^mnogwkh the east, and who are known ^as Kumada, 
Kmmddc^ Ptedarika, Bamana, Sfaankhukarna, Sarvanatra, 
Smidcha, and who are possessed of innumerable divine 
viftnes, ihofdd be worduf^ied, together with the hundred and 
red spotless and welt^barht pitchers placed outside 
the iacf^id ahedf full of wato and with bitces of 

AGNI puaanam: 


doth girdled round their necks to which pieces of gold have 
been attached (13—15). O Bramha, four pitchers should 
be placed at the corners of the sacrificial elevation with the 
mantras, ^^Ajighra" etc, and after having placed separate 
pitchers at the east and other sides thereof (16), invoke 
the gods Indra and his companions in the sacrificial pitchers 
placed at the east and other sides of the shed respectively, 
worship the god Indra with the mantra beginning as 
Trafaram Indra etc, and invoke him as follows— Come 
Indra thou lord of the gods and the wielder of the thunder* 
bolt and who ridest on the celestial elephant, defend the 
eastern gate of our sacrificial shed in the company of other 
gods (17—18). Agni (the god of fire) is to be propitiated with 
the mantra beginning with the terms Agnt murdha’' etc* 
or obestence to the god Agni, and invoke him with the otb^ 
presiding gods of the firmament respectively as following* 
Come Oh Agni, thou who weildst a^trident and ridest on a 
goat, accept my worship and defend the south eastern gate 
of my sacrificial mandaf. Come Oh thou mighty sua 
begotten god of death, who ridest on a buffalo and weildest m 
trident, defend tne southern gate of my sacrificial shed* Be 
thou propitiated with the mantra Baibasvata sangamanamt ! 
Come Oh Nairita who dost carry in thy hand a ^word and who 
art accompanied by armies and riding animals, defend the 
south-western gate of our mandap* Here is water foe' 
absolving thy feet, and here is offering to thee* Be dioii 
propitiated with our mantras beginning as Eska ta NairU 
etc- (19—22). Come Oh thou mighty Vansna who dost ' 
carry a irideiit and ridest on the sea monster known a» the 
Mfeiara. I dnake ^esiance to thee, defend the western gate 
Let the priest officiating at the ceremony propitiate the 
god with his own mantra beginning with ** Urum kt Rafa 
Varunam (23—24)* Come Oh BAyu (wind) with the antSope 
thou ridest upon and iby ernnpaniona Maruis and thy tmm 
banner* Defend the iKnth wealern gate of our sa crifici a l 



shed thou mighty god ! being propitiated by our miTntrA 
such as “ Obesiaiice to the god of wind, etc, which is known as 
the Bataityadi mantra. Propitiate the God Soma virith the 
mantra" I make obesiance to Soma and which begins with the 
tetms iSomatn Rajanam, and invoke him as come O thou 
m\g\\ly Soma who weildest in thy hand the celestial mace 
Come with the animal thou ridest upon, and thy army, defend 
the northern gate of our sacrificial shed. I make obesiance 
to thee who art accompanied by Kuvera the God of wealth 
(25—27). Propitiate the God Ishana with the mantra such 
fts obesiance to the God Ishana and wliich begins with the 
terms .Ishanamasya, etc., and invoke the god as come 
a... ishana, who ridest on a bull and wieldst a trident 1 
coteest thou with thy mighty army and defend the north- 
gate. Worship the god Bramha with the mantra of 
«^*.unto thee QBramhan or that beginning as Hirnya^ 
farva;. etc., and invoke him as come O ye Bramha who 
ridest on a swan and dost carry in thy hands the sacrificial 
'ressel'aod a laddie, etc,, defend the upward direction of the 
saUfificial shad* Propitiate the serpent-god Ananta with the 
titintra bf obfrslAnce to Ananta or with the one running as 
Sarpaoto and invoke him as come O thou Ananta 
*»ho' dost sk^ijpon the back of the primordial tortoise and who 
art (he king ot-snakes, defend the under the ground portion 
of 'our sacrificial mandap (28 — 31), 


t HB God saidr-Alter that, perform the ceremony 

sacrificial .ground 
\ over tbe ihe seeds 



•osompanied by the mantra of Narasingha, which are sup- 
posed to feeep off al! demons from the sacrificial enclosure 
and by washing the same with the composition known as the 
Panekagaiya (t). Worship the earth goddess in the pitcher 
containing gems, and also the God Hari and his siccompani* 
ments therein ; and worship the eighteen pitchers with the 
mantra of defence known as the Astra mantra ( 2 ). The 
seeds of Bribi grass should be washed with one unbroken 
jet of water out of the pitcher, and should be scattered 
ronnd the same which should be placed in the midst of the 
hole scooped out for its reception (3). Again worship the 
god Achyuta and his wife Lakshmi in the pitcher with a 
piece of cloth round its neck, and with the mantra 
running as Yoga~yogati and spread out their bed over the 
mystic diagram {4). Spread a cotton bed over the rows of 
the sacrificial Kusha grass and worship in the bed, the God 
Vishnu, who holds sway over the three divisions of the uni- 
verse, and is the slayer of the demon called Madhu, together 
■with the Vidyadhipas in the eight quarters of the globe (5). 
Worship the Bamana manifestation of the god - in the north- 
west corner of the sacrificial bathing mandap, and Sridhar 
'Hrishikesha, Padmanava and Damoodar in the north-east 
and other corners of the same (6). After having performed 
the worship in the four pitchers situate in the bathing shed 
at the north, deposit all the sacrificial substances in the 
same (y). Out of the pitchers containing water for the 
sacrificial hath, consecrate the aforesaid pitchers in ail the 
quarters of the globe, and lovingly stow the pitchers for the 
purpose of bathing (8). Put the young shoots of Bata (llg), 
Oudumber, Ashvatha, Ashoka, Bal, Palasha, Arjuna, E^akba, 
Kadamva, Baku!, and mango trees in the lOjOBth of the afore- 
said pitchers, together with the lotus iibwers, grass, the 
substance known as Rocbona, Darva and PiB|a!am (lo)- 
Put dawB into the pit'dbers on the right hand side, the 
iowen called .Jidi| and Kdndat and pttces of sandal wood 



both red and white, together with rice, tagara and Sidhartha 
(white mustard) (ii). Place in the other pitcher the silt ob- 
tained from the two opposite banks of the rivers flowing into the 
sea, especially that obtained from each of the banks of the 
river Ganges, together with pieces of gold and silver, cow- 
dung, barley shall paddy, selsmum, the shyama creeper, 
Vishnupurni, Vringaraj, and Shatabari (Asparagus recemosus) 
(j2 — 13). Place ill the other pitcher at the north-east corner 
the Sahadeva, Mahadevi, Bala, and castor plants together with 
the branches of the Aihvatha, Bilva and cocoanut trees (14). 
Place in the other pitcher, the loose earth obtained from 
anthills situate at the seven different places enjoined in the 
Shastras, and put down in the other the water of the 
river Ganges together with the loose sand obtained from 
its banks (15). Place in the other pitcher the earth 
loosened by boars, elephants and bulls driving their tusks, 
and horns into the ground, together with the clay lying 
at the roots of Kusha grass and lily steins respectively 
(16). Put into the other pitcher the clay obtained from 
the holy mountq^ns, while saffrom and flowers of the 
Naga Keskara tree should be placed in the other (17). 
Flowers together with the sandal wood, Agaru (Agallochum) 
and camphor should be placed in the one next follow- 
ing, Baidurjya {Lapis lasuli) coral, pearl, crystal and 
diamond being previously immersed in the same (iS). 
The priest who is the inhabitant of that excellent country 
called the Madhyadeca shall fill the next pitcher with 
waters obtaiped from the rivers bearing both mascular and 
feminine names, together with the water carried from the lakes 
or tanks (*19) ; and shall duly instal and consecrate in the 
sacrificial shed, another set of eighty one pitchers filled with 
perfumed waters, the consecration being performed with the 
mantra commonly hnown as the Srisukta (20)- Barley, frhite 
mnsUrd, perfumes and the extremities of the Kusha grasst 
saadried rice, sesamam ori^taie, a frtut a fiower shoaM 


» 203 

be first placed for the purpose of presenting the preliminary 
offering ; while lotus flowers, branches of green grass, a 
climbing plants called (Ichonocarpus frutiscens) 

together with a leaf of the holy basil, and the bunches of 
Kusha grass should be offered on the right hand side, as the 
foot offering of the deity, the small metal cups containing 
the offering of honey ^ect. being placed on the same side 
with the foregoing articles (22). The berry of the coccola 
plant (probably cocculus Indicus) clove and the fruit of the 
auspicious Jatutree (nutmeg) together with sun dried rice 
and the bunches of green grass should be offered into the 
fire on the north for the purpose of rinsing the jnouth of 
the deity (23). Offer on the north east a vessel containing 
flower and perfume for performing Ntrajan ceremony (waiving 
of flower light or cI<Hh before an image) to the deity, 
a similar vessel being placed on the north west side of the 
mandap, as containing odoriferous ungent of the god (24}. 
Sixty lighted lamps together with muramansty amalak and 
nishadikam should be offered, eight lamps having been lighted 
up for the purpose of waving lights before the deity (25). The 
celestial emblems and weapons of the god such as the conch, 
the ring weapon, the Srihatsa (curl of hair on the breast 
of Visbnu), the thunder-bolt and the divine lotus should be 
presented as made of [flowers of various colours and placed 
in a golden receptacle (26}. 


7 iiE God said‘:<-&cavale At bole for . the sacrRIcial 
fire m die oorth /west mte tA die maniap^ and after having 
l^ora^ tbe ftmmt to aamber of htotdred tad 



ttDto the god Agnt and the Vaisnaba^ and after hamg 
duly 'washed and established the sacrificial pitchers, the 
priest accompanied by the Scnfptors and the worshippers 
of the idol, should go to the shed where the inaage bad 
been carved out with the flourishes of toumpet : and music. 
A ring composed of mustard seeds and the messes of a 
cowbeb should be put around the left wrist of the image 
with the mantra ^onig as Visnaba etc, and a similar one 
of a piece of silk cloth should be wound up around the same 
part or the priest -The image should be established 

in the lAand^p, attired in a garment, and should be wor* 
shipped and propitiated in the following manner I bow 
down to the^ Ihou sovereign mistress of the gods, who hast 
been made by Visvaiarma* I make obesiance to thee thou 
resplendent nurse of the universe. In thee I intend wor- 
shipping Narayan who knows no change or modification, 
and whom no evil can reach. Be thou prosperous goddess 
devoid of all short comings on the part of the sculptor and 
which being thus advised should be carried to the bathing 
shed (4 — 6). The sculptor should be entertained with the arti- 
cles of present, and the priest with the gift of a cow, and the 
eyes of the image should be opened up with the mantra run- 
ning as Chtiram dehati, while the sight is to be endowed 
with the mantra begining with the terms Agnir /otz,** tic^ 
whiles flowers and white mustard seeds immersed in clarified 
butter should be offered on the pedestal (7—8). The priest 
sbouldplace on the head of the image bunches of Kuska grass 
and put collyrium along its eyes with the mantra running as 
Madhuhata (9). At the same time he should utter the 
mantras beginning with Hiranyagarva etc, and again put the 
pigment along the eyes accompanied by the mantra ghritabati 
(IC^, The cake of the Masur puts should be waved before the 
imageliie mantra of Aio Deva being sinHiitaneoixsly read there 
witfa, and the priest should perform the washing ceremony 
with liot water and the mtntra nmoiag as sapta te Agnt (if)* 


20 $ 

Thft image should be anointed by readiii^i^ ^aynlta the 
Drupudadiba and washed over by the priest with the waters 
ofrivers and sacred pools by uttering the mantras ap^kistm^ 
and with the Jem waters consecrated by the maalra 
Pahamani (I2). Bathe the image with hot water consc-* 
crated by the G&yiiri mantra^ and with water out of the 
pitchers made of earth from the sacred places and consa^ 
crated by the mantra sanno Devi and with sandal paste 
accompanied by the samudram gaccka (13). Bathe 

the supreme god with the five different sorts of earth and 
sand, and water consecrated by the mantra Hiranfaii^ and 
with water out of the pitchers made of the anthill earth con-i^ 
secrated by the mantra Imam matt {14). Pour out the wash*' 
ings of cereal over the image accompanied by the mantrams 
Tadifishnu and Ja Ouskadtfi^ and with bitter drugs dissolved 
in water consecrated by the mantra fajna Ja^uayaii and 
after that with the composition known as the Pamhagabjfia: 
by uttering the identical mantm (15). The iniage sl^uld b« 
bsdhed with waters containing fruita, out of the pilefaem 
isespeetively situate on the north and the east, with tha 
niantras Payas Prtiktiyam and Fii Falmi Bisvaia 
|t6). Perforai the Udvartan (eonrists in wavbg 
Sower^ or a pice of cloth before the image) ceremony by 
ntfering the Somam Pkfanam mantra from the f%lit df the 
image and by reading out the fnaatra Hamaemhi on biSi 
west (xy). Place the Indian spikenard and fruit of the 
emWicIc myrobolan on the head of the image CMse crated 
by the mantra of MurdhAnandiva and pour over Us 'bead 
the contents of the eighty one pitchers, accompanied by 
ibe maninei ruMing as Idam Apait and anmAl* the 
wkb sandal pa^ eonnecrated by the mantra gm^ 4 k 0 'd'nonrii 
The god nhmdd he iiOvefced fwift the 
mtmim. Coiae O ViAm the benehicter of thf iAol« 
wmverne^ I midne oheniamce 4o thee O 

»pt {ttit;^oa of <he oaoriio^ luid Ibe tbwid iio« 



wouod up round the left wrist ot the image should he un- 
loosened (20). The similar Ihread ring>ound the left wrest 
of the priest should he untied with the sukta mantram 
running as Munchmil etc. The Padya (water for washing 
the feet) should be offered with the mantra Hirnmayatt, 
and the Argka (preliminary offering of flowers and perfumes) 
with the mantra beginning with Ato Deva etc (21). The 
small metal cups containing honey and known as Madhu- 
farkas should be offered with the mantra beginning as 
Madhuhata^ and the achaman (the ceremony of sipping 
water and of washing lips etc. at the commencement of the 
worship) should be performed with the mantra begin- 
aing as Maiyee grinhami, and the learned priest should 
scatter bunches of green grass and pinches of sun dried 
rice with the mantra running as Aksunamt modanta etc (22). 
The body of the image should be rubbed over so as to look 
all ag!oW| and perfumes should be offered with the mantra 
beginning as GundhabatL The garland should be offered 
with the* mantra of Unnayami^ etc.^ and the sacred-thread 
should be presented with the mantra running as Idam Visnu 
(23). The two pieces of wearing cloth should be given with 
the mantra beginning as Brihaspata Bustrajugmam and the 
cloth covering the upper part of the body should be pre- 
sented with the mantra having the terms Vidakam at its 
commencement) and the cereals and white flowers should be 
scattered with the mantra running as Mahabrata etc. (24). 
The incense sticks should be offered with the mantra 
commencing as Dkurast etc.) and 'the coUyrium should be 
applied to along the eje-iids of. the image) with the 
Si^ia known as the Briaaim Sukia, The ornamental Hiak 
(tatoo) mark should be impressed on the back of tfae nose 
whfa ttie mantra banning as fafnajajnaii etc.t and the 
gartaad should be f^esenled with the mantra nmning as 
Dirghmsta ^ The nmbnidla ' should be <^>ened up 
the head of the im^ iiiUi H^mantrm ^ Imdra cckatrm 



tiCi mirror should be presented by reading out the 
mantra of Biraja etc, the ohowries with the mantra of 
Bikarna and t^e ornaments should be presented by uttering 
the mantra running as Rathantara (26). Tjie fans of 
Palmyra leaves should be offered with the Bayudaivatya 
mantras and Jems should be offered by uttering the mantra 
beginning as Munchami to etc, and hymns should be sung 
unto the God Hari as laid down in the vedic Poorusa Sukta 
(27). The ceremonies mentioned above should be performed 
in the case of the installation of this god and of other gods as 
well and their hallowed pedestals, and the mantra known as 
the Souparna sukta should be read aloud in the time of rais- 
ing'the image, which should be raised by uttering the mantra 
running as U ttist a^ etci carried to the shed of the divine 

bedstead accompanied by the sukta mantra known as sakun 
sukta and the mantra beginning as Bramha rathadi (28--^ 
29). The priest should lay down In the bed the divine image 
and the pedestal of the gcA^Visnu by uttering the sukta called 
the srisukta, and one beginning with Ata Deva etc. (30)* 
A lion, a bull, a fan, a pitcher, a banner, a trumpet, and a 
lamp constitute what is known as the Astamangala or the 
eight auspicious combination (31). The priest should make 
an exhibition of these auspicious combination at the foot 
of the divine image, accompanied by the repitition of the 
mantra known as the Gayatri, and the Sukta known as the 
Ashavasukta. A hearth, a covering pan a dadbika (laddie), a 
moshal (a rod for thrashing grains) a stone slab (for grinding 
spices) a broomstick, and <^er household furniture and utea 
sils of tdiet, shoidd be presented to the god. A pitcher filled 
up with edibles and with gems and a piece of chAh over it 
shoidd be kept at the head of the bed*stead (32««-34}* 


The God said ;~The Adliibasana ceremony of [the God 
Hari consists in the act of approaching that god* and I shall 
presently describe the process by which that is to be brought 
about Tlje priest should consider himself as the ommscienti 
all pervading being, and the purest of all conscious subjects 
(l). He should rouse up within himself, the egoistic conscious 
energy of his ownself, or in other words, his consiciousness 
perse^ (which being possessed of an epithet, or iipadhi and 
being apparently qualified by his senses, has determined his 
individuality in this world), with his intercorporal wind burst* 
ing forth in the sound of an. omkar; and commune the 
same with the divine energy dawning upon his innerself 
The learned priest should realise in imagination that his 
gross, material body, together with the earth his abode, 
bad been converted into vapour or air, and that too'Tn- its 
turn he should light up in mind with the resplendent Banki 
Sif. This terrestrial globe mentally converted into an 
immense mass of glowing fire, should be visioned in mind 
as transformed into an infinite expanse of ethar, the whole 
external world, together with all the objects of sense per- 
ception, whether earthly or etherial, having been imagined as 
bereft of their external existence, and existing in the senses 
only as the five proper sensibles (Panchatanmatra) which 
should be mentally transformed in their turn, each into its 
immediate anticedent ( 4 }. 

The expanse of ether spoken of above, should he thought 
as merged into 4he sub^nce of the mind, the mind in its 
tarn as converted into the Ego or the conscious personal 
individualism, and the personality as transformed into the 
evolving inteilsgent pcincipte or the spirit of the universal 
nature (Haiial), and tbe s^re in iter tom should be merged 


20 ^ 

lintiiat disetndodied indiscredible absolute real in man, which 
Icnows no change or inodificaiion (5). This real, whose self 
IS the perfect and absolute knowledge, is called Vasudeva, 
who by means of that indiscrebable energy known as Maya, 
and with the object of evolving out into this universe, first 
brought to being the god Sankarsan (literally universal 
attraction). This Sankarsan emanated from the Absolute 
Real, who was then a voice or a sound only. The god San- 
karsan the universal attraction) in his turn, begat Pradumna 
(literally light) in the womb of Maya (literally the evolving 
principle propelling the essence or embryo of the universe) 
(g — 2). Pradumna (light) who was tangible or was possessed 
of the attribute of touch, begat Anirudha Brahma (literally 
-unobstructed space and receptacle of light). Anirudha pos- 
sessed t&e attribute of taste only and Brahma those of smell 
and light. Brahma and Anirudha first created water ; and 
Prahma laid down the golden eggs (the primordial molecules 
of matter) in that water, which were constituted of the five 
material elements, such as the earth, water, light, (heat) air 
and etlier. Imbued or impregnated with the spirit or cons- 
ciousness, these eggs or molecules generated a peculiar knd 
of force or energy within themselves, wliich is called life (8— 
9). Aad life in the company of consciousness gave rise to the 
lacuities, the whole combination being known as a living being 
(Prani). But the /ti (the real or the inner being), thougli 
somewhat dependent upon and determined by its material 
constituents, partakes of the nature of the sou! or spirit, and 
is a spiritual entity amidst the five diflEerent or life 

winds (lo). Intellect came out as a resulUut of the combina- 
tion of the life and the soul with ks eight-fold moSificatioes ; 
and out of that proceeded egoism or individuality which 
in its turn gave birth to mind (i i). Tite mitid with its sensa- 
tions (Sankaipa^) brought on Uie five corresponding senaihles 
of sound, touch, sight, taste, aad smell, which in their turn 
^me<i the perceptions 0iiaii) produced the fife 



sense organs of skin, ears, nose, eyes tongue and which 
are called the intehectual sense organs and the five operative 
ones ; which are the legs, the arms, the speech and the geni- 
tals (12 — 14.} , 

Now i shall enumerate the five material elements which 
include the earth, water, light, air and ether, which enter into 
the composition of the materia! body of a man which is a 
microcosm of- the whole universe (15). And I shall give 
you the names of ail the mantras which signify and symbolise 
the principles dealt with above, for their being located 
(imaginarily) in the different parts of the body (16). 

These letters should be imagined as written in fire, and 
resplendent with a sort of hallowed fight, casting no sbaddow 
at the time of locating them in the different parts of the 
body. The letter Ma which is the symbol of the soul or the 
innerself, should be located as co-extensive with the body of 
the deity (16). The letter Bia, which is emblematic of life, 
should be imagined as lodged iu Ihe epithet, which marks 
and differentiates the individuality of d^e^god; and the 
Ba, which h a symbol for intellection, *shou1d be located in 
the region of Jus heart, together with the letter Pha which is 
a phonetic sign for the egoistic consciousness, and the letter 
Pa which stands for the mind as the some total or the aggre- 
gate of sensations (17 — 18). The letter Na which is a symbol 
for the proper sensible of sound should ^be located in the 
heart, while the letter Dha^ which represents the proper 
sensible of touch, should be imagined as lodged in the face 
of the image (19). 

The letter which signifies the proper sensible of 
sight should be located in the region ol the heart, the letters 
Jfm the indicator of the proper sensible of taste being 
located in the fi^lvtc cavity (20). The l^er whkh is 
symbolical of the proper sensible of smell, shmiid be located 
inside the regions of’ the Kaee-joints, while ihelelteca 
{Murdhanyd) and Dkm^ siionld be kaagiw^at 



inside the ears and the skin respectively (21). The letter 
Da should be imagined as burning in the eyes, and the letter 
Tha in the tongue, the letters Ta and Inga being respectively 
located in the nose and the speech {22). The adept and the 
initiated Brahmin should locate in the arms, the letters Jha 
which is an emblem of the organ of liands, the letter ja in 
the feet, the letter ccha inside the anus, and the letter cha 
in the genitals (23V The letter nnga^ which is symbolical 
of the earthly essence,' should be imagined as shining brilliant 
inside the muscles olf the legs, the letter in the pelvic 
cavity, and the letter ga which is symbolical of the light, 
should be imagined as illumining the region cf the cardaic 
recesses of the god {24). The letter Kha which represents 
the ccrial essence {Baytitatvd) shodld be fancied as placed 
in the nostrils, and the ietter ka which symbolises the 
infinite ethar should be located in the cavity of the skull (25). 
The letter ya which ows its origin to the spirit of the sun, 
should be mentally ensconced in the plexus, situate over the 
aforesaid organ, and’ which is named after that deity— hundred 
and forty thousand rays of light being imagined as shooting 
forth from the centre thereof (26). The letter Ma burning 
as a star of sixteen points, should be placed in the midst 
of the circle from which radiate the aforesaid rays of light, 
and within that, the priest fully initiated into the mysteries of 
the mantra, should imagine the letter chandrabindu (sign for 
the nasal sound); and the letter Ha^ preceded by the pranaba 
mantra Om, should be placed at the centre of the plexus, and 
the sign of the vowel should be coupled with the aforesaid 
Has So that the whole fnantra at the centre would read Om 
Hnu* The mantras which form the energies as it were of 
the principal one, are, “ Om Am Paramestyatmana 2, Am 
Mamas Purusaimana 3. Om^ bam Manmiirityatmanas 4 
Nam Biskvaimana 5 Om btm namas Sarvaimana (27^29), 
The first of the aforesaid mantras should be applied to the 
seat, the second to the cushion, the third to the bed of the 

21 ? 


god, the fourth to his drink, and t!ie fifth at the time of hi* 
second or final worship. These five mantras are also named 
as the five Upanishads or five differentt branches of knowledge 
The mantra Hun should be located in the centre, after having 
contemplated the god Hari who is embodied by the mantras 
{31). The principal mantra of any particular manifestation 
of Vishnu should be located at the time of consecrating 
that image, and after that the general principal mantra of 
the god Vasudeva which runs as Om namas Bhagabata Vasu- 
devaya (32). Mental images of the different manifestations 
of the 'god Vishnu should be projected by imagination into 
different parts of the body of the image, such as the head, nose, 
forehead face, throat, heart, hands, knee-joints and the feet, and 
each part should have aTarticular manifestation as its-presid- 
ing deity as follows (33). The manifestation known as Keshava 
should be located in the head of the image, Narayana in the 
face, Madhava about the neck, Govinda in the hand, Vishnu’ 
at the heart, Madusudana at the belly, Tribikrama about the 
waist, Sridbar about the knee-joints, Hrishikesha in the 
rightside, Padmanava about the calves and Danrodar in the 
feet. Oh thou Best of the honestmen f the location of the 
different deities in the different parts of the body as enu- 
®®crated above shall apply to all the images of Vishnu 
in any form of manifestation whatsover (34~3'7). In the 
alternative the ceremony of infusing life into the 
image of any particular god or manifestation about to be 
mstalled, should be performed with the principal mantra of 
that particular god head. The first letter of the name of 
any particular manifestation of a god, should be coupled 
with the twelve vowel letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, and 
located in the diflerent parts of the image such as the heart 
etc, at the time of the life infusing ceremony and only the 
principal mantra ahonld consist of ten letters. The faculties 
and principles are to be located in the body in the same order 
as they are fonod b the god ; and the god VisBao should be 



worsFipped in the mystic diagram resembling the shape of a 
circle described around a lotus flower, with -perfumes and other 
articles of worship (38 — ^40). The seat together with its 
body and cover, should be contemplated as previously 
directed, awd over that the auspicious Chakra or a circle of 
twelve radii should be hnaained (41). The circle should he 
imagined as having three concentric naves and two circum- 
ferences, and Nature etc should be contemplated at the back 
thereof (42). The god should be again worslupped at 
the ends of the spokes in a twelve fold way, and the moon, 
with his three fold armies and sixteen phases, should be 
contemplated therein (43). Th« priest, who is the inhabitant 
of that 'excellent country called the Madkyadeca^ should con- 
template a lotus flower of twelve petals about the nave of 
the wheel, and in the centre thereof the effulgent energy of 
the supreme being, (Poitrusha Shakti) should be worship- 
ped and propitiated. The god Hari should be now located* 
rn the image where he should be worshipped with the other 
gods (44—45). The manifestations of Keshava, etc. should 
be worshipped with their attendants zn^aharutkin due order,, 
with the flowers, perfumes and other articles of worshipj 
and with the mantra known as the D'vadasha ksari from the 
number of letters of wl^ich it is composed {46). The priest 
should worship the lokepalas in due order in that circular 
diagram of twelve radii, and after that the image with* 
flowers, perfumes, and other articles of worship, and the 
mantra known as the Purusha sukta. Similarly the divine- 
pedestal should be worshipped with the mantra known as the 
Srikukta^ after which the sacrificial fire called Vnrisnabanalar 
should be lighted up (47—48). The wise priest after having 
performed the kama cerem in the fire with the mantras 
peculiar to the god Vishnu, should consecrate the water 
known as the water of peace {Shantyudak) and sprinkle the 
same over the head of Che image, after which be sboulc^ 
perforin the cereiRony of {Banki prMnayam) kindling 



up of the sacrificial fire (49). The learned priest should 
kindle up the sacrificial fire in the fire receptacle 
on the south with the mantra running as Agnim 

etc. and in the fire receptacle to the east 
? tha mantra beginning as Agnz Agneeti (50), In the 
fire receptacle on the north the sacrificial fire should be 
kindled up with the mantra Agni Agni Habdznaha^ the 
ni'intra to he used on such occasions at large being as Tam 
hyagniriichyata (51)* iht Knndas orf he recep^ 

tac:es for sacrificial fire, the fire is to be worshipped with the 
branches of Palaslia trees to the number of hundred 
and eight, and witli the seeds of Brihi grass accompanied by 
the (pranaba manira Om (52). Clarified butter with 
se*Hmum orientale should be offered unto the sarificial fire 
with the mantra running as Om Bhu, Om Bhuba. etc ; and 
after that only clarified butter should be offered by uttering 
the principal mantra ; and after that the homa ceremony of 
peace called the Shanti Homa should be performed with the 
composition known as the three Honeys (S3). The priest 
should touch the feet, naval, ears and the head of the god by 
uttering the twelve letters forming his principal mantra^ 
and after having again performed the homa ceremony with 
curd, clarified butter, and water, should touch the head of the 
god for the second time (54). After having touched the 
head, naval and the feet, the priest should establish the 
four rivers, viz., the Ganges Jamuua Godavari, and sarasvati 
by calling the name of each, in due order (55). The 
rivers should be dried up with the gayitri mantra sacred to 
the god VishnUf and the ckaru or the sacrificial porridge 
should be cooked by uttering the gay Hr t mantra. After 
that, offerings should be made, anjj homa ceremonies performed 
and repast should be given to me Brahmans (56). Gold and 
cows should given to the spiritual preceptor for the satisfac- 
tion of the Samaga (those who sing hymns of the Sama 
Veda) Brahmans. The Dikpatis (the guardian deities of 



the different quarters of the hrmament) should be propitiated 
with offerings, and the night of the Adhibasa ceremony should 
be spent in ?igii and songs in honour of the supreme 
feeing (57)- 


The God said:— As regards the installation of the 
divine pedastal, the length of the adytum should be divided 
into seven parts, and on the part known as the Brahmabhaga 
(part sacred to Bramhd) the image *s to be fixed, and should 
not under any circumstances be placed,on the parts which are 
named after the gods, man and Pichases, and which respec- 
tively belong to them. Rather the image should be so 
posted as not to encroach upon the part or division of the 
adytum called the part of the winged beings. The pedestal 
should be carefully fixed off the parts called Deva Mounsk^ 
ihags (Divine and Human divisions), and jems should be 
inserted or driven into the same, in the event of its being 
built of stone possessing marks, which place it under 
the category of the neuter stone previously dealt with (l~3). 
The Homa ceremony should be performed with the mantra 
sacred to Narsinha manifestation of Vishnu, and the inser- 
tion of the gems should be made by uttering the same 
mantra. The seeds of Brihigrass^ genus, the compound 
metal knOwn as Tridkaiu^ iron and other metalic substances 
and sandal wood, etc., should be inserted into the 'nine^holes 
starting from the east. The holes should be filled up witli 
the substance known as the Guggul, the mantras running as 
Ckandra^ etc.| should be read at the same time {4”5*) 



After having performed the ceremony attendant upon the 
aforesaid insertion of gems, the images should be rubbed 
over with the bunches of pointed Kusha grass, and 
Sahadeva (6). Both the inside and the exterior surface 
of the image [should be cleansed and purified with the 
■composition Renown as the Panchagabya (cows-milk, and its 
curd; cow butter in a clarified svlat-e., and the urine and dung 
of a cow), and thoroughly washed over with river water 
and the washings of the Kusha grass {7). The SthandileL 
(sand pavement for lighting the sacrificial fire upon^ should 
be beautifully made of sand, of a recta i)g«!ar shape, 
each side measuring a cubit and a half (8). The pitchers 
should be duly placed in the eight directions beginning 
with the east, and the consecrated fire should be brought 
in by uttering the eight letters spoken of above (9), The 
Homa ceremony should be performed into the fire by - throw- 
ing— the branches of the sacrificial trees, with the Gay'ltri, and 
theTama^fna Dyuvi mantra, and clarified butter should be 
offered into the same hundred times with each of the eight 
letters of the alphabet thus making in all eight hundred obla- 
tions of clarified butter, after which the final oblation should 
be offered (10). The water of peace {Shanti Udak) should be 
subsequently sprinkled over the head of the image with the 
bunches of mango leaves, and by uttering hundred limes the 
principal mantra of the god ; accompanied by the Rik 
mantra running aS Sreeska Ta jhanayaya (ii). The image 
should be lifted up with the mantra beginning as “ Bramhajan 
and should carried to the front of the divine edifice with the 
mantra which runs as Rise Oh lord of Brahma*’ (Uttista 
Bramhanaspata) (12). The god Hari sliould be carried in 
a litter towards his divine edifice, accompanied by songs 
and Vedic hymns sung in a chorus, and should be dropped 
•down at the gate of his palace (13), Women and Brahmins 
dhould pour water over the image of Hari, out of the eight 
auspicious pitchef55 and the priest should plaster sandal 


paste apd other perfumes over his body, by ottering his 
principal mantra ** Obeisance to the god Vasndeva” (14). 
Subsequent to,, that, a cloth and the preliminary offering 
(Argha) should be offered with the mantra of ^*Ato Deva etc/^ 
and in the auspicious moment fixed for the occasion by the 
astrologers, the image should be placed upon the pe.destal 
simultaneously there with, and the priest should utter the 
mantra which runs as ^*D^vasya to etc.^' (15)* The intelligent 
priest should place the image on the pedestal by uttering the 
following mantra. “Obeisance to the supreme being, who 
though one, admits of a threefold division as the Creator 
^volver), the Preserver and the destroyer, and who fills the 
three divisions of the universe known as the Heaven, the 
region of the mortals, and the nether regions, and who is 
almighty in these three domains and make it steady on the 
same (t6). The image should be washed with the composition 
called the P&nchagabyn (five substances obtained from the 
cow), in the accompaniment of the mantra which runs as 
^^Dkruha, etc, and the “ Bishvataschaksu etc.” respec- 

tively ; and should be bathed with perfumed water subsequent 
to that (17), The god Hari should be worshipped with all his 
appertenances as forming one whole. The universal sky 
should be considered as his embodiment, or in other words his 
image should be deemed as reflected in the infinite expanse of 
the heaven, while ,the Earth should be reckoned as his foot- 
stool (18)- His body should be imagined as composed of 
firy particles (paramanu, or t he divisible parts of an atom 
recently recognised by the chemistry of the west), and His 
universal spirit, wliich pervades -through the twenty five 
Bhuts (the fundamental components of the 
universe and of which the universe itself is but the exterior 
aspect) should be invoked in the image in the following 
way (19). 1 invoke the universal soul, who is aR knowledge, 

all consciousness, and all gladness. I invoke thee Infinite 
consciousness unaffected by the states of wakiog, and 




* dream, and who art devoid and independent of bodj, senses, 
mind, ifiteilection, life, and egoism ; and who dost reside in 
the heart of every entity from the lowest stratum of Nature 
to the resplendent Brahma^ the top of the creating or the 
evolving principle. Comest thou out from the heart of the 
universal nature, and takest thy abode in the midst of thy 
createii image, thou supreme deity f Dost thou make this 
image imbued willi tli[y perfec*: absolute soul, both its inside 
and out. Takest thy abode in this image, assuming the body 
of material essence to the length of eight fingers, endow- 
ed with an epithet* (20 — 22). Having thus invoked in the 
image, the supreme Brahma, the culminating stage of ail light 
and knowle<ige, and who is one and absolute in the uni- 
verse, and having thus made the same imbued with the 
universal soul by uttering the pranava mantra (Om), {23), 
the priest should arouse him up and make him hear. The 
ce-emony of Sannidhya Karana (act of bringing the god 
near) consists in the act of telling the mantra by touching 
the heart of the image. The priest should read out the 
Vedic mantra known as the Purusha Shukta, and tell in 
secret the following mantra (24). I make obeisance to 
thee, O Vishnu, thou lord of the gods, whose soul is perpe- 
tual felicity arisen out of its own perpect nature, and wiiom 
the universe acknowledges- as its supreme lord. Knowledge 
and science are thy two embodiments, O Lord, who dost 
follow the energies of the Supreme Brahma. I bow unto 
thee, O Vishnu, who art the original and disembodied spiri- 
tual being without any change or modification, and whom the 
three virtues such as Sattwa, Raja and Tama can never affect. 
Do'-t thou approach this image who art the most magnani- 
mous spirit. Wake op in this image with thy embodiment of 
knowledge and all thy lotus flowers or divine energies, con- 
receptacle of the image (25—27). After 

♦ See note. 



having performed the above Sannidhya Karana ceremony, 
tije priest should ‘.worship Brahma and the family of other 
gods, bv mentioning tlie name of each, and the divine em- 
blems and weapons with the respe^ctive Mudras bearing their 
names (28). Tiie presence of the god should be ii>ferred 
from the Jatra and ^arsa^ and the priest should make obei- 
sance to him, and propitiate him by telling the mantra sacred 
to him, and which is composed of the eight letters stated 
above. Subsequent to that he should go out of the temple 
and worship the images of Chanda and Prachanda posted 
at the door, and worship the image of the celestial bird 
(Garuda), sacred to the God Vishnu, after having duly in- 
stalled him at the shed of the sacrificial fire (Agn; mandap) 


The presiding deities of the different quarters of the 
heaven should be duly invoked and worshipped ia their re- 
spective quarters, and the priest should in“stal and worship 
the other gods together with the image of Bishvaksena and 
those of the divine conch-shell and ring weapon, etc. (31), 
Offerings should be made to u\\ the pernicious ghosts, and to 
the other attendant gods of Vishnu; and remuneration for 
performing the ceremony should be given to the priesl by 
making over to him the proprietory right of a village, to- 
gether with a cow and bits of gold (32). Articles such as 
are necessary for the performance of a sacrificial ceremony 
should be given to the principal priest (Acharjya), while the 
remuneration to be paid to the Riltwiks (assistant priests) 
should be half of that of the former in value (33). Remunera- 
tions should be paid to the other priests, and the Brahmins 
should be sumptuously fed, without any regard to their 
number, and the Guru or the principal priest should offer the 
benefit of the sacrifice to the jajaman or the person at whose 
instance the same had been performed (34)* 

The consecrator of an image of Vishnu leads his fathers 
and progenies to the region of the same divinity. The pro- 



cedore, set forth above, should be adopted in the m^anation 
of all other images, except that the principal mantra should 
vary in each case, the mantra of that 'particulai god having 
had to be worshipped (35). 


The Goo said : — “ Now I shall speak all about the bath- 
ing ceremony {Aiavritha snanani) to be performed after 
the completion of the sacrifice. The Homa (offering of 
clarified butter into the fire) sboidd be finished with the mantra 
which runs as Visnorna iu etc, and the eighty one pitchers 
sboold be duly placed in their proper places, and the god" 
Hari should be invoked, and installed (i), and worshipped 
with Bowers and perfumes. Offerings should be made to the 
guru or the principal priest, and the doors should be duly 
consecrated accord!^ to the rite described below. A piece 
of gold shoidd be placed beneath the door (2). And the 
gitru m the ^ie^ after having placed the tender shoots of 
Chidomibar etc into the mouths of the eight pitchers, and 
after performed the worship with flowers and per- 

l i nwa% a»d wfth the, amntra of Om(^, should perform the 
isMMtr MtMlaBoaf brascfaes of the sacrificia] trees aad 

the seseamora oiieatale, apd (^fmr the bed 

afpjh , befoy The Gods ' .named 

1m loet^pd at he^^.(^ 
pe h»Mdhe% f i :Tii r ,f|e,i8 

lid mi tMftnBlinl md wpi^h^ipcd 



by reading aloud the vedic mantra knowu as the srisukto. 
The fruits of Bel tree should be offered to him and the remun- 
eration for performing the sacrifice should be given to the 
principal and other priests (6). 

Now I shall speak about the consecration of the divine 
temple whose doors have been consecrated at the outset^ 
and wherin the image of the god Hari has been duly ins- 
talled (7). The consecration of such a temple consists in 
the act of consecrating its heart or adytum. Pitchers 
made of gold and silver, and a pitcher made of silver only, 
together with one made of the Indian bell metal should 
be placed at the foot of the vault of the hadi^ filled 
with the eight kinds of auspicious Jems, cereals, seeds, 
iron, and water — with pieces of cloth tied round their necks 
(8—9). The Homa ceremony should be performed with 
the mantra peculiar to Nrisinha, and tbe life should be 
invoked into the temple with the taitva known as tbe 
Narayaniaiva (la). Oh lord of the gods, the Iffe of the 
temple is to be imagined as partaking of the nature, and the 
temple itself ts to be imagined as possessing |he attributes 
of the god himself (i 1}. The piece of gold should be placed 
below with tbe golden pitcher, and remuneratioa should 
be given to the principal priest, ami tbe Brambios should 
be fed (i2)« Svh^qmti^t to that tbe ceremonies of twining 
thread or hanging garls^ds round the pialforai^ aecki 
and gldbe ei the temple Arnold be performed, over Ike 
gMm the saelai rh^ kaofmi ^ the ^^airskan €%a^ should 
be pkiced^ as being esnbleai^ic of ^ , 

of the gnd ii| the 


Earth. Now I shall deal with the hoisting of flags from the 
top of the temple at present, by which the evil spirits are des- 
troyed (i6). The holster of a flag from the top of a divine 
temple resides as many thousand years in the region of Visnu 
as there are number of atoms in the different parts which cons- 
titute the temple {17). Oh sinless! A man derives tens of 
millions of times more merit by hoisting the flag, since it 
wafts winds unto the different parts of a divine temple such 
as platform etc, and hangs round itv neck (18). The streamer 
should be held as the Prakriti (the nature, the wife of God) 
and! the rod itself as emblematic of the Purusha or the sub- 
jective principle of the universe. Hear me Oh Bramhan ! 
a temple is nothing but another form of the divine image 
of Vishnu (19). And now I shall describe to you the 
. different parts of the latter. A body is composed of the 
.five elements such as the earth, water, light, air and the 
sky, and so in the case of the temple, its capacity (Dharana) 
stands for the earth (Dharani) which is so called from its 
capabalityt>f holding its internal cavity stands for the sky, 
the fire, everyday lit up in its inside, represents the fire, and 
its touch represents the wind, which possesses that attribute 
(20). The five proper sensibles of a man are also represented 
in the case of a divine temple which bring on a close analogy 
between itself and its inmate divinity which is represented 
as endowed with the attributes of a corporate human being 
Thus the earthly waters contained in the stone slabs of the 
temple represent the earthly attributes, its echo stands for the 
proper jsensibfe of sound, its touch which is rough or other 
irise answei^ for the proper sensible of that denomination 
in a human being, its colour which may be white or other- 
wise, stands for the rupatanmaira (proper sensible of sight), 
while the perfumed insence sticks, every day burnt under- 
lie^ its vault, answers for the gandka ianmuirm or the 
proper sens&le of ^mel! in the case of a human subject, while 
the ripe and o^r dfishes^es^bifed before in thetempiei 



furnishes U as it were with the proper sensible of taste (22)1 
The ridge of the vault is the nose of the temple, the two aper- 
tures ill its two^ sides, under which lie the exits for men and 
litters, are to be deemed as its two hands, the arched terrace 
on its top is to be considered as its head, the conical orna- 
ment as its hairs, the neck, as its neck, and the platform 
ever the vault is to be looked upon as its shoulder, the water 
passages standing as it were, for its anus and the genitals, 
and the lime plaster for its skin. The door is to be consider- 
ed as its aperture of the mouth, the image installed in its 
inside as its life, the pedestal as its vital energy, whose 
shape should be imagined as its animation, and whose cavity 
as its inertia, while the image of the god Keshava is to be 
deemed as its soul, seated on the throne of its heart and 
viewing the incidents happening within its inside— -only as 
an onlooker like the human soul, and taking no part therein* 
Thus the analogy between the god and his temple is complete, 
the latter being held as identical with and only a different 
manifestation of the former {23 — 26^. The god Siva is to be 
considered as forming the plinth or knee-joints of the god thus 
revealed in the shape of a temple, the god Bramha as Icicated 
on its shoulder, and the god Vishnu at its top (27). 

Hear me, O Brahman I describe the consecrating cere- 
mony of a divine edifice by means of a banner. The gods, 
by hoisting bann^s impressed with the signs of the divine 
weapons, conquered the demons (28). The pitcher shaped 
ornament of the temple should be placed over its oval lop 
part, and the flag should be planted over the same. The 
rod should measure the half or a third part of the temple or 
the structure in length. The flag should he impressed in the 
middle with the mark of a circle of eight or l|i;k radii, the 
figure of the celestial bird (Garuda) or that of Sie Narasutha 
manifestation el Vi^nn being worked on the space wthia 
the aforesaid ctrcle,--llie rod bebg left always mpaialed 
(2g — 



The length of the Hag-rod may be made equal to the 
breadth of the edifice, or equal to the half or the third part 
of the terrace (31)- Or the same may be made to the 
length of double the height of the door, being planted at 
the north, east or the north-west corner of the divine edifice 
(32). The flag should be made of a piece of silk cloth, of 
a single or variegated colour, with chowries, bells, and small 
bells attached to it, and which, thus decorated, is said to be 
the destroyer of all sins (33;. A flag which touches the 
ground and measures a cubit in breadth at its extremity or 
has a breadth equal to the quarter of its length at its base, 
is called a Mahadhaja, and is to be looked upon as the 
grantor of all huuiau desires {34). A pataka (streamer) 
should have half the demension of a Mahadhaja^ except 
that the breadth at its extremity should measure twenty 
fingers only (35). The Chakra, and the flag with its rod, 
should have ail the above ceremonies, like the image 
They should be bathed in the sacrificial shed. The priest 
should duly perform unto them all the set forth above 
except, that of opening up of the eyes 36 — 37). Then 
the learned priest should uientally locate in the Chakra 
the ^ukta mantras beginning as sakasra skirsha etc* 
together with the mantra known as the sudarshan mantra 
and the taitva (or the primordial principle known as the 
manstattua or the principle of mind (38}. The different 
mauifestaiions of Vishnu, such as Kesava etc. should be 
imagined as installed along the spokes of the Chakra^ which, 
O thou best of the gods } should be made inbued with life with 
the mantra of the '^manarup ^ The priest should locate 
the twenty five fundamental principles of thb universe, at 
the nave and each of the orbits of the wheel \fihakra)^ and 
at the petals . of the lotus flower round which the same is 
des€r^>ed, and the god Hrisinha, and Bisvaropa at the centre 
of the lotus (40}^ Locate in the rod of the banner the snprenfe 
being after contemplati^ therein the living, indivtsiblei and 



tlie universal soul, whose self is composed of the suiras^ 
and locate the god Hari in the cloth of the banner (41). The 
energies of the^god Hari which are named Bala and Abali 
and which have become jointly manifest in the form of a 
banner, should be contemplated, and invoked arid worshipped 
in the sacrificial shed, and the Homa ceremony should be 
subsequently performed uuto them in the sacrificial fire 
receptacle (4a). 

A golden cone (Kalaska) together with the fine jems en- 
joined to be buried on such occasions in the Shastras, 
should be placed over the conical ornament at the top of 
the temple and a Chakra of gold should be placed underneath 
the same accompanied by the mantra known as the Chakra 
mantra (43). The Chakra should be washed with mercury 
and covered over with the Natrapatta (eye-cover) and should 
be thereafter fixed to its place, the divine manifestation 
of Nrisinha having been mentally located at its centre (44). 
Then the Jajaman (person at whose instance the temple or 
the image is consecrated) accompanied by hfis friends and 
relations, should invoke and worship the God Hari, by uttering 
the mantra Oni, Ksoum, Nrisinhaya namas, and hold the ban- 
ner in his hand (45). He should dip the tip of the banner into 
a vessel full of cur'd* and worship it with the mantra which 
begins with the word Dhru and ends with the term Fut (46), 
After that the Jajamafi should reverentially walk round 
the temple or the edifice contemplating the god Narayana, 
and carrying on his head the curd-pot stated above, in the 
midst of the peals of trumpet and the auspicious nr^es of 
the sacred music (47). Then the banner with the rod should 
be planted and hoisted up unfurled, and the priest is well 

* aphorsims of the different schools of Sanskrit Philosophy,—^ 

and a particular class of mantras are csriled ** sulra5*'« 




experienced in the religions ceremonies should utter the 
Snkta which runs as Munchamitu (I let thee loose) etc., and 
\he Astaksari (composed of eight letters) ijiantra should 
be read at the time of planting tlie rod (48). The Brahmin 
Jajaman should then make presents of utensils, banners 
and elephants to the Acharjya or the principal priest, and 
the procedure described above should be adopted in plant- 
ing banners over the divine temples in general (49). The 
emblem which is sacred to any particnlar god, should be 
planted with his own peculiar mantra. The man who plants 
such a banner becomes mighty in this world, and a monarch 
.in the next (So). 


T HE God laid : — Now I shall describe to you the cere- 
monies attendant upo the consecration of all the divine 
images, and shall at first deal with those which precede the 
lastaliation of Lakshmi and the other goddesses (i). All 
the rites described above riiould be oerformed. The sheds 
for the purpose of sacrificial -bathing and other rites should 
be raised, the image of the goddess Lakshmi should be fixed 
oa its pedestal, sad the eight pitchers full of water should 
be didy placed as ia the previoas instances (2). The image 
sfao^ he aaotated anih clarified beUer aad washed with the 
cooipoaitaan fcr. #a as the Pmcksguifa, by uttering the prin- 
cipai saa^ of the gaddesa. Alter hhat the eyes of the image 
dhndd be aaade u e m dawed with aigfat by readiag the 
a«ata» which raaa. aa Hwmmfakmrm Smrmi (the golden 
cahMwadfawaet&J(3). The teaipoailiaa Uosw as the three 
hoMya (mgcr. ham^r end clarified hatter) sfaoeid be offered 

te the goddeaa by atterieg the MMtia which beeiw as Jmsm 



Ahaka etc.) and bathe her image with water out of the 
pitcher at the East of the sacrificial shed by reading aloud 
the mantra commencing as Ashva purva etc (4). The image 
of the goddess should be washed with water out of pitchers 
situate at the south and the west respectively by uttering the 
mantra running as kamosmi etc., and Chandra Prava etc., and 
the contents of the pitcher at the north side of the sacrificial 
shed should be poured over its head accompanied fay the 
mantra Aditya Varna etc (5). The pitchers situate at the 
angular corners of the shed, such as the south east, south 
’ est, north west, and the north east, should be emptied 
over the head of the image, by uttering the respective 
mantras which runs as Upaituma, kuipipasa, gandharra, 
manasa kamamakritim, and soubarna kardama; and the 
image should be subsequently bathed with waters out of the 
eighty one pitchers dealt with before, by uttering the mantra 
which begins as Apas srijan ksitin (6—7), The priest 
should worship the image with sandalpaste, by uttering tlie 
mantra begining as Adra Puskarini, and with flowers by 
reading out the mantras which run as Tanma Abaha and ya 
ananda, Richa khtlam (8). The goddess should be invoked 
and worshipped in the bed with the mantra known as the 
sfaayantea, and her presence should be worshipped with Om 
mantra known as the Srisnkta, and conscionsaess is to be 
invoked and worshipped in the heart of the image by teS-' 
iag the priadpal mantra of the goddess (9). The homa 
cereoMMiy should be performed is the fire-receptacle ak the 
sacrifictal shed with a hundred or thouiaad lotus fiowun, 
awd by utteriBg the mautra knowa as the snsakta or witii 
the same uamber of iarM flowers as the priest uriglit 
(teese (io>i. Hous^id furai^are diould be oflmwd hgy 
attariag dm maMra spokea el in dm preeedfag couplet, aai 
tbe ooaseoratkM of dm tes^^ mr llm edifica-'Sheadd be |m»- 
fenaed as pceviot^y Erected (il). Tbe podestei ebealfl bp 

iafflowed by ceadieg tbe euatnuh ud dm iMC« ebMil bp 

22 ^ 


cofiiecrated subsequent to that. At the ceremony of sannf.. 
dhya fcaran or Adhibma (making the spirit approach the 
image) the mantra known as the srisukta should be told in the 
front of the imagei and the ceremony itself should be per- 
formed by telling the principal* mantra sacred to the goddess 
Laismif after having invoked the spirit or consciousness 
in the image. The priest and the Bramhins should be pre- 
sented with land, gold, cows and rice. The processes of 
consecrating the images of other goddesses, are identical 
with what has been laid down in the present chapter,— such 
a consecration being always held as leading to heaven and 
other blessful regions (12). 



The Gd «kl:— The coosecratioo of the images of 
Ganida (bird sacred to Vtsbiitt}, Brahma, Narasinha and ol 
the divine emblems sach as the Chakra etc. should be made 
wkh mantras sacred to each of tb^, and the procedure 
to be adopted is identical with what has been laid down In 
the ease ci Vishsa. O Kafaman, I shall disclose to you 
the asaatras referred to sdnive, in their doe order (x). Fof- 
lowif^ is the maatra sacred to the celestial Chakra (ring 
weapoa) of Vishaa which h catted the Sudarshama and which 
hmg duly* wfNtddpped with it mparts atctories in war. 
**Obemaace to the gseal Chakra weapon Sndarshana which as 
dkea^nl to the cviMoeffs. KiH and fckll, pierce and pterce» cut 
Iheoogh and cat tJUroni^ O Sndarshana. Pewinr and devoid 
aBtim other manltnn pncanlatiMsJ— eat np and eat op all the 
wvn thfOidmi and tfhoealeii. Hnn Fat (a). Obeshmce I0 
'llaMhdhiiPlMiMfcniiiiMtfpai^ ^^Obesian^lolian^ 



sinba Om, Ksoum i>[arasinha the fierce looking born and burn, 
be resplendent and resplendent. Foiloiring is another form 
of the same mantra which is known as the Pataiaksa (be* 
longing to the nither regions} mantra of that mamfestaiion of 
Visboo. ** Osi ksoum obesiance to Narasinha. who is eSuI* 
gent with the light of ten thousand million suns, who is 
provided with teeth and claws hard and strong as the 
bolts of heaven, and who with his dreadful and dishevelled 
manes wildly dancing in storm, is manifest as blowing on 
a trumpet, whose unearthly peals have heaved up the 
one universal ocean of the millinim, the ocean madly, 
mightily, dashing rolling, dancing, with ks sable energy of 
destruction over the space where the suns and consteilatioas 
bad been, in a weird dance of tbe ecstasy of death. 

Come O Lord. I make obesiance to thee who safely takesi 
men across all incantations. Be manifest and resplendent: 
with the divine truth O Nar&sinka who is both the univeriul 
subjective and the objective. Qpen tby moiitb, and let the 
infinite vacuum within thyself yawn,— attack and fall upon the 
universe, roar and roar, and let thy lion-Uke voice be beard. 
Cut through and cut through, and drive and drive before 
thee, and pierce and pierce into, and overwhelm and over* 
whelm all sorts of incantations (mantras). Dost thou 
kill, cut and clip, dislodge from ks place, cut open and 
cause to be burst, wkb thy Chakra weapon showering fire 
and ifaunder-bolt in all directions, all the nether regions, the 
abodes of the demons. Dost thou wbo ait clad in sheets 
of living fiame^ — Dost thou besiege the nether regions from all 
the quarters of the heaven with thy arrows irf thunder* 
bolls vomiltiDg fatal fire. Draw 01^ the hearts of the 
instates of those regioos, and forthwith burn mid burn, cook 
and cook, trample and trample, dry up and dry up, and hmk 
and hadk the same to piecoi, till they are quite snhjufoled 
to me. Preserve me O Lmrd, manifeiit in the shafo of 
Narasii^ (a man and a Son). PiOsnrve me O VialMm, Imi 



all dangers and incantations. Hung Fut, Obesiance to thee 
Fat to the nether .regions, Fut to the Asuras, Fut to the 
forms of incantations, Fut to the incantations themselves. 
This is the mantra of the Narasinha manifestatien of Vishnu, 
which imparts success and grants fulfilment of all desires 
(3). The image of the celestial Garuda, who lias bound up in 
spell the whole universe, should be established by uttering the 
mantra stated above, "and which is called the Tralokyamokan^ 
mantra the charmer of the three regions (of the universe). The 
image should be made as possessing two or four arms, and in 
the former case as carrying a mace in the right hand, the left 
being folded up in the attitude of giving benediction (4). 
The upper left arms should be equipped with a Chakra and 
the conch-sheil which should represent the celestial Pancha’^ 
janySf should be placed in the hand below the same, the 
two right hands being provided with Sri and Pushti together 
with Bala and Bhadra (5). The Images of Vishnu, Bamana, 
Baikunta*aod Hayagriba should be installed either in a mandap 
or an edifice (6). And similarly the dififerent incarnations 
of Vishnu such as the Fish, etc., who are to be installed in 
water. The images of Sankarshana, Bisbwarupa, and the 
falic emblem or the image of Rudra, together with those of 
Ardhanarisha the god with a body (half woman, half man), 
Had, Sliunkar, Matrikas, Bharaha, the sun, Planets, Binayaka 
Gouri, Dikpalas, Bala, and Abala should be similarly estab- 
lished in a temple or an edifice {6—9) . 

Now I shall describe the consecration ceremonies of 
books and the mode of wriUng them. Having worshipped 
the book, wfth its lexers and pages on a cusbion made of 
iSkarw leaves, placed on a mystic diagram known as the Svas- 
lifc, llie ipwitnai preceptor, the goddess of ieamiiiyg and the 
god sbcmld be worshipped h their turn (10). The jajamaa (the 
pmmm ^ whose instance any ceremony is performed) should 
the spiritual guide, the leadng and the writer of 
tie and the goddess Padmni after baring wntlen 



.he five starzesj on a silver plate facing the cast. The pen 
should be of gold, and the letters written with it on the 
occasion should be of the Devanagara character. The 
Brahmans should be sumptuously fed, and money remunera- 
tions should be given to them as much as the jajaman could 
afTord i — 12). Men should write the Puranas or books of 

of the sacred literature after having first worshipped the 
spiritual guide, the learning and the god Hari, and in the 
mystic diagram (mandal) at the north east as previously 
directed {131. The book should be seen reflected in water 
in the pitchers as here before described and should be placed 
in the bed, the ceremoney of endowing it with eyesight 
having been performed (14). The Vedic Purusha Sukta and 
the prayiaba mantra (Om) should be mentally located in the 
book, and with which it would become sentient as it were. 
The sacrificial porridge should be cooked subsequent to that, 
wherewith the priest and the brahmins should be fed, and 
money remunerations should also be given to them. The 
book is to be carried in a litter, or on an elephant round the 
city, and should be established and worshipped qn its return, 
in a temple or an edifice, wrapped up in a piece of cloth, 
it being compulsory to worship the book both before and 
after reading (15 — 17). At an auspicious moment the book 
should be read out for the peace of the world, and the 
jajaman and such like persons should sprinkle water over a 
chapter of the book (18). The merit, O Brahman, of present- 
ing a book to a brahmin is interminable, like the giving away 
of a cow or of a plot of land, as the gift of knowledge is held 
to be the gift her excellence {19). Oh sinless son of 
the merit of giving a book to a Brahmin ensures to the 
donor a residence in the region of Vishnu for as many thou- 
sand years as there arc letters in the collectioii of palmyrn 
leaves which form the same. The man who makes a present 
of a book on the Pancharatra philosophy or one bekmgaif 
to the group of Putmusi carries up with hmt kia iweiity owe 



different families of relations into the region above, and 
subsequently becomes merged in the supreme Brahma, the 
supreme principle of the universe (20— '2 1). 


The God said:— Now I shall speak to you about the 
consecration of tanks and ponds, wherein the good god 
Varuna, who is indentical with the god Soma, and who is 
but another manifestation of Vishnu, is to be looked upon as 
revealed in the form of water (i). The universe is permeated 
with the energy of the god Agni which is called the fire, and 
the water which is Vishnu himself is to be looked upon as the 
caujc. Which brought the universe into being. The image of 
the q i Yaruna (water-god) should fc^f^ ade of gold, silver, 
or ol jems, and he is to be represented as possessing two 
arms and seated on a swan, carrying a snake-noose in his 
left hand, and folding the right in the aUitude of giving 
eacouragement -(Abhaya), with the hosts of rivers and 
serpants following in his heels (2— 3)."^ The platform or the 
earthen elevation within the sacrificial shed should contain 
the receptacles for the hallowed fire*, excavated in its middle, 
and a pilcber with a Karaka (stone) in its inside should be 
placed in honor of the sea-god Varuna, at the gate of the 
sacriSdat shed (4). At the door of the fire receptacle, 
which may be of a semicircular shape, or of the classes 
which pass under the denominations of sastik or Bhadrak 
re^iecdvely, pitchers full of water should be placed for 
welcommg as k were the hallowed, sacrifidal fire (5)., , The 
pNnciA shoidd touch the Image of the sea god by 

aHeriag dm mmtrM whh^ runs as skaia etc, and 



subsequently anoint the same with clarified butter hf reading 

the principal mantra exclusively belonging to the sfime god 

(6). Subsequent to that he should wash the eight pitchers 

with the hallowed consecrated water by uttering the mantra 

beginning as Shano Devt\ and pour sea water into the one 

situatd at the eastern side of the sacrificial structure (7). 

The water of the river Ganges should be kept in the pitcher 

at the south east^ rain water in the one at the south, fountain 

water in that at the south west, river water in the pitcher at 

the west, water obtained from a river with a masculine name 

at the north west, water containing solution of vegetable 

matters in the one at the north, while the waters obtained 

from the sacred pools should be kept in the pitcher placed 

at the north east corner of the sacrificial platform. In 

the event of all the above being not available, river water 

should be poured into all the pitchers consecutively with 

the mantra beginning as cultively ect, and the priest should 

mentally endow the same with eye sight by reading out 

the mantra which commences with the terms Durmiiriya 


etc., and by anointing the eyes with a composition of hooey 
sugar and clarified butter (8 — 10). After having evoked the 
sight by imagination into the eyes of the image, the priest 
should receive from the Jajaman (celebrator of the solemnity) 
the present of a golden cow, and pour water over the head 
of the imaged Vishnu out of the pitcher at the east by utter- 
ing the mantra which has iu its beginning the terms Smmudm 
Yasia etc. (ii). Then the contents of the r^pnainiiig pitchers 
should be emptied over head of the image in the foUowing 
way and order, vh the Ganges water should be poured out 
by uttering the tmtUrm commeocisg with Smmmdrmm 
Gaccka etc., the rain walor with mtmmirm running an 
S&wm Dk^nu the stream water by rending the 
manirm starting ns Demrmp^ etc*, and the mmdm water 
repeating the mantra cmamencing as Pmm^ (1 J|* 

The water containing the sohdion o( vegeliMn iw^era 



should poured out on the head of Varuna, accompanied 
the mantra having at its begining the terms Udvita 
(vegetable) ect., the waters obtained from the sacred pools 
should be let fall by uttering the mantra known as the 
Pabamani, and “ Apohistd^ etc., is the mantra which should 
be repeated at the time of bathing the image with tlfe com- 
position called the Paticha^abya, “ Heranyavarna^^ (golden 
colour) cct., being uttered while washing it with the wash- 
ings of gold (13), The mantra “ Apo Agni’' (fire is water) 
etc. should be used while the divine image would be bathed 
with the rain water. The Byahriti mantrans such as Om 
Bbu, Om Bhuba, ect. should be repeated on the occasion of 
washing the same with the well water. The tank water 
should be consecrated with the mantra of Varunadvi etc. 
before it could be poured out the image (14), while the 
contents of the eighty one stone jars should be emptied on 
its bead, accompanied by the mantra running as Apodevi 
etc. and the priest should subsequently offer him the first 
oblation (Argha) by uttering the mantra beginning as 
Vatumya dtc. {15). The cups containing honey should be 
offered with the Byahriti mantras^ the cloth with the one 
beginning as Brihaspati, the sacred thread with the mantra 
of the *' Varuna** etc ; and the cloth for the upper body 
With the mantra (Om) having been * repeated (16}. 

The priest should offer flowers, chowrie, a mirror, an 
wmbrella, a fas, and a banner by uttering the mantra of 
•'Yadvamiya,'’ etc, at each instance (17). The image should 
be raised up, and the principal mantra of the god should be 
tepei^ed ^ tli»e line j the image should be besought to get 
«p by wHeiiiig ** Rise op. Oh God etc.^ and the priest 
shmild perfnm at wiglil the Adkiiasa ceremonej onto the 
god as {weviofisiy slated and invoke his presence by uttering 
the mantra wbicb omsmeuces wkb the terms Varunam etc. 
and wofiAjp bias after ait wi& the mantra beginning as 
** Itaiwarumyam (18). Fancy the image as endowed wttb 



ife by uttering the principal mantra of the god, and again 
worship biro with sandalpaste, etc. After tbat worship the 
fuels of the hallowed sacrificial fire in the fire receptacle on 
the platform, with the sandalpaste etc., as before and by 
repeating the pranaba Om” which is the first mantra of the 
Vedas. Milch the four cows, prepare the sacrificial porridge 
of barley and perform therewith the Homa ceremeney in the 
sacrificial fire just then lighted up (19 — 20). 

The invocation is to be performed jby uttering the 
Gayatri mantra, or the mantra beginning as Om Vu, Om Voba. 
Ora Sva etc. (Byahriti). The Homa ceremony is to be per- 
formed unto the Aotariksakas by uttering the mantra Suryaya^ 
Prajapataya^ Dow svaha^ and similarly unto the ^arth god- 
dess, Dehadhriti, Svadhriti, and Rati, the gods Ugra, Vima, 
and Roudraka being propitiated with the homa cere- 
mony performed with the mantra Ya Ramatyai^ etc., 
(21—22). The gods Vishnu, Varuna, Dbala Rayasposa 
Mahendra, Agni, Yama^ Nairita Varama, Vayu, /SMmra, 
Ishana, Brahma and Jahshvar should be propitiated wMi 
oblations of the homa by mentioning the word svaka after the 
name of each of the above gods, the wcwrds tadhipratoH 
being appended to the name of the god Vishnu at the lime 
offering oblation to him (23^24). The hoiaa ceremony 
unto the god Sowsa should be performed six times by ntlering 
the mantra Soma Dhaiio etc, and also the mantra running as 
Imam miti, Thrice the homa ceremony is to be performed 
by uttering the mantra Apohista etc. and once with Ike 
mantra beginning as Ima Rudra etc (25)- The learned 
prie^ sbcmld offer oblations in aU Ibe i|iiarters of heaven, 
and worship the image with flowed and perfmnes, and 
subsequently place the same in the midst ot the wapHc 
diagram {26}. The image should be worsfaqrped in tnm with 
perfumes fiowers and golden flowers tkjCf and the prist shonU 
lay out e%l^ mised squares of sand, meamwii^ a enhit 
each (vUch |ure general^ nsed far the hmeliM 



sacrificial fire) faciog the direrlioB in wmdi lay the tank, 
to be consecrated. The sacrihkial fire should be lighted 
on the squares above described and the oblations of 
butter should be offered in them handred and e%ht fim^ 
Subsequent to that the priest should cook the sacrificiai 
porridge made of barlej, and perfona the Homa- eeremonj 
vith the same, sprinkle water over the head of the iia^e, and 
perform the ceremony of eroking life into its interior {2^}. 
The god should be contemplated as accompanied by the 
goddess Gouri and attended upon by the spirits of rivers, 
bearing both masculine and feminine names, and the cere- 
mony known as the sannidhyaiarana (aa of bringhig near) 
shonld be performed after having worshipped him" with the 
Buntra brining as " Om obesiance to tbe god Varuna” (30)* 
The image shonld be carried round tbe village or the 
town on the back of an ekfdiaot, the eight auspicious thing* 
described before forming part the procession, arid 
should be subsequent^ inunersed in the water of the 
pitcher, containing a sol^ioa of honey, sugar arid rlft rifie d 
butter, the mantra ruaning as etc., having beew 

simultaneously read therewiUi {31). After that the image, 
should be buried unseen in &tt oudst rf tbe tank, and tbe 
priest after batbieg dmold contemplate the god of wider 
ax Ending on aa snivexsal sea, on' which tbe ashes of er^ 
tioB. consumed fay the essence of fire are moving abotA 
(32—33). Then tbe saerifidai post wbkh might be o# 

a rectangdar, oct^:oaai or rounded shape, and vriikfi 
should be mad^ of wood held sacred to the sacrifice, shonld 
be ^n into tbe ceabe rrf lie bed of tbe tank 
rtm (jpomS) w tan^ its lower Md beiag plated with grfd, 
tbe part drives into tie graaad beiag fifteen cabfts m 
case si a tank aad tweiriy and twenty five etd^s raspeetivefy 
in lie two ta^ cases (3*-3^ I» tbe aftemative the post 

enald ^ drirea iato Ibe centre of tbe an«akiaisbe4 ew 

****• Iwrtithed wtt a bnaacFf ai ttc tap 


the mantra to be red out oa tbe occasion being Ynpabraslui^ 
etC| (37^« After having worshipped the same with flowers 
and perfumes, the priest should perform the ceremony 
known as the Jagacckanti (conveying peace to the universe,) 
and the coosecrator should make a gift of cows, golden 
utensils, and proprielorj rights in grounds to Ihe priest, give 
money to tbe Bramhins, and snmptuously feed all the other 
persons present, and sboidd pour out the composition known 
as tbe Panchagabya into the water of tbe lank by reading 
out the mantra. “ Be gratified with the water of this tank 
all ye created beings {-—ranging from the lowest animal to 
the god Bramha-— the highest in the beirarchy of the spiritual 
beings, who may be in need of water {3S— 40). Sprinkle 
the water of peace {skamitioas) consecrated by tbe Bramhins, 
tr^ether with the hallowed waters Ihe sacred pools, make 
gilts of cows to the bramhins, feed with rice all the comers ir« 
respective of cast, creed or nationality. A man who consec« 
rates a reservoir of water acquires in a single day a tuerit 
ten thousand times more than the person who performs tuns* 
sands of thousands of tbe sacrifice known as tbe Askvamedka 
Such a man, blissfully resides in heaven for the eternal 
time and never goes to bell. Tbe consecrator caa commit 
no sin (as cattle and other thirsty animals drink out of his 
consecrated pool) and goes to beaveti, for tbe pmon who 
makes an endowment of water b siqiposed to attain Ihe 
luerit of making all gifts 


.HB God say:-4lo# i M «kmw ibe Mf «l 
ofcMtfff tbe Mmm 



Ollier Ibiogs connected with the same. After faaviog 
te^d the ground on which the hal! is to be built, the priest 
shall perform the ceremony known as the Vastujaga {lit the 
sacrifice in coDoection with the consecrations of households) 
(r). The balls may be built after the model the consecrator 
likes, and the images of gods he likes to instal therein, imy be 
installed within them, without any reservation whatever, except 
that such buildings must not be constructed on the crossings of 
roads, nor in the interior of a villages, nor on props or pillars 
so as to have a banging or aerial aspect (2). The endower of 
such a building becomes free of all sins, and resides in bliss 
in the region of beaven by raising up bis progenies and 
departed manes to the level of his own spiritual perfection. 
A ball sacred to the god Hari should be built in 

the foibwifig way. The same rule holds good in building 
temples of the gods, as io the case of erecting mansions of 
the kbigs. The banners etc. should be planted in the differ- 
Awt qnrters of the heaven starting with east as previously 
dfoected. * The edifice should be built of a quadrilateral 
sb^, not haying had sides or walls built at tangents to 
eadk other. building should conrist of three or two 

coasts or yards or diould contain a single row only ; and its 
entm breadth ^ould not be made abnormally large, as a 
cooifmalmly greater breadth is deemed harmful, and an 
wadse of six^an edifice is said to bring on ill health to 
the cottsecrator. ^ The length and breadth should therefore be 
made of eqnl oiemre (5). The hall dunild be Qunsecrated 
wiA aA the cmoioideo wUdi are conseqoent tm the Jnstaliatios 
of a dMie inmgo. TTie imsecralor dioold rise up alert 
is ike ewd^ wmoiag and badbe iu water cootaiQiag a soItAfoa 
of ihe drugs koowu as the Sarvousa& Sidweqoeot to that he 
dhonli euier the haM de^^ped with pitchers and ardes, wirfi 
his ooe bnd phord oe the back of a a>w* The bcihoeiaas 
dbohU to rimipiowily ioasted wiBk sweet meats, ato the 
totoisBmi iheuM to wossf^ped and oougrqg^to iathe 



hall, where the following mantra of prosperitf shoald be 
read out. Be thou O mother Earth, with all the Vasus 
(a class of de^nigods) and all the people inhabiting thee. 
All glory to thee Goddess, who once knew the Rishi Vasista 
as her lord, and who once formed the property of Vargaba, 
and wiio givest ail success to men her offsprings ! Goddess 
perfect in thyself, and who once was in the possession of 
Angira, dost thou grant me my hearts desire. Fill my mind 
with bliss mother blissful— >Thou who possessest all seeds, all 
gems, and ail cereals within thyself. Glory to thee thou 
gladsome goddess of colour and beauty thou who art the 
daughter of the God of creation, and whose bosom appears 
so very smooth and flat to the onlookers! stayest thou here 
in bliss in this room, thou goddess of fortune and good 
deeds, stayest thou in this room thou goddess of majesty— 
Thou blissful, beautiful daughter of Bbargaba— the goddess of 
wonder and mystery, bedecked with the scented garlands— 
Thou who art ever resplendent and everywhere worshipped, 
grantest thou prosperity to this world. Increase the 
progeny of brutes for the comforts of man— Goddess | thou 
whom the holy mendicants (llt-masters of monasteries) 
Kings and the patriarchs possess. I establish ibee Oh tboo 
goddess of bricks, who though tncomprehensUsle, shapeless 
and perfect in thyself dost yet assume a distinct shape, 
dost thou grant me prosperity (6—23). 


Xhs Goo saU i-^emr I shall describe tp jss the 
|>n»Gess of cosaecaat^ tbe mgee of aB the g$Ai iMpi 
beisgt saA astbe am, ^ Feoan, the JSninn the 



sadkfas, the Askvinas and the Rishis (sages) eic., with the 
special features of the ceremonies to be performed on the 
occasion of the iostallation of each of the above images 
The 6rst letter of the name of any particular god 
should be coupled with the long vowels and consonant letters 
of the Sanskrit alphabet, which blended with the sign ’ of the 
nasal sound would give the principal mantra of that parti- 
cular god, and which preceded by a pranaba mantra would 
be the mantra of his obesiance (3). The image of each 
god should be installed and worshipped with his own 
principal mantra, especially the image of the holy saints who 
had lived a life of austere penance in hermitages and 
monasteries (4). Now I shall speak about the penance of 
fasting for a month and of the one which ends on the 
thirteenth day from its commencement. A stone slab together 
pitchers made of Indian belf metal, and carrying in their 
mouths the articles previously described, should he placed in 
their proper positions according to the rule as enjoined in 
that behalf in the books of sacrificial rites (5). The 
woi^shipper should prepare the sacrificial porridge with 
barley, Bramhakurcha and the condensed milk of a parti- 
cular class of cows known as the Kapila^' and by uttering 
the manir^ which runs “ YadVisnu** etc, (6). The porridge 
should be stirred up with the sacrificial laddie, and the 
pranaba (Om) should be simultaneously read therewith 
which should be thought as holding the vessel of the 
porridge firm in its place. The god Vishnu should be 
levied and worshipped and the Homa ceremony should be 
poformed unto him with the mantras respectively commen- 
diig with the terms « Om Fw,* ** Owi Bkuia /* « Om Svd* 
etCyand ** TMd Bisip^a Ckfksn, Vur pgnaya and 

aisw vdlh the pranpim (0«) and the G&fatri mantra (7*^). 
TW Aou|d ai^ separately perforiii the Homa 

wkfc ^ mantras ntnaing ar Suryaya SvMku^ 
W ifce ^ with f^PfApa^ya Spoia 



(oblation to the god Prajapati or 'the lord of creation 
with obcsiance), Aniariksyaya svaha (oblation to the god of 
the intervening re/jion between the heaven and the Earth with 
obesiance), Dyousvaha (oblation to the Heaven with 
obesiance), Bramhana Svaha (oblation to the god Bramha 
with obesiance) and also with the mantras running as 
Prithihi Makar ajaka^ and Somam Rajanam unto the god 
Indra and bis companion deities of the -different quarters of 
the firmament, after which the offerings known as the 
Digbalts should be offered with the remaining portion of 
the sacrificial porridge (9— to). Eight Hundred slicks of 
the sacrificial Paiusha tree, dipped in clarified butter should 
be offered in the fire^ and tlie eight oblations of sessamum 
orientate known as the Irahati (watcrj) Tiiasiakam sboald be 
thrown into the same^ accompanied by the mantra called the 
Puruska Sakia (ii). Subsequent to that the attendants of 
the gods, Brahnia, Vishnu, and Isha should he propitiated 
with homa offerings, and similarly the deities of the planets 
and the presiding spirits of the different quarters of the 
firmament (la). 

Homa oblations should be offered to the (soois) of the) 
mpuntains, rivers, and oceans, and three oblations, each of 
a sacrificial spoonful! of clari^ed butter shottid be offered 
into the fire accompanied by the Byahriti mantra 0I Om 
Vu, Om BhukXf Om Sm (13)* The god Brahma ^uki 
have a homa offering made with the mantra koowti as the 
Vatsnaya mantra and ending with the word Bouaatytlie 
oblation being compcRsed of a spoonful of the sacrificial 
porridge mixed with the composition kaowe^ as the iSve 
substances from the cow (Panchagabya) ; aad ffie DmJk^m - 
(remuneration for performing the sacrifice) should be gtvew 
to the Adiarjya or the principal priest (i 4 k Thelearmed 
shpjuid conclude or temiifale the- peimiee el a fast . 

by- making gifts of a dish fait of smammmm oilettlak mi 
oonlakrag 'a piece of cloth and gold logelher wM a com 
3 * 



with oroamental trappings, and by uttering the mantra which 
runs as “Be {ideased with these presents Oh Vishnu (15), 
Now. I shall, fully speak about thfe: performance of 
another set of religious rites or ceremonies than the one of a 
month’s Easting, described above. The God Vishnu should 
be worshipped and the particular kind of sacrificial porridge 
known as the Vaisnaha Charu should be prepared, with rice, 
sessamum, Nibar seeds, and clarified butter, or with barley 
or the seeds of Sbyama grass and clarified butter, and the 
homa ceremony should be performed by uttering the 
mantras known as the Matri mantras, and after that similar 
Homa-obiations should be offered to Vishnu and the other 
masapas by c^ering twelve shoots of the Ashpattha tree 
d^ped in the sacrificial clarified butter accompanied by the 
twelve mantras such as, Om Visnaba Svahi (oblation to the 
god Vishnu with obesianc^), “ Om Visnaba Nivuayapaya” 
Svaba," “Om Visna Cipivistayaya Svaht^’ “Am Narsin 
%aya Svaka, Om PurusoUamaya Sitaka (18). Subsequent 
to tiiat the twelve HomAtc oblations are to be offered with 
the rarata mantra of the god Vishnu, and twelve more such 
Irabatt offerings with the sacrificial porridge prepared in 
honour of that god {19). Similarly the Homa ceremony 
should be performed with the oblations of clarified butter, 
aod also wkb the mantra which runs as after 
whid^ the last tiering should he offered and the ceremony 
should be ciosM with the three final d>la(ions (20). The 
Amtiak (compilation from the Rich and Yajur Vedas) 
Mntras shonid be repeitted and the sacrificial porridge 
'RhowW be praimred in a copper vessel by uttering the 
prPm^wa nnntra “ Om”. l^ien the twelve &abmins whose 
vespectife duties were to gaze at each of the niim 
pinnets* whi,:h ^irdd t te mmiths and the diff^ent seasons 



of the year should be feasted with the priest who would from 
the thirteenth Brahmin in the assembly. Thirteen pitchers 
containing swee( water together with thirteen umbrellas, 
garments, gold chains and thirteen pairs of shoes should be 
given to them (21 — 23). A path should be laid out for the 
cattle so that they might freely move about and stroll in 
comfort, and the sacrificial post should be driven into the 
same after the consecration thereof (24). The house 
bolder should consecrate a yard where water would be 
distributed, such a yard should measure ten cubits at the 
least and he should enter the same after celebrating therein 
the Homa ceremony according to the directions previously 
given (25—26). All the creatures should be continuously 
feasted with boiled rice, etc, and money remunerations should 
be given wise to the Brabmins as far as the means of the 
consecrator would admit of. A consecrator of such a garden 
perpetually resides in heaven and comfortably strolls in the 
fields of the elysium (27). A man who bmids a monastejry goes 
to the blessed region of SxM and afterwards lives in the same 
sphere with the king of the gods {Imir*), and siiniUry the 
man who makes an endowment of a place where water is 
distribnted, lives in the same region with the water-god 
Varutia (28). The man who builds a bridge of bricks 
for the use of the public, lives in ^ lugheA heaven 
{GBlaka) and the man who lays out a cattlepatb lives in 
heaven also, and lastly a man who practises austere penances 
in the bononr of tite god Vlshan, bev;oines absolved of aB 
sins (29). A naan who consecrated an edtfce to a ged^ 
fives in heaven as loi^ as the enwecae czisu (30). 


The God said ; — Now I shall describe to you tlir 
process of replacing an old image* The priest should bathe 
the irn^ge with all the ornaments on. A divine representa- 
tion which belongs to the Achala or the fixed class, and 
which has become old, should be unearthed and stowed in 
a room, VJ^hile the one, which has become extremely time- 
word^ should be rejected. A stone image which has become 
broken or disfigured, should be cast aside, a new one possess- 
ing all the attributes and bearing all the characteristic 
marks of its predicessor, should be installed in its place, all 
the iaiivas having been consecutively merged into the fun- 
damental principle of the universe by the priest according 
to the process of merging fully dealt with in the Chapter 59, 
The priest should unearth the image after having 
performed. the Homa ceremony by uttering thousand times 
the mantra sacred to the Narsinha manifestation of Vishnu. 
An old image made of wood should be reduced to ashes 
by fire, while one of stone should be cast into the 
water {3). An old image made of metal or gems should be 
carried in a vehicle wrapped in a piece of cloth and drowned 
m deep water or in the sea, accompanied by the notes of 
the sacred music (Indian) and money remunerations should 
be given to the priest who would officiate at the ceremony, 
A new image should be consecrated and installed in the 
place of the old one, made of the same substance and having 
Ihe same dtmensions as the latter, great merit being attached 
to the dredging and reexcavation of old wells, tanks and 
Ibe large and artificial reservoirs of water 


The God said: — Now I shall describe to you the nature 
of the feast which ought to be celebrated after the consecra- 
tion and installation of each image, and which should com- 
mence in the night of the day of celebration, and last for one, 
three or eight consecutive nights, as consecration without the 
celebration of such a feast is to be deemed as bereft of alt 
merit (l). The feast should be celebrated when the sun 
enters the solstitial or the equinoctial points, in the bed- 
chamber or garden-room in favour of the person at whose 
instance the ceremony is performed, with the sowing of 
auspicious ©eeds and the notes of sacred music (3). 

A sara 3 (earthen saucer) a small water-pot, and a small 
raised bank or embankment are the most conventenl pots or 
places for growing on the above seeds, which comprise 
barley, shalt-rice, sesamum orientale, mudga, Godhuwuif aad 
white mustard, Kulathva and M&s and which should be 
well washed before sowing. Offerings should be made in 
all the quarters of the heaven starting with the east, to the 
god Indra and his companion deities and to Kumada, aad 
all the other spirits, and lighted lamps should be carried 
round and round the edifice, as the gods and spirks 
mentioned above, propitiated by such tUuminalloa, visit tlm 
place by assoming the shapes of men (4*—^)- The aaaa who 
carries such lamps, attaia the merit of aa Ashyamedha aao'ifioe 
at each step of bis circumbulation round the divine edMcc. 
The priest on his return Iberefitun should tkm mform Ihe 
ima^ of the Jatra oeromoay about to be performedL 0 
thou best of the ^ pleased to start on m 

on ihy blissful percgriaatiou to-a»orrow, and he pleaaed t« 
aduise us to make arraugemeids for Ihe mm (y)* Tio ktm 
^ould be commenced after having asked Ihe pcnws- 



Sion of the imaged god in the temple and the divine plat- 
form should be decorated with beads and the new-born 
shoots of trees (9). The four pillars should bp erected and 
in the midst of that the image should be placed over the 
mystic diagram known as the svastic, or on the painted repre- 
sentations in the case where the celebration would be foirthe 
fulfilment of any desire on the part of the celebrator; and 
the Adhihasa (the act of making the spirit or the god ap- 
proach the image) ceremony should be performed therein with 
the mantras sacred to the God Vishnu (10). The image 
should be anointed with clarified butter by reading aloud the 
principal mantra of that god, and should be placed under an 
unbroken jet of that substance all through the night (ii). 
A mirror should be presented before the image and the rite 
of waiving light before it should be performed accompanied 
by holy songs and the notes of the sacred music, and the 
image should be worshipped with flowers^ and perfumes, and 
by waiving chowries and lighted lamps before the same {I2), 
Turmeric, Mudga, Saffron and powdered Sbukla should be 
placed on the head of the image, but a man acquires all the 
merit by patting clarified butter on its bead as one derives by 
putttJng all the above substances (13). 

After having bathed the image and having installed the 
same in a carriage, the officers of the king should take it 
to the riverside with the priest after having opened an,uni- 
brdla of state on its head, amidst loud shouts and acclama* 
tims {16). Eight mMes down the river, a plaifonn should 
be raised m the bask, and the image should be taken down 
fcM the carriage and deposited thereon (15). The sacri- 
fici^ pncridge riieuM be prepared, and the boma ceremmy 
sfeowld be pmriocmed with that sweeteii^ sacrificial rice 
grwdi die sacred pools sbotdd be invoked therein 
by le fc aii ag the Vedie mantras which am known as the 
Abia^ BMatraa The image should be agam wor- 

ih^fad with the peiamSpaii oidaiions by nttmng the 



and Upanisad mantras after having performed the rite 
of purification (Aghamarshan) in water (17). The precep- 
tor should bathe with the elites and the Bramhins and 
place the image on the platform after having taken it 
out of water, which should be again worshipped and brought 
back to the temple the same day. The priest should worship 
the god as revealed in the fire, which imparts both enjoy- 
meot io this world, and salvation in the next. 


7 he Goo satu Oh Bramhan hear me describe in de« 
tail the festival of bathing. The pitchers should be placed 
over the mystic diagram inside the bathing shed| and first 
of all the God Hari should be contemplated and* propitiated 
with the Homa ceremonyi which may consist of a hundred 
or thousand oblations inclnding the final or coospleting offer* 
ing (1—2), Then the articles essential to the bathing cere* 
mwj should be collected and the pitchers wheeled iirto 
tBmr proper places along the mystic diagram and the rite of 
Adkiimm should be performed in the strings tied rowd their 
tiecfcs (3)« The mandal or the mystic diagram !^iokea of 
in the preceding couplet should he a square divided iaio 
eleven chambers or compartments, and the sacrificial porridge 
should be placed in the centre thereof, the sides having 
been aukde dean and smooth (4). The nine angular cKyi* 
nions of the diagram commeadng with the east etc, shnnM 
be filled in with powdered Skmti rice and a pilnher ■hnn l d 
be bm o g hfe to that place by exhSritiag the mmdrm ^otdinf of 
the fingers in a paitknlar aHilnde} known so te Xmmm 



Mudra (5^ Bunches of (D^rva) ^rass should be immersed 
ift the same by uttering the Pundarikaska mantra, and a 
pitcher coi»taining water together with all sorts of precious 
stone should be placed in the central chamber. Barley, seeds 
of Brihi grass, sesamum, Nibar seeds, seeds of SHyama grass 
Kulathapuise, Madt?a pulse, and white mustard seeds shduld 
be cast ia all the eight directions. Out of the nine pitchers 
placed in the eastern chamber of the mystic square, the 
centra! one should be filled with clarified butter, the re- 
maining eight having been filled up with, the decoction of 
Palasha, AcVatha^ Nyagrodha, Bilva, Oduinbara, Shirisha, 
Ja^ bu, Shaini, and Kapilhva trees. Sinnilarly the middle 
ont of the nine pitchers placed in the south east chamber 
of the square should be made full of honey, the remaining 
eight having been filled up with the earth dug by horses 
or loosened with the horns of cows, and the tusks of elephants 
out of the bows of mountains and the banks of the Ganges or 
of the other livers and sacred pools (10). In the chamber at 
the souihf^rh corner of the square, the pitcher at the middle 
should be filled up with the oil of the sesamum Orientale 
while the remaining eight pitchers should respectively con- 
tain, a naranga^ a Jamhir, a date fruit, a mridvik, a coconut, 
an areca nut a pomegranate, and a panas (ii). Similarly 
in the south western chamber of the square, the pitcher at 
the middle should be filled up with thickened milk, while 
the remaining eight should respectively contain saffron. 
Nagfiower, Champa ka, Malati MuUika, Punnag^ Karaher 
and the Sower known as the Mabalpal (12 — 13). In the wes- 
tern chamber of the square the middle pitcher should contain 
a coaranut at its mouth while the rest of the eight pitchers 
should be filled up with waters obtained from rivers bearing 
both, masculine and feminine names, and also from tanks, 
wellS| seas, streams, and with water obtained {rom the river 
Ganges if^ether with rain water and water stored up by accu- 
milalbg dews of the heaven (14--1 5), StmUarly in the aocth^ 



western chamber of the mystic square, the central pitchei 
should contain a bunch of plaintain, while the remaining 
eight should contain Sahadevi Koumari^ Sinhy^ Byaghrt^ 
Amritam (Aconitum Nap)^ Visnuparnt\ Skafasktba^ and 
Backa^ which jointly fall under the category of the divine 
medicinal plants (i6)* In the east and the north chamber, the 
middle pitchers should be filled, yp with ctird, while the rest 
should contain the drugs which are called the Sidhadrabyas, 
and which are Patra, Cardcmou, Ha, Kustha. Balak. Sandal, 
Lata, Kasturi and black Agollochum (17—18). In the north 
east chamber, the middle pitcher should contain the conse- 
crated water for the absolution of sin, white the rest should 
contain, Chandra, tara, Shukla, Girtshar, Camphor, Sheria 
and Jems etc. {19). They should be raised up, and anointed 
with clarified butter and perfumes, the kama oblations 
having been offered in the sacrificial fire (20). Sacrifices 
should be made in honour of ait the Vutas, and tbe celebralor 
after having given remucieratians to the priesi and ibe 
Brahmins, should spread out a sumptuous feast for aR 
comers, after having installed Uie god with the ' Hants and 
the other divinities. Having thus bathed the gpd, the feast 
of bathing should be celebrated. A man who bathes the 
god with eight pitchers of water, attaios all fortime. By per- 
forming the Abavritha bathing caremony, the feast is aaade 
complete. After the cotii{detioii of such a ceresHHiy tbe 
marriage festivals of tbe goddess Lakshmi or Gomri ahotdd 
he celebrated (21—33). 


The god said Kow I shall speak about the consecra- 
tion of trees, which imparts enjoyment in this world and 
salvation in the next. Water containing solution of the 
drugs known as the Sarvousadht should be poured over the 
heads of trees from whose boughs garlands should be hung 
down, and which should be plastered over with rice paste 
and covered over with pieces of cloth. The ceremony of 
Karnabedha f perforation of the bails of the ears) should be 
performed unto them, with needles made of gold (1—2}; 
and on the masonry platform around them, the Adhibasa rite 
of the pitchers should be celebrated. Offerings should be 
made in honour of the god Indra and his companion deities, 
and the Homa ceremony should be performed unto Vanaspati 
The Earth goddess should be invoked out of the hearts of 
trees by uttering the Abktseka mantras. The renowned 
Brahmins should pour water over the head of the consecrator 
by uttering the Rich and Yajor Veda mantras, and the 
mantras which are sacred to the sun and the seagod Varuna, 
together with those which are criled the Mangal mantras. 
The consecratcr wearing all the ornaments should make 
gilts to the Brahmins of cows, clothes, ornaments and 
proprietory rights in land. For four consecutive days 
the Brahmins should be feasted with the thickened milk 
among other things. The Homa ceremony should ■ be per- 
formed vlith the branches of Palasba tree, and handfuls 
of sessamwm orieutale. The sacrifidal priest should have 
remuneratious double m value to what should be given to 
the other Brahtntns and the mystic sacrificial diagram should 
be drawn according to the directions privtously laid down. 
The eonsecralkm of trees and gardens imparts the bigbesl 



merit to the consecrator and absolves him of all sins and 
demerits. Now 1 shall describe to you the process of wor* 
shipping the sua,^Ganesba, Gouri and other divinities belong- 
ing to the family of Hara as told by tbe latter to the god 
Skanda ( 3 — 9 ). 


*1^ HE God said First I shall spedc about lhe<^orship 
of Ganesha. The nyastt (act of mentally locating a mantra 
or an image in the diSereat parts of the body) is to 
be performed as follows. G*mmfm svmk* (obesiance to 
Ganesha) in the heart, ' AkdmmstrmjM Svmkm in the bead, 
Gajakarnina svaha in the taft of hair oa the head, G^a~ 
vaktraya svaha as araaouc, Mohadaraya svaha is the eyes, 
and Sadantahastaya svaha as the weapea. The god gaaa, 
the preceptor, Padaka, Sakti and Anaata are to be located 
below the principal joint aad Sadam in tbe part above 
that : The Pitha Saktis sacfa as Jvatiai, Nuda, S'mraska, 
Kamrupa, Uadaya, Kamvartimy, Sai^a, V^mMOMskm ttc., 
are to be located in th& petals of the loins shaped mystie 
diagi^m, tr^etber with tbe sMstras, Foas, Ram. fjtm. Bam. 
Tbe Gayatri of tbe god is as foilaws. Let ns know the god. 
Lambodar ^e bigbeflied god), mediate iqpoo the godMaba- 
dara (the i^eat beiliedi ooe) aad let awr mind he goaded In 
thuilc of the god with Om elepfcaeP e head, tie gndh Cman- 
{wU, Gaaad h i p i, Gmmasim, Gmmam^mk^ Geaafcrids^ Mmn- 
tnadn, Abuiamsira, Makaim, Gagarnttm, .famKaiinfn; 

PlumMMMXJIlMm. BhKMfNAnWtta IbtKBtuiKM Md #lhMI 
are to be voniUwed in dhe ftlais if Hi pi d ted iaimi 


The God said : — Oh Skanda now I should describe to 
you the ablution and worship to be performed every day at 
the outset. A piece of clay to the length of eight hngers is 
to be dug out and raised with the pointed end of the sword 
of the bather (i). The sword should be again used in filling 
in the hole thus dug out, and the bather should place the piece 
of clay on his head, and purify the same with the weapon 
mantra. The person performing the ceremony of ablution, 
should carry a weed or the stem of a grass on his head and 
divide the piece of clay into three parts by uttering the Kaha^ 
ikm mantra. One part of the clay should be used in washing 
the part of the body from the naval downwards, white the 
second portion, should be pasted all over the body, purified 
with the astra mantra. He should now firmly press his eyes 
with his two hands and dip in the water with his breath entirely 
suppressed (2-^4). For sometimes he should remain under 
water, contemplating in his heart the sword as dazzling with 
the glare of the fire of death. After having thus finished his 
ablation with the clay, he shoulo come above water {5}. 
And after having performed the Si^nihya worship known as 
the Asiru (weapon) mnikyu, he should perform the Biiki 
Smsm or iim rile of bathing according to the regulations of 
the Sastras. Sobseqnent to llmt he shoold draw forth in^ 
bk heart one of the sacred rivers such as the Saramtif 
etc., by eahibitiag the wmdra (the particular attitude of the 
tailed the Aaknsha (mace) mudra, and after having 
mentally located the same therein irkh the media known 
as the SsnkMrmudra^ knee deep enter into the water 
and after having placed the tasl residuary portioa of the 
clay mder his left foot, again divide the same into thiee 



parts, facing the north. The right portion of the body should' 
be consecrated by once teiiing the mantra staled aborei and 
seren and ten times the mantras of Sira and Soumya res* 
pectivelj, and the particies of the mud should be cast in ail 
the directions starting with the East, accompanied by the shara 
mantrp. ending with Hun fut. The Shira and somya mantras 
siioaid be told or repeated all over the body from the head to 
the foot beginning with the arms, so as to make them permeated 
with the essence of or an organism sacred to the God Shira. 
Agaia the mud or clay is to be taken into the right hand and 
the four limbs should be consecrated, and the nine apertures 
of the body bedashed, with the same, alter which the 
bather should plunge himself into the water, contemplating 
the God Hari, Shira or Gange in his mind, and hnish the 
bathing rite by uttering the names of the six different parts 
of Ae body coupled with the term Vousaf (12). He Aould 
throw water with a pitcher into all the different aagular 
points of the heaven, inmrder that no harm might reach 
him while making ablation. &ich a person after the bath 
Aonld bathe with perfumes and the paste of Embric 
myroboian fruit (13}, and make that tirtka cease to exist 
by exhibiting the Sanhar mudra; Subsequent to that he 
should perform the rite of bathing with the ashes 
which have been ddly consecrated before, specialiy 
wUb the Sanfaita mantras, by rnbbisg the same, over Ids 
entire body from head to foot accompanied by the Siuiwm 
maatra ending wiA Hum Fut {i5)« Having thus performed 
the m&lmmnMn, Q^atbing with clay or s^hes), be ahonld 
perform tint ad^lutkm ceremony known as the Vidi Stmm^ 
Hie GodS| Isha, Tatpnriisa, Agbora, Gnghyakat Apla^ md 
Sankara, AmM be pr^itiated wiA wocshlpiiifig IImm in 
Ae bend, hemt, mouA, and the body, in the three «f 

An day nr in Ae dead of night* and hdkNre and An 
mmm Ci7>* If a imreon Aa nces to 
ImA € mmui a omnA, a m Nt^or a ipeiWt 



joft rising after sleep, or after be has drunk water or finished 
his meals, should undertake the particular kind of ablution 
called the Agnayaka snana for his purification, which consists 
ia standing up with uplifted arms and with the face turned 
towards the East, the purification being brought about by 
means of the sun^s rays and the rain water (ig). The ablution 
known as the Mahendra Snanam should be performed by 
walking seven steps in the midst of the cows, besmeared with 
the particles of dust raised by their hoops. The purification 
would be done by the nine mantras and the ablution by utter- 
ing the Kabacka mantra^ and he should pour water over the 
bead by uttering the mantra which runs as Sadyafata etc, 
{ai}« Thus the mantra inunam or ablution by means of 
the mantras should be made in honour of the god Varuna 
or Agni by telling ia mind the principal mantra of each 
and by regulating the breath according to the rules of tlie 
Praiutyama (22). The mental ablution should be made 
whenever necessary in bononr of the god Vishnu, by uttering, 
the mantra sacred to him (23). 

Now I shall speak about the different forms of the 
SmndkyA) worship to be performed with the different 
mantras, and after making which the worshipper should three 
^unes drisk water with the Smmiara and Brahma tirthas 
(roots of the diSereat fiagers) (24}. He should utter the names 
of the different principles co^stitwing his self or being each 
cmipled with tine term Swmikm and complacently touch the 
nine apetlnres of Us bcidy, aAer having performed the rite 
of wri^ lespiratioe regelated according to the 

mles of the Prmmaymm (2^ Be should thrice recapitubte 
in miwd the tSlAn Smtdkiim and after having rinsed bis mouth 
with water awd -pedarmed Ae wymsm ceremony (rfte of 
IncaAng Ae imngrv of gods or mantras in the different paitn 
of the iMidf) an bid do wn in the worsinp AoM 

medtate npm Ae Mmbmc nr the nmri^vg m irf* 

lowii ^he Boddcia wtim imf a red mmfllaiimt is nmded ma 



s«rftn and possesses four faces and equal number of bands, 
carrying garlands in his right arms and an anchorite’s stick and 
a Kamandalu (pitcher) the left. The Midday Sandhya is to 
be contemplated as a white woman mounted on the celestial 
bird Garuda and possessing four arms, carrying a conch 
and ^chakra in her two left arms, and a mace in one of the 
right hL.ids, the remaining hand being folded up in the 
attitude of giving encouragement (28)* The image of the 
Sandhya to be worshipped in the evening (Roudri sandhya) 
is that of a woman seated on a lotus flower placed on a bull, 
carrying in her two right hands a trident and a rosery and a 
spear in her upper left, the lower left arm being folded in 
the attitude of giving encourageu^ent She is to be re^ 
presented as having three eyes and bedecked with the niDoa 
in her forehead (28}. Oh Brahman ! Sandhya is the witness 
of all the acts of men and the sou! follows in her wake« Tbe 
fourth form of Sandhya is that which is contemplated by tbe 
wise, and should be thought of in the night (30). Tbe 
Parama Sandhya is that which flows invisible through tbe 
ganglias respectively situate at the heart, tbe upper end of 
the nose, and the fonrth ventricle of the braia {31). Tbe 
foot of the fore-finger is to be considered as the Pitri lirtha 
or the part sacred to the Pilris, the foot of the little finger is 
sacred to Prajapati, the part at the fcN^t of the tbmb is 
sacred to Brahma, tbe fore part of the band being held as 
containing spots sacred to the different gods* (Deve*itrtha) 
(32). The palm of tbe lelt^haad is to be held as sacred to 
fire, while that of the nghl as the spot sacred to Smmgf 
all the fif}ger-|oiftts being held sacred to the lUhlds 
I Now tbe sacred pool is to be suide permeated wiAUba 
leaerly of God ^ya by atleriag tbe maatma sacred ia 
him mad the Maiyaa cemsoey m to be pmfmmnd by 
ailef iag tbe Saabila aiaatfas id that god (3^)* Tbe vile of 
amigiimi coams^ ia tbe act af sprfldhg wilb tbe rigbl bead 



(35). The water carried in the palm of the right hand is to 
be brought near the tip of the nose, and^is to be contemplated 
as of a white colour and as the embodiment ofoknpwledge, and 
IS to be drawn forth into the cavity of the left nose, and there 
to be retained. Subsequent to tbar the water is to be ejected 
through the right nostril, and is to be again cast down into the 
right palm, contemplated as having assumed a black colour 
by washing off the sins of the practiser and is to be thrown 
on a stone slab. This is what is called the A^huntarsnna rite 
{37). Then a bunch composed of Kusha grass, flower, and 
the pinches of sundried rice, should bp offered to Shiva as 
the Argkya or the preliminary ofiering, accompanied by the 
mantras sacred to that divinity, after which the Gyatri should 
be repeated as many times as the worshipper could afford 
(38). Now I shall speak about the Tarpana or the rite of 
offering watery oblations to the god which should be done by 
ottering the principal mantra Houn Sbibaya Srah^f and by 
means of the Devatertha. The word Svaha is. to be repeated 
in all the other cases as well (39). 

The Nyfism is to be performed as follows. Hrang Hrida- 
ya (to the heart), Hring Shirasa, (to the head), Hrung Shikat 
(to the tuft of hair on the crown), Hraing Kibachay^ Astra- 
ya or in the Alternative the. eight-gods can^ie located in the 
different parts of the body above enumerated in the place 
of the aforementioned mantras. The tarpana or the offers 
iftg of waler-obUtious should be performed unto the foHcJw- 
ing gods ma follows; — Hang Vasuvyas Svaha, Rudravyas 
Svaba, Visvavyo Svaba^ Marudvjo Svaha, and unto the 
foliowiiig Eisis sicii as Kaalhopabeti as follows. Hang 
Vrigiiv|«> Svaha* Haag Artgi«vyo Svaha, Hang Atraya 
Svaha» Hang Vasislaya aamas, Pula$^ya> namas, Hang 
Kratava aamas, Haag Varadvajaya nainaa, Hang Visva* 
miiraya mliias, Hang Praebatvsa' Vaa^ and tmlo the 
followbig ^vagea m follows Haag Saoakaya Vasat, 
Hiihg:^S»pdafa Vanai, Hang Simaiaiiaya Hang 



Sanatlcumaraya Vasat, Hang Kapilaya Vasat, Hang Pancha 
Shikhaya Vasat, tfie ceremony having been performed with 
the combined fingers of the right hand, touched at the 
elbowjoint by the left /4c — 441. Then the tarpana ceremony 
should be performed unto all the spirits, and Pt’/r/x and 
Daksa^ Skanda, and Cpaiu:hy appending the word Vousat 
to the names of each with the ends of Kusha^rass and 
SessamuM Orientale (45:, Similarly the tarpana ceremony 
is to be performed unto Kavya Anala, Soma^ Vama, 

Arjama, A^ni and to Barhis by appe^iding the term Svadha 
to the name of each of the above gods (46 . In the same 
manner watery oblations should be offered to Ajyapa and 
Soma and to the souls of the ancestors and departed manes 
of the celebrator of the cecremony as special gods as fol- 
lows, Om, Hang, Ishanaya Pitra Svadha, Hang, Pitamahay 
(to the grand-father) Svadha (obesinnce), Hang Prapita- 
mahaya (to the great grandfather) Svadha, and similarly as 
follows — Hang Pitrivyas (to the ancestors) Svadha, Hang 
Pitamahaya (to the grandfathers) Svadha, Hang Prapita- 
mahaya (o the great grandfathers) Svadha (47—48). Simi- 
lar oblations should be offered to the souls of the departed 
manes in the mothers line as follows, Hang PramAta- 
mahavyas (great-grandfather in the motlier’s line with bis 
brothers and cousins) Svudba and lastly Hang Svadha to 
the souls of the great great-grandfather in the mother’s 
line and of his brothers and cousins. Hang Svadha to the 
souls of ail the ancestors* Similarly Svadha (obestance) to 
the souls of all the dead cognates and to those of the ikparted 
priests and preceptors, and to att the demons, Matras, Md 
to the dtfferei^ quarters of the hem^n, with Ih^ 
dehies (50), 


Xhe God said:— Oh Sfcanda, now I shall describe to 
you the mode of worshipping the Sun-god together with 
the rites known as the Karanganyasa (location of the different 
firy letters of the alphabet or of the images of a particular set 
of gods inside the hands and such other parts of the body, by 
imagination). The worshipper should contemplate'himself as 
identical and fully permeated with the essence or the energy 
of that divinity, and worship the preliminary oblation aceord- 
ingly (i)j which should be imagined as coloured red with the 
drop of water sprinkled over his forehead. After having wor- 
shipped the same and other things appertaining to the worship 
of the sun-god, and performed the particular rites called the 
rites of protection and covering, with their respective mantras, 
the votary should wash the thing with that water and com- 
mence worshipping the Sun-god facing the East. The 
Karanganyasa rite — should be performed as Om Am Hrid- 
yaya etc. and the two attendants of tiie god who are named 
Dandi and Pingala should be respectively worshipped at the 
right and the left side of the door (2 — 3). The god Gana 
should be worshipped in the north-east quarter of the heaven, 
as Am obesiance to Gana, the preceptor should be worshipped 
in the south-east angle of the sky, and the Peetha or the 
magnificently splendid cnshion of the god in the middle part 
of tbe stool (4). The components of the^ solar rays such as 
Btmala, Sara, Panama and Sukha should be worshipped in 
Uie angular quarters of the heaven, starting with the south- 
etc, iaiaged m mighty lions of a whke blood yellow or 
of a blue cclonr m^edively {5). Inside the lotus shaped 
diagraai, IheNiaseiiees or the energies of the God 
shiorid be won|bipp 4 d as follows. ** Rang Dipatayi^ Rum 
Smkmmmt Jaysyai, Rum Vadrayai, Raing Bibhutyai, 


Rayim Bimalayau Rong Amogkayai, Roung Vidyutayh io 
the different angular points of the diagram. The seat or 
the cushion should be presented to the god at the centre of 
the lotus by uttering the mantra Rang^ and the si^c letters 
(Hoang, Hring Sa, Suryiya) which compose the principal 
mantra* in the worship under discussion, should also he 
written thereon (6—7). The sungod should be invoked with 
the mantra which runs as Om, Ham, Khang obesiaoce to 
Kkakolkaya, and should be mentally located in the handful 
of water oblation touched with the head, as a resplendent 
spirit of a deep red colour (8). The invocation should be 
performed with the mantra which runs as. Hrang, Hring, 
Sa, obesiance to the sun-god (Suryaya) by exhibiting the 
mudra, and flowers and perfumes should be presented to him 
for his satisfaction, and also the mudra known as the Bimaia 
mudra should be exhibited in connection tberewilh (9). 
The mudras such as Padma mudra. and Vilramudra, should 
be exhibited to the god in turn, and then the rite knowQ 
as the Sadanganyasa should be performed in the differesi 
directions of the heaven, starting with the »outb-eastem 
angle of the latter as follows — Om .^ng Hridayaya nasaia 
(obesiance to the sun god) in the heart, Va, Vuba Sva obe- 
siance to Suresha (the lord of tbe gods} in the 0I 
bair on the crown in the south west. Hung iubmimym 
namas (obesiance to the armour mantra) in the nortli west* 
"^‘Hang Natraya namas Hang (obesiance to the eyes) in the 
centre and Va Astraya namas obesiance to the weapon 
mantra) in the East and so oa {10— ll). Then tbe mndrai 
(the folding of tbe palms and Sagers is a particulaf ntliinde) 
dbould be exhibited as f<^laws via, tbe Dhammndra (fingm 
lotded in tbe shape of a com} to tbe beait and ancb Ite 
organs spokes of before, (xovisisa aisdra to the eyes 
Tbe tryt^smi (that part of the Astra maslia mUA sarwis 
as it were tbe psipeae of sit l rwn H sbaip md btigif 
hf a fetios ond s i a bwi ita ^eadfsl Obw* 

26 o 


ance should be made to the planets in the folFowrng^ 
way, viz., Sam obesiance to the Moon, Bam obesiance to the 
Mercury, FrzVw obesiance to the Jupiter, Vatn obesiance to 
the Venus, Mang obesiance to the Mars, Cam obesiance to 
the Saturn and Rang and Kang obesiance to the Rahu and 
the Katu (nodes) respectively, the ceremony having even per- 
formed in the different petals of the lotus shaped diagram 
commencing from the East. The Khakolka"^ should be wor- 
shipped Jointly with the above, by offering flowers and 
perfumes (13 — 14}. The Argha or water oblations should be 
offered to the sun-god out of the vessels containing water 
for the same and by uttering the principal mantra appertain- 
ing to that particular divinity. The worshipper should then 
make obesiance to him, with his face turned back from his 
disk after having performed the Bisaryan ceremony 
with the mantra running as Kmmasva^ etc., {Pardon me 
O God in taking leave of thee). Having performed the rhe 
of mentally merging the component principles of the univwe 
in the fundamental one, the votary of the sun-godp should 
contemplate in his heart the god as identical with the god 
Sankara and offer the light or the effulgence to the latter as a 
garland made of the solar rays. A man receives every thing 
be has a mind to, by thus worsbioping and contemplating 
the sun-god or by performing a Hon^a eerenwny in his honov 
(i— 5'7)* 


Xhe God Now I shall speak about the worship- 

of the God Siva which is to be performed as laid down 

Ha W. I 


before. The worshipper should repeat in his mind the 
Pranava mantra Om, and wash the threshold of the temple 
with water consecrated by the Asktra mantra or the mantra 
of weapon, after having worshipped Homa and the other 
warders of the god (ll. He should deem himself as endowed 
with the divine eye-sight, and worship the goddess Lakshmi 
and Sarasvati, together with the god Gana in the Globe or 
the Oudamher at the top of the temple, the god Nandi and the 
goddess Ganges at the right, and the god M^hakal and the 
Jamuna at the left hand side thereof, the pernicious spirits 
and the demons having been previously driven away by 
throwing a consecrated flower (2 — 3). The spirits of mis- 
chief residing in the bowels or the upper crust of the earth 
should be removed by beating the two fingers of the left 
band against the palm of the right, and the worshiper should 
then cross the threshold of the temple leaping over the 
same by holding the upper cross bar of the door frame. 
Having thus entered the temple by first lifting his , right fo<^ 
he should project the mental image of the Astra or the 
mantra of weapon, into the bodj^ of the ornamental globe 
on the top of the same, and worship at its centre as follows 
** Om Hang, obesiance to Bramha, who presides over all the 
house-steads (5). Then the worshipper should go the bank* 
of the river Ganges without conversing with any one in 
the way, and carrying a pitcher and balls of sun dried rice, 
after having obtained permission in that behalf from the 
god himself (6). Having bathed in the river he should 
wash the above balls thus purified and repeat over the same 
the Gyatri mantra or the mantra known as the Hridbeej 
All the articies found necessary in the course of the 
worship such as perfumes, sundried rice etc., should now be 
stowed in order near the woishipper who should tbe« 
perionti the rites of Saonidbikharan premoosly 
crihed and of the Votasodhi or the purificatwm of tb© ivf 
initial components of bis own body (8). The Nynsn in 



to be performed both in the right and the left side of the 
image, and in the head with the mantras, and also by 
exhibiting the mudra known »as the Sanhar mudra (9). 
In the case where the worship would be undertaken for the 
fulhftnent of any definite object, the votary should meditate 
upon his own soul, situate at the lotus of the twelve petals 
in the heart or the nerve ganglia called tha Solar Plexus in 
man, by holding his band at his breast, folded in that parti- 
cular attitude known as the tortoise or the Kucchapika ; or 
in the alternative he should purify the five material princi- 
ples of his body, by contemplating an aperture or passage 
all through the body from the toes upwards open 
at both ends and by leading the stream of fais consci- 
ousness tip through the opening as laid down below 
(10— 1 1). The worshipper should contemplate in sup- 
pressed respiration the energy of consciousness which 
pervades the region of his heart, in the firy mental image of 
the letter Hnu which should be located in the inside of the 
passage or the apperture which runs through the system be- 
low the spinal chord, and opens at its upper extremity 
into the Brabmarandha or the aperture the brain {12). 
The breath should then be let out according to the rules 
of the Rachaka or the letting out of the breath wind in 
practising the Pranayama. 

Then the contemplator should carry the firy image of 'the 
term Hnu with the effulgent image of the term Fut appen- 
ded thereto with the string or the column of his conscious- 
ness rising upward from the lower part of his organ- 
jsi!!i and rending through the nerve ganglia respectively 
“sittiate at the hearty the palate, the intervening space be- 
tween the two eye brows, and the Bramharandra or the 
•csnrify of the soal in the brain, upto the middle point in the 
TOof of the latter cavity, and should there locate the image 
^ the above letters which should be deemed as self 
coMPOuSy together with the life located in and con- 



centered to that single point, consciousness having been re* 
fleeted back in the heait silmultaneously therewith, by means 
of the Sainputa or the entire stoppage of respiration by 
pressing the two nostrils. After having psychically located the 
image of the term Hnu in the way and the spot directed 
above, the worshipper should meditate upon the absolute or 
the unaffected soul manifest in the point above described, and 
should unite the stream of his consciousness with Civa or 
the infinitely blissful one revealed in the above point, by one 
stroke of Kumbhuka or Udghata (by holding the breath 
in check at a single stretch for a time as enjoined in 
that behalf in practicing the Kumvuka Yoga) and merge 
the former in the latter {13—- 15). After having merged 
himself in Shiva, by carrying up the stream of his conscious- 
ness by means of the Bee] mantras, the worshipper should 
purify his inner self by carrying in an inverse order or 
downwards the luminous point located in his brain up to 
the point at the centre of the nerve ganglion situ- 

ate at the part intervening the two eye-browS| by merging 
in imagination the earth, wind, water, flrei and the sky, one 
into the other immediately following it in tfcc order of cnuiaer- 
ation, until the same is realized in the mind tx6 — 17]. 

Hear me Oh Bramhan describe the process by which the 
same is to be brought about. The earth principle which is 
hard and of a yellowish colour and bedecked with electric efful- 
gence, is to be destroyed by means of the Alma Beeja (Beeja 
mantra appertaining to the soul) Honm (tS). Oh Brambaa 
the entire body from foot to head should he cowleaipli^ed 
as a foursided figure, and therein the principle of wind 
should be meditated upon fay practising the five 
of Kumvaka* accorefing to the rule to be observed m 

V U is a Ihith as old as the world ilaclf, that when the wind sle^ dm 
spirit wak^ To indooe wmk a deep hi wh i c h lie wmmxm hides ha 
face, and the tuner springs of dio^ht am hmught to a stand stil 
was die only objea alamd at, if the yoga phSeaephy ef anocat Iniini 



Ihe same (19*1, and which principle founded in the body 
on the Beejamantra Hring, is to be contemplated as in a 

and the way found out to break through the trammelr of the body was 
to concentrate the whole soul, the entire energy of the mind on a defi- 
nite point, ti!I the both the thought and its object were gone and the 
soul fonnd its rest in the bosom of its universal progenitor in Hissful 
communion. Thus the Rishes found out at a very early age, that to 
make mind absolutely bereft of all sensations and perceptions, is the only 
means of creating that mental vacuum in whichiand through which only 
the electric soul sparks shoot through and become visible. But abso- 
lute concentration is impossible until the respiration is checked, even if 
all c -anection is artificially cut off between the senses and their objects 
of perception. 

The air taken in daring the respiratory process, carries with it into 
the body the essential emanations from the external world and clouds the 
inner light with a haze of perceptions and images, thus causing a break 
in the flow of the latter towards its desired object. The practice of 
Ptanayama (the regulation of the Pran or the breath wind according to 
a certain measure of time) has been known to be a very successful 
cure for this sort of mind wandering, and is usually practised as a 
preliminary step to Kitmvaka, or the art of bringing on a calm and 
unfiickered state of the soul-light, like water in a pilcher {Kumva} by 
means of entirely suppressing the respiratory process. 

iintr. 1 i 


?wi tw. [ 


W#*? jnwri# I 



iquid state, and possessing the brilliancy of a lotus flower 
(20), The worshipful principle of fire should be purified by 
practising four strokes of the Kumvaka, and by uttering 
the mantra known as the Bama mantra 21), The mantra 
Hum is to be contemplated as of red colour, and impressed 
with the sign of the Svasfik, carrying tfiree Astras, and as 
the representative of the knowledge or the principle of know- 
ing (22), 

The latter principle in the body should be puntied by practi- 
sing there strokes of tlie Kumvuka Yoga, and by contem- 
pTating the mantra Hrin, whicJi sliould be thought as full 
of air, bedecked with six points, and meditated upon 
as conferring peace and possessing a black colour (23-— 24). 
The earth principle is to be purified by contemplating a 
circle of heaven, filled in with ether and shining with the lustre 
of a pure and effulgent crystal {25), The rite of final puri- 
fication should be performed by contemplating the image of 
of the mantra Hung fut, at one stroke of the Kumvaka {26). 
Then the^^/A^r, Ananta, Dharma, Gnyan, (knowledge) and 
such like circles or lotuses should be permeated with the 
nectar shed down by the principal mantra of the God (27), and 
the heart should be contemplated as a throne spread out to 
him, after having invoked the image therein which should be 
made permeated with the essence or soul of Shiva, placed 
inside the solar plexus or the lotus at the heart containing 
twelve petals* Then the ceremony known as the SakaiK 
karan should be performed in connection with the image 
by uttering the word Vousat appended to the Sakti mantraf 
after having made the same saturated with the 
ambrosia, shed by the Bindu or the nerve ganglion between 
the two eyebrows, in the course of practising the Kumvaka; 
and which ceremony consists in locating' the mantras soda 
as Hridmantras etc, in the different paihs of the bod^ 
as the heart, the arms and the iitlie fingers thehaml 
(nS«*3o)« The wmshippor should defeml or pieteci htn 



surroundings with the mantra of the weapon and the 
divine essences beyond that with the same, and exhibit 
the mudra known as the Mahamudra both upwards and 
downwards (31). He should* worship the god Shiva in his 
heart with the fl owers of sentinieni, by practising the Purak 
form of the kumvaka, (taking in of the air), and perform 
the homa ceremony in the fire situate at his umbilical 
region and known as the Shivanala, with the clari- 
fied butter of arnhrosia dropped down in the course of 
practising the Kumvuka, and meditate upon the god as 
revealed in the form of a point at the centre of the nerve 
ganglion at the forehead (33^ Similarly the vessels or the 
capacities of the utensils of gold etc, to be used in the course 
of the worship, should be purified with the water of nectar 
obtained from the above source and with sundried rice 
and the watrr consecrated -with the weapon mantra (Fut) 
(34)1 3nd worshipped after having invoked them by per- 
forming in their honour the nyasa ceremony known as 
the Sadanganyasa^ They should be covered over with the 
mantra which serves the purpose of an armour {Kabacha 
mantra) after having protected them with the Hati mantra 
wliich is the mantra of protection (35). 

Subsequent to that the Argha or the preliminary offering 
should be dressed up, composed of the eight sttbstances, 
which should be sprinkled over with water by means ot the 
Dhanutnudra, and after which the worshipper should sprinkle 
the same over his head (36). The articles to be used in 
the worship should he consecrated with mantras, and threads 
should be girdled round them (37). The Mudra known as 
the Amrita mudra should be exhibited, '^and Bower should 
be cast on the cushioii of worship, while the wor^ipper 
should his face with the tUmk mark, and put another 
flower 0m bis own consecrated by the principal mantra 
of the god (3ih A man of geaile temperament should 
iemain sifonl at the time of eating, ^Mng, and worshipping 



and while engaged in practising Yoga or performing the 
Homa and other sacrifices or at the time of repeating any 
mantras for the fulfilment of any particular desire (39), 
The mantra should be purified by prefixing to it the {nada- 
mantra) **Om,*’ and should be then used in the worship, 
the Samanya Argha, or the general preliminary offering 
having been offered by uttering the G^iyatri mantra (40), 
After having moved round the Brahmapanckaka^ the wor- 
shipper should take a garland from the body of the falic 
emblem, and offer the same to the Chanda manifestation 
-of that divinity situate in the north east quarter of the 
heaven (41). The purification of the falic emblem consists 
in the act of washing the pedestal with the water consecrated 
by the mantra of weapon, and also with the Hridmantra, and 
in sprinkling the water of the Arghapatra (offering plate) over 
the same (42). All the other gods should be worshipped 
as well fnr the purification of the mantra and the falic emblem, 
together with all the other articles to be used in the worship, 
and of the inoerself of the worshipper as follows, ** Hang obe- 
siance to the God Ganapati presiding over the north wescern 
quarter of the globe, in that direction, Hang obestance 
to the preceptor** (the obesiance should be made in the 
north east angfe of the sky). The Adlrar Sakti, (the god- 
dess or the energy re)^iding in the cushion of the God) 
should be worshipped in the Kurmashtla^ and meditated 
upon as a goddess possessing complexion like the mtw 
boro shoots of corn, and the Asan of Shiva known as 
the Ananta (infinity) should be worshipped in the Brahma- 
shila together with the attendants of the God sisch as 
Vickitraieska^ and KriiMt and Trtis who form the cn^ioii 
and the shoes^ h were cd that divinity ^5). Dharma, Gnyana, 
Vairagya,.and Aishvaraya, should he worshipped in Inm, 
as poosemng complexions like camidiiir, saffron, gold and 
coilymm req>eclively {46}, 

At the ceolreoi the lo*^**s dmped Aiqpram and ia tim 



petals thereof, the energies or the goddesses who reside 
in the cushi.^n or the pectha of the God should be worship* 
pad in turn, tlieir names being Vala, Yasta, Roudri, Kali, 
Kalabikarini, Valabikarini, Balapramathini, etc, and who are 
represent as carrying chowries in th-ir right hands, the 
fingers of their other hands being folded up in ifje atti'ude of 
giving encouragement. At the ends or the extremities of the 
petals of the mystic diagram the goddesses such as Sarva- 
vutadamini etc, shnuld be worshipped as Hung Sarvavuta- 
damanyai, Hun^ Munomanyai namas, Huag Ksityai namas 
and so on the SudJ/iav/tl/as, together with the cushion of the 
god which is spread over and coeternal witfi all the component 
principles of the universe {47 — ^49), The God should bejocated 
in the cushion as possessed of five faces and ten arms, with 
complexion white and pleasing, and decked with the crescent 
moon in his forehead, and carrying in his five right arms, 
a spear, a stick, a benediction, a mace, and a Khattanga res- 
pectively, and a Damaru (small drum), a Vijapura^ a blue 
lotus, a Suirjka, and a lotus flower in the five left (50). The 
image of Shiva as possessed of the thirty two attributes 
should be installed at the centre by uttering the mantra 
which runs as ** Hang^ obesiance to the 

image of Shiva, and after having meditated upon his divine 
self which is self-revealed to his votaries (51—52), the 
mantra should be carried with the occult stream or 
column of consciousness up to the spot sacred to Siva, 
by leaving below the oerveganglion sacred to Bramha, and 
the worshipper should meditate upon the former god re- 
vealed as a luminous point in the midst of the nerve gaE^Iioa 
at the forehead, and effulgent with the , fining splendour of 
the full moon; and also contempfate him in the different parts 
of his body at the time of practising the sadangany&sa ritc^ 
and also in the handful oSeriog of flowers, after which he 
should deposit the same in the image of Lakshmi (one of the 
goddesses residing in the cushion of the god Siva) {53—54)* 



Tlie worsliipper should approach the image and invoke 
the presence of t!ie God, by uttering the mantra which runs 
as Oni, Hang, Houng, obesiance, to Shiva, and also by ex- 
hibiting the mudra known as the Abahani, and guard against 
the going aw^ay of the God, as it were, by putting the god- 
esses Nisthura, and Kalakanta in his way, and by uttering 
the mantra, — Nisthurayai fut, (obesiance to Nistkura), 
Kalukantayai fut (obesiance to the wife of Shiva revealed 
as the eternal time). After having removed the spirits 
who are harmful to the practices of Yoga or worship, and 
made the obesiance and exhibited the Linga mudra^ the 
worshipper with the Hrin mantra should perform the rite of 
Abgunthan, and afterwards that of invocation as follows by 
standing in the front of the image. “ Let thy slay and ins- 
tallation here be agreeable to thee, I sit beside thee Oh« 
God (55 — 57). The rite of abgunikan signifies the presence, 
and supervision of the God, and the giving of devotion towards 
himself from the beginning to the end of the worship (58}* 
After having performed the ceremony of sakaltkmran or 
the mentioning of the different parts of the body tf^etber 
with the nitintras sacred or peculiar to each, the ceremoiiy 
known as the Amrtit karan should be performed as fcd- 
lonFs :^The worshipper should permeate his heart with the 
energy of consciousness sacred to Shiva, by appending the 
word Mmmas (obesiance) to the mantra to be repeated 00 
the occasion. Similarly he shonld contemplate the taft of 
hair on his crown as fortased of the eightfold glories 
{Aicmrya) of the God such as iordiiaess etc., the word! 
awmSIo hetng affixed to the mantras for the oocasioftft* The 
i^orshipper should contemplate the iavinctble etreigy of the 
as forming his armonfi the ttAbearible p^owess of the God 
wli^ carries before U aH mpedhnenis and ohatfoddons* M Us 
weapon, and the words smkg and mmsMi sboUd be lespno* 
tivety ai^nded to the mantras which wonid he repented on dbn 
occaslmis tS9^t}* <imler for 4 maMng 



4 lie feetof ^ Gt>d) should be offered by first uttering the mantra 
known as the Hridmantra, The padya should be presented 
on the feet of the image, and the Achamanyam (water for 
rinsing the month) in its face (62). The Arghya or the 
preliminary offering composed of flowers and bunches of 
green grass and grains of the' sundried rice, shopid be 
placed on the head of the image ; and thus havingfpurified the 
image of the lord by means of the ten sorts of purifications 
laid down in the books of religious ceremonies, the wor- 
shipper should worship the same with the five essential 
articles of worship such as the flowers, perfumes, etc., 
Suhsf'quent to that he should rub the image with salt and 
nmstard seeds, and wash the same iii turn with milk, curd, 
clarified butter and honey, and sweet scented flowers. The 
defects in the above substances should ht atoned for by 
reading over them the mantras, such as the Isia mantra etc. 
and the image should be bathed with waters dyed white with 
barley paste dissolved in water, and afterwards should be 
bathed viith a copious quantity of cold water, perfumed water 
having been added to it to the extent which the means of the 
worshipper would admit of. After that the image should be 
rubbed dry with a piece of clean linen, and the Arga or the 
preliminary offering should be offered, care being taken as not 
to move the hand over its head, which should not be under 
any circumstance be left devoid of flowers (63—68), The 
image should be plastered over with the paste of white 
sandal by repeatiag the mmmtrm sacred to Shiva, and wor- 
j^pped with flowers by tilteriog the same mantra, Tbe 
imssel for contaiaiag the perfumed incease stick sboold 
be coaseoraled with the A^irm and ^ tbe Shiva manim, 
and the hell with the Astrm manira only. The wer- 
«h%>pec should mow hum g«£g^ before the image« by 
liugiitg wHb his other baud Ihe bell fweviotisly eonse- 
craledi mud Ihe AchswmmymkMm (water fur rinst^ Ihe 
should be sub$ei|umiily by repeating 



the Hridmantra followed by the word svadha (69—70). 
After having finblied the rite of waiving light before the 
image, the achamanyjktm should be again offrr^d, and 
the worshipper on having made obeiiance to the God and 
taken his permission, should offer him the eatables and 
other arlicus of enjoyment 171). 

The Hrid is to be worshipped in the south east, Chandra 
in the north east, and the golden-coloured Shiva together 
with Shikha and Rakta in the south west, and Kri^Jia and 
Varaan in the north western corners of the lotus shaped 
diagram. Similarly the Gods, Chaturvaktra^ and Chaturvahu 
should be worshipped in the petals of the diagram together 
with the divine weapon in the east which is to be meditated 
upon as a thunder, looking fierce with its rugged teeth 
^22—73). The nyasa is to be performed as follows Houng 
obesiance to Shiva in the naval, Om, Hang, Han, Been, 
Hoon in the head, Bring in the toft of hair on the crown, Hain 
in the armour, Has to the weapoo and to the other atten- 
dants of the God (74% The pMdya (water (or washiog 
the feet), together with the water for rinsicg the mooth 
and the fMrcliminary offering, perfumes, flowers, inceote 
sticks, lamps, and dishes of rice etc. should be offered to 
the God. Bunches of green grasd and grass together 

with the grains of soodried rice should he placed on the 
bead of the image, asd betel leaves, mirror, and a piece of 
cloth for wiping the lijps should be presented to its inoiate 
divinity (75—76). Then the principal mantra of the God 
shotdd be told eight hundred times, and the sword ol the 
God she^faed in its scmhhmrd should he conlemplaled in, and 
l Up v w n ew l id by the bunebes ol the white htOs flowetn 
pt-e oidi siy nnb|ected to Ac ii^flaencx ol the HridmaMsm (f yh 
Sdbne^lhlwl to the ioKng of the above awa^Ae wor- 
shipper shoidd fend adnwd Ae fnnowuig cm^iet.^ IhM* 
Am accept Oh Lwni oAn mi Ae myeleiious of all mystel- 
ons beings, Ae sepilillon of Ae wmxei mmmrn dome by mth 



for custody. May I attain salvation, through thy kindness, 
with the merit thereof, for thou slialt abide Oh Lord ! {78). 
The worshipper, if a man of the world, should take into the 
palm of his right hand, tiie washings of the Argha or the 
preliminary offering consecrated by the mula or the princi- 
pal mantra of the God, and with his left hand offer the 
same to the God Camvu^ after reading the above verse. 
Subsequent to that he should read the following verses 
and make over the merit of the Vapa (telling of any parti- 
cular mantra) to the God. I have devoted my whole self 
to you O Shankar! whatever I do, — -right or wrong, be 
pleased to cast them away. Hnn ksa I (79 — 81). Shiva is 
the giver, Shiva is the protector, and Shiva is the universe 
itself, ail through which he reigns supreme and victorious, 
I am identical with Shiva. After having offered the Argha, 
the worshipper should tell the mantras ten thousand times, 
and sing psalms in honour of the God subsequent to that 
(82). After having performed the ceremony of circum- 
bulation, he should make obesiance to the eight manifesta- 
tions of the God, with the eight parts of his body, and 
meditate upon his divinity either in a picture or in 
fire (83). 


The God said:— -The worshipper should enter another 
toom Yfoseesi with the vessel of offering in his hand, and 
look to the arrangements ol the articles essential to the 
perlomance of a saart&ce» endowed as it were, with the divine 
eyesigiMt. He sboBid sw the receptacle , lor the sacriScul fire 
with his face tomed towards the north. The ceremony of 
■ptMkiMg and stirring water with the ends of iuska grass, 



shovid be done by repeating the Astra mantra, and that of 
consecration should be performed by sprinkling over water 
vrith the mantra which by a religious or ceremoniat hctioa, 
serves the purpose of au armour {Kavatha mantra p. a.i The 
ceremonies of digging out a piece of clay, together with those 
of filling fci and levelling the hole, should be completed with 
the repetition of the Varma or the Kavacka mantra, and those 
•f bathing and division into parts, with the astra and the 
Sara mantra respectively. Similarly the rites of sanmarjan, 
santalapan, Kalarmp and Trisutra Paridhana should be 
performed by reading the ftarma mantra (3 — 4). Three lines 
are to be laid down in the north, and one below them should 
he drawn so as to face the east, and any defect or shortcoming 
lying inherent in them, should be made good by touching 
then with the stems of Kushagrass consecrated by the Astra 
mantra of the god Shiva (5). The mystic quadrilateral diagram 
should be laid down by uttering the Ba/rtiaran and the Nrid- 
mantra, the aksapatra mkh lite mantra of armour,, and the 
sand cushion or the quadrilateral seat for the sacrificial fire 
shouldbe spread out with the repititkm of the Hridnutnira (6). 
The goddess of speech together with the god Isha should be 
worshipped therein with the Hridmantra. The consecrated 
fire should be brought from a holy place, placed in a pure 
receptacle by leaving aside its parts over which the demons 
preside. The difiereut and component parts of the sacrificiat 
fire which are called Oadarjja, Aindaha and Vita, ahould be 
aaade one, and establiaiicd with tiie mantra koowa as the 
Vanis (the priactpal and mooosyUablic maotra aacred t« 
the god of fire) aad by alio reading the mantra wfakjb nma aa 
Om Hrim obesUuce to tbcgod of fire. The fire god abeuM be 
iatFoked with the Samkita mantra, and the c e rca ac uy of 
Amritilcuaa (amkiag uamortad) abouldbe perfaimed ueto htaa 
bf exhibit^ the aHuinl fcaowu aa Uie Diammmmdra (Mdbg 
of the fiagws M the abape of a cow). The fire abenid be 
located bjr dM JUaii maaira, the cereaM»uev of 

3 « 



Abgunihan (lit covering over) having been performed by 
repeating the mantra of the armour (Kavacha); and the 
worshipper should thrice circumbulate round the hallowed 
receptacle of fire, subsequent to his worshipping tlie presiding 
deity of that element (7— lo;. The fire should be looked 
upon as the seminal fluid of the god of speech fBagicvarJ, 
cast by him into the wnmb of his goddess {Bagicvari), Then 
the worshipper should sit down with his knee joints rested 
on the ground, and throw down the fire in his front, by 
uttering the Hridmantra. Then the spontaneous gathering, 
as it were of the above seeds of fire, their devolopment, 
purification, etc. should be performed with the repetition of 
the above mantra at the respective instances mentioned 
before, and the Ganragni or the fire in the womb, whkh 
^mild be prelected by means of the Cura mantra^ should 
be propitiated with a worship (ii — 13). The garvaja 
or tbe embryo fire should be contemplaled as placed 
like a bracelet round the wrist of the goddess^ and 
tbe fire is to be worshipped wkh the mantra sacred to the 
sadyajata manifestatkin of Camkar^ by way of performing tbe 
garvmdkan ceremony (the ceremony undertaken with a 
view to ensure a safe and p^feet development of the 
loetus of fire) {14}. Subsequent to that, three oblations 
iho u M be oSered into the fire, %j uttering the Hrid* 

an) tbe fire is to be worshipped at tbe left*by 
idbrwiiig the Pmmm i mrn eevemony, (saerttee sup* 
iuve a deteiwiiiii^ tAset upon the sex cd the 
I ldM ieei^'tebiiug u^tlm embryo as a 

ilip 'werid|| 

WrirVi II 

w wmnBs, vurvue 



ot determining the formation of its face aad body and as 
before, the Jatakarma (ceremonies of port natal pnriBcalkte 
etc, which arc generally done in the tenth moaUi in 
the case of a human child.) should be performed by kindling 
up the sacrificial fire, and by throwing the stems of Kuska 
grass' into the same, for removing as it were, the impurities 
of womb from the body of the fire (tS). The godess (the 
mother of the newbf rn sacrificial fire) shonld be meditated 
upon by mentally telling the Hridmantra, after having 
performed unto her as a hmaan mother, the pnrif]^g 
ceremony of binding a piece of gdd round hmr wrist, aad 
should be sprinkled over with srater consecrated by the 
astra maxtra, for purifying the impurities nf ehild-biith (19I. 
The (Mtchers outside the receptacle fmr the sacrificial fire, 
shotdd be gently touched srith the ends of the JTasfiagnun hy 
ottering the Astra mantra, aad sprinkled over widi drape 
of water hy reading aloud the Ksnaskn aumtra, while the 
ends of the Knska grass eon^Msm^ the saerSdal g^r^ 
aad ^eate at the north stad the Bart, should he wwsbnd with 
water, accompanied by a vepidtioa «f tfrt above saUl asirm 
mantra. The ParMi or Ae periphery of a cisde bid 
round the sacrificisd fire, shnuld be dclermiard with the 
stems ^ the Kasha grass, previouriy censearnled udtt ttm 
astra and the Hrid mantra, and the cnahiaas Inscribed wMin 
H, sfaonM he sprand ent hy readh^ the ratra mantvm (H|i, 
Then for the remeual ai gartaad, five rtfalm ul the sacsifisiel 

tree, shonld be thrown bio fib fin^ dipped b ebiifitril 
tmttra, iiynltetbglio p>i o« %it ng the Jhg fi r nmmiiri>« 
gadiMMa the gods j W w ttn rr b' Cm i t r rr» WdOum anrif^^Mili 

iimi snsmbrt (•«). fpi '' iMtn rr| ti 



Indra, Isha, Paryanya etc., having places in the inscribed 
cushion, should be worshipped in the different quarters of 
the heaven over which they hold their respective sway, by 
uttering the Hridmanlra. The command or the mandate of 
of the supreme god Siva to the effect. “• Come Oh gods, 
and preserve this child fire, by removing all harm that 'might 
hefal him,” should be read out to them (23—24}. Subsequent 
to that, the worshipper should take in his hand the sacrificial 
spoon and the laddie, and touch the lighted sacrificial fire 
with the root, middle and the extremities of the Kusha grass 
witli their faces turned downward. The three tattvas or the 
three principles of soul, knowledge and Siva, should be 
located in the parts of the fire, respectively touched with the 
above portions of the Ku^ha grass, the mantras Han, Hun, 
Hum, San, Ra and Ba having been located therein conjointly 
with the above principles. The goddess Sakti should be 
located in the sacrificial spoon, and Camvu in the sacrificial lad- 
die, by uttering the Hridmantraj; and the god and the goddess 
should now be contemplated as seated on the bunches of the 
Kusha grass about to be used in the Horn* ceremony, which 
should be stowed on the right side of the worshipper, 
girdled with the three strings of thread, and worshipped with 
flowers etc. (25—28). The worshipper should now meditate 
upon the god’s own image as sentient and all aglow with 
the divine essence or effulgence, and carry the clarified 
cow butter uncontaminated by the sight of any other 
worshipper, over the south east Corner of the fire-recep- 
tacle, and move the same round and round by guttering 
the Hridia*intra. He should again move round the vessel 
of the sacrificial butter over the fire in the north east corner 
of the receptacle, after having meditated upon the image 
of the god Vishnu (29—30). Then the Homa ceremony 
should be performed first in honour of the god Vishnu, wkb 
the clarified butler held wUh the ends of a Kusha grass and 

by repeating the mantra abeve directed to be located in the 



h«ad in practising the the word svaha hafing been 

aiBxed to the same. Similarly a homa oblation should be 
offered with the same mautra to the god Shiva, reveated in 
the form of a luminous point at the centre of the nervegan- 
lion at the forehead (30-— 31). The worshipper should meds* 
tate upon his own suul by locating the same at the region of 
his umbilicus, and sprinkle water over that with the two stems 
of Kasha grass, each to the length of a span, and held with 
his ring and the snial! finger respectively (32), Similarly 
water should be sprinkled over the fire in front of the 
worshipper with the stems of the above two Kusha grasB, 
accompanied by the asfra mantra. The fire in front of the 
ol the worshipper should be again sprinkled over with water 
consecrated by the Hridmantra. The burnt Kusha grass 
should then be taken out, and purified with the asirm 
mantra and by means of the other lighted Kusha grass, 
which should be put ost, and the foriwer one lighted 
and moved round the fire. The Kusha grass previ- 
ously burnt, asit were, with the astra mantra, should be 
thrown into the fire. After having throws into the 
sacrificial clarified butter, the Kusha grass bound up in a 
knot, and contemplated the two fortnights and Ida therein, 
the boma ceremonies should be performed In succession 
by taking three iaddlefnls of the same sshstauce. A 
portion of the latter should be thrown into the fire by istlering 
the Sva mantra, the other part into the clarified bi^er 
held in the vessel and the residue into Ibe fire successiveiir 
(33'-*^36), Om Ham Agnajm Svaka (oblatioii to the gM 
Agni with obesiaoce), Om Han somay^h (oblalioui 

to the god Soma with obcsiaoce). Om Han Agm mmanymm 
svaka ((d>eiiaiice to the gods Agid and Soim with ekesktmoe)* 
The above r^blatioas dbmid be cast into the fire lor the par** 
pose of opening as it were the Ihrim eyes and die of 

the fire god (30^. The iomrth obtiMdeii s boo ld be oSored with « 
laddlefidof citified buttes as fattowa. **Om Ham Agnajm 



Svestikreta Svaka" (obesiance to the god Agni who is the 
Greater of sacrifice). The nyasa in honour of the fire god 
should be performed in the six different parts of the body, 
and who is to be invoked by exhibiting the cowshaped mudra 
(38). The rite of Abaganthan (a religious fiction of covering a 
sacrificial article over with the energy of a mantra, spoken of 
before) should be done over the clarified butler, by uttering 
the mantra, while the same was to be protected with the 
Sara mantra. A drop of clarified butter should be cast 
into the fire with the Hridmantra, which should be purified 
by sprinkling drops of water over the same, and the ceremony 
of ascertaining and locating the different mouths of fire 
together with that of making them one or holding them 
together is to be performed as follows Om Am Sadyajatay* 
svaha (oblation to the god Sadyajata with obesiance). Om 
Am oblation to Bainadeva with obesiance, Om Am Aghoraya 
Svaha (oblation to the god Aghora w.ith obesiance). Om 
Am Tatpurusaya svaha (oblation to the god Tatpurusa with 
obesiance). Om Ham Iskanaya svaha (oblation to the god 
Ijhana with* obesiance) (40). Om Ham, oblation with 
obesiance to the gods Sadyajata and Bamadeva, Om Ham 
oblation with obesiance to the gods Bamadeva and Aghora 
Om Ham oblation with obesiance to the gods Aghora and 
Tatpurusa and Ishan. Thus the rite of making one, the 
different mouths of the sacrificial fire should be performed 
with the mantras stated above, and also by offering laddie 
fuls of darified butler ranning from the fire into the 
angular pomts ol heaven, from the North west by the south 
west to tl<« Bortb Earn:. Obb Ham dilation with obesiance to 
Sadyafata, Bamadeva, Aghora, Tatpurusa and Icana. With 
these eight maatras tiie ianer nature and shape of the eight 
meatlM ei the Sre are to he determined {42). The fire should 
be wofsyped ia the north east quarter, and three oblations 
rtuMdd he effoed onto the same by uttering the Astra 
BHurtra; mri dm «ocafaqpp« with bis whole soul sbodd 



contemplate the sacrificiai fire as converted into or per* 
meated with the tire of the divine essence of Siva {43). 
Having worshipped both the father and the mother 
{the god and the goddess) with the Hridmantra, the final 
oblation should be offered unto them with the principal 
mantra, coupled with the term Vousat hi the end {44). 
Subsequent to that the worshipper should meditate upon 
the resplendent image of the god Shiva attended upon by 
his attendants and soldiers, after having invoked him in 
the lotus of his heart; and perform the tarpana (offering 
of the watery oblations) ceremony in his honour after 
having previously taken his permission in that behalf (45). 
Then having established a communion between the god oE 
the sacrificial fire, the Shiva and his own soul 

situate within his veins ana arteries, the worshipper should 
offer the Huma oblations to the latter god, numbering a 
tenth part of the number of mantras to , be repeated on the 
occasion (46}« The Homa should be made with clarified 
butter, thickened milk, honey, and fried barley mixed with 
curd, and a handful of the sacrificial porridge (Payasm) (47)« 
Moreover it would be proper for the worshipper to perforia 
the Homa ceremony by throwing into the fire, eatables of 
all sorts and denominations, as well as with a bandful of 
fried paddy, three pieces of the edible roots, and with au 
equal number of fruits (48). Five limes the Homa eolations 
should be cast into the fire, composed of the five balf-moi^ii* 
fuls of boiled rice, bits of sugar cane each to the length of a 
span, and the staanr sacrificial creepers measuting Urn 
fingers in length (49I. Siiiiilarly, oblations of fiowen aad 
leaves having their natural measures, ribould be oSeted iatw 
the sacrificial fire, together with the sticks of saartficiai tvueu 
eadi measuring ten fingetrs in length, together uriA atsminr 
ddatioas of camphor, sandal, safroti, mmk, and an mntnmnl 
cognising of campinw, i^gsMochom and kahtda, mined in nqpni 
propnclifine ( 51 ^ Then the shonld peffsm An 



Homa ceremony ag^ain with the puls and the scented gum- 
resin know as the Gu^^aLt, which should resemble the stone 
nf a Jujube in size, together with the eight parts of bulbous 
roots as laid down in the books of sacrificial rites ^51). The 
Homa ceremony should be thus completed by uti*=Ting the 
BrahfMheeja mantra (Omi, with a spoonful of clarified butter 
the other sacrificial spoon having been held with its cavity 
turned downwards ^52). The worshipper should place a 
flower at the head of the spoon and hold the same with his 
left hand. He should stand up half erect from his seat and 
fix his eyes upon the end of the laddie, after having held 
the handle of (he latter, closely pressed against his naval. 
Subsequent to tliat he should rouse up the stream of his 
pure consciousness through occult nerve aperature 

lying below the spinal chord, and known as the Stisamna 
and carry the same up to the root of his left breast, and 
tell the principal mantra in a low tone with the word Vousat 
appended thereto, and offer the offering into the sacrificial 
fire composed of barley, etc., {53—56). Sandal paste to- 
gether with betel leaves and water for rinsing the mouth, 
sbonld be then offered to the god. The worshipper should 
then meditate upon his gfory and make obesiance to him, 
which should be done after having worshipped and covered 
over the sacrificial fire as it were with the weapon |maqtra 
coupled with the word Fut, and by exhibiting the sankar 
mudrtf and by uttering the mantra which runs as Pardon 
ne, O god, in taking leave of you, etc., (57— 58). Then the 
gads who reside in the periphery of the mystic circular 
diagrma, yhotiid be meditated upon, and located in the 
aerve plexas {solar ptesus) at the heart which forms the 
inoKwt beiag as it were of a man, with the greatest devo* 
tkm the wot^ipper having repeated the Hrid mantra at the 
tune by Uking in bis bretah (59). Morsels of all the edibles 
ibessed ap for the worship shoald be taken and stowed in 
two drdea, aad aear the recepucle of the sacrificial offering 



both internal and external should be made to the above gods, 
in the angular quarters of the heaven from the south-east 
as follows. Om, Ham, offering with obesiance to the Rudras 
in the cast. Ona, Ham, offering with ubesiance to the 
Matris ‘n the sonth. Ham oblation with obesiance to the 
Ganas in the west, Ham oblation with obesiance to the 
Yalchas in the north, Ham, off-^ring with obesiarce to the 
planets in the north-east, Ham off<-ring with obesiance to 
the Asuras in ijse south-east, Ham offering with obesiance 
to the Rakshasas, Ham, offering with obesiance to the 
Nagas, in the north-west, Ham, oblation with obesiance to 
the stars at the centre, Ham, oblation with obesiance to the 
different constellations of stars in the south-east and Ham 
offering with obesiance to the Vbevas in the south-western 
quarter of the globe, the term Hdin, being the mantra, 
which should be uttered before offering the oblations in 
each of the above instances (6o~63b An offering should 
be made to the god Ksbetra in the inner circle or the 
mandal in the west, while in the exterior or the second 
circle spoken of above, offerings should be made to the gods 
fndra, Agni, Yama, Nairita Varuna, Wind, Kuvera and 
Ishana as follows, oblation and obcMance to Ishana tn the 
east, oblation and obesiance to Brahma in the north-east 
and^ oblation and obesiance to Vishnu in the south-west, etc. 
Then the offerings should be made to the crows, out of the 
morsels of eatables placed on the periphery of the ouUer 
circle (64—66]. 


7he God said Then the worshipper shoidd approtdi 
Md address the image of the god S^n as follows— Kimfly 

Acm wnkHAu. 

icc^pt 0 lard, the merits of the worship and the Homi 
ce^'i^mony dune and performed by me. In a calm and tran- 
I State of min i he shuu’d oiler the merh of his ahowe- 
piuus acts to the 2[od. with the water of the .4r^//4 
of^'r ng and by uUerm^ the Hrid*^y^j mantra and by eshihii* 
mg to him the mudra known as the Udzaha mudra {i — 2). 
^vH^cqaent to that the s^od should be again worshipped as 
>efcre»an1 hymns should be sung^ in his praisfj and the 
*orsh*pper should oHer the hnal offering with his face turned 
th^ image, by lepeating the mantra which runs as 
' POJ'don me, O lord in taking leave of you (3). The falic 
euRbWni *'huuld be bid adieu to by exhibiting the Naram 
vudra and by uttering the weapon mantra coupled with the 
eo^d Fui^ aiter whicl the falic emblem should be considered 
;j5 merged in the mantra, known as the mantra of the image 
(VjKr//) (4). After having worshipped the god in the sacri« 
ficiOl sandHcusliion as directed above and having merged in 
nm self the hosts of mantras used inlbe course of the worship, 
thf worshipper should propitiate the god Chanda the attcn- 
oanr of Shiv.*, according to the rules laid down below. The 
|o<i should be invoked as Om. obesiance to Chanda ishaoi 
0«t» ohesiaiice to Chanda Xturti at the centre, Oni, /W 
Sv^liT (obesiance) to Dhuli Chaiideshvaraya (5—6). Tbea 
tilf rite of Sad&ngatnyma (explainecl before) should be per- 
fereied in ibc present case as lollows—Om, Hnu Fut, 
obesiaiicc to Chanda situated at my heart, Om, obesiance 
t# Chanda situated al the crown of my head, Oin, Hnu, Fiat, 
Wbesiasice to Chanda siinaied at the tuft of hair on my 
crown, How, Fwi, obetiaaee to Chanda, who protects me, 
AS my armonr, Om, Hno Fat, obesiance to Chanda, who is 
my weapon. Then he ahonld aimdtiate upon iJbe image 0I 
ik€ g«d Cb«»^ u poMCMUf low has4is «»d • bbclc ccmi' 
IritxMM Md M canyiag u thm » (mm, a taaiui, « tmery, 
Mnd tm aaclkortfe*» fMtdktf fCSfMcUvdly, (7— A). 

It ik« •JiMMMm ilMi gwi jBrsmis tb»M tm wm M f ped 



in ihe semilunarshapcd tinka weapon of Chanda, aad Ike 
wor-^ rper should tell in Ins mind the mantra ucred to him, 
as m jch a* he could, not exceeding a tenth part of the number 
of mantras to be repealed in the principal worship of the g«»d, 
of which the present worship would fornti a part f>j . Gold and 
gem or,tanients together with clothes, cows and proprietory 
tights in land should be made over to the image, after which 
the garland of flowers ciosin;^ the list of oflferiogs aad 
worship should be presented to hinn is follows (to).—" Com> 
manded by Cira I offer to thee O God, all these articles of 
food and drink tt^ether with betel leaves, garlands, and 
scented pastes. Oh Ckamda may all these pMMts acts 
be agreeable to thee, which have been oodertakea 
by me agreeably to yoar wishes! Dost tboa panloa 
me Oh God for any short coming on my part ia perfomwag 
the above ikeds, wbetber dae to foliy or igaonacc. 
Make them whole and corafMete Oh God at all tiaMMi” 
(ii~i3). Having thsm addressed the god, the wonhtpfier 
should offer the Argha aad awdkate spoa the giary 
of -tbat diviae aUMufesUtioo, aad aMrge in mmsdf the 
maatras used by kiai in the coarse of the srarship, by 
eodiibiting the Saaharaiadra sad by repeatiag. while takiag 
ia Ike breath, Use asaetra koowa as the Sanharwurti manira 
coupled with the priacipal oae. The flowers etc. skoakl be 
then reaMseed fraai tbew places, aad the j^oaad sboaM be 
washed over antb water coatmiMi^' a eolstiea af oow daag, 
aad Urn worUOpper alter kavtag riaaed hie moatlu Aaald 
caat away the efetsH* etc.* w ai ea c t the w e e i h iy af 

Tn" 'J '"> — N'„'. I -tuH ; fOfI the 

procf^'is^ >i'’ pr)vf t mat ^hi*Ji .if loU'^iws— « 

*Mjrn nbcMsnc^* !.^ Kjf^.a imp^irteth ]ov, Om 

0bi*siante tn i?> tK^ Skbomc t>i iH Orti 

obetii^ni« iQ Xati'ji wfh> vt a character, Oan 

obesh^nce to> t i^ho i« ef!ii5sreot a«i the SarMvit^ 

Om o^esiarH:r KapiU vfto of a t^muefam^ni, agid 

Om obeisance to Ajr;/j who imparti eojov rieiit !>♦ this 
world and i.diralion ;.j ;he ueai I— ai. Accep^tfst ih^u this 
morael of food Oh Kapila, who art the daughter of Suravh 
the mother of the sniirer»r and who granteM ail boons and 
givett ambrosia to :>»c Don thou grant me i»f 

hearia desire. Take %^dy my sins and ifieq|aities Oti 
Kapila who w^rt w<>fsliipp-‘d Vaciita and the intelligent 
V$cvam^fr^ ^3^4 ^fay the cow rest before me and at mjr 
fcacic every day^ and so may 1 rest amidtl cow» at all times 
and often mediate upon a cow | in my heart {y* Take 
these BGortels of food g»ren by me 0 Kapifa* After having 
Ihtis addressed the cow, the worshipper ihoulJ deem himself 
m identical with Civa or the supreme bliislu! orre, who is 
pwre, and whose ethereal self ts incapable of sin, and 
iiibseqaently worship the book of learning and make 
€>besian€e to kts preceptors and iuperiort (6), At noon he 
should bathe and wmshtp the god Civa with Ibe eigM 
scented flowers, the worihip of the above god logetlief wkli 
those of hif dirine cssldon and attendaoti being enfoioeii 
Is be flsade wilhSan equal asnsher of flowers At Ibsl 

time of the day the food should be brought into Use well 
clenssed Kitchen, while the worshipptf wkb a Hem of 
tike Kiului graii shtmld sprinkle over k Iht water held in ibe 

hCm lt?lANAII 785 

conch shell, and firstly dedicate the sime tn the goA Civi 
(9;, aft<*r u>ld m mmd the M'ritunjiya manira 

c ^apledl wuh the ter Then ih#? half of iht aho^e 

rnar^^eli shojld be set apart for p^rft/rm ng therewith the 
Hcima Cfremony unto the overs, after having d^iljr parified 
the s^me, together with th^ hre kept thercni, and the obla- 
tion^ shoutd be offered to them in turn' lo' The worshipper 
should perform the Homm in the fire abovt hit umbdicws by 
once taking ifl the breath Wfifid, then carry the Btinhtbeej Uit 
the seed! of fire) lhercfrcM» and t! r<>ugh the S^disthmm by 
letting ottt the breath wied, and merije the same 10 the 
oven fire after liaviiig cooiemrlatcd that as Ctra^ni, or 
tlie fire of the dlvtne essence of Sbiva. Th<^n the 
oblations composed of the above mor*^is of food should be 
dedicated to the folloariog gods and ra^i into the ovea fire 
in the order as follows. Dm Ham oblaiton to the fire god 
with Obesiance, Ham oblation to the gnef StmM with 
obetiancci oblation to the to Vrik^s^Mti, to Praja^it\ 

to all the gods, lo'all the l^ta^ss and Ham oblation to the fire 
god who is the creator of ihai* sacrifice ; and the offettagi 
shoiild be cast into the d>fierent qaartert ol the beawea, 
martsng with the East. After that he shnuld hid adten to 
Ihe oven fire by reading out the mafiiri which rnnt as 
••Pardon me Ob God in bidding yno farewetl {ii~l4). 
In the rigM hmad portion of the oven, the god irf wiftne 
or piety is to worshiped as ••obesiance to the god of piety, 
and in the left Imod part tberedf the spirit si impiely ; no 
obesiance to Use spirit of impiety in the vessel contnini^ 
the firmented deoictioiis rf boiled rice (ij). The goi 
Vmrmms or the fire god of the wm shoeMI hr werAipped for 

hmnctrmwfofmedllw sap serene left^ Om 

god Gaeesh, the deeUo^ el t* hrnms, n ^ deer si the 
Tibft AMMldenn Jdfimeiw dhoedd he smeiiM8MMNl hi fdhn 

inwiWPiW* »iiw ■ HS * - • 

is the mertif the mmaMp is m he pm hw w ii d A 



obesiance to Roudrika, and Om obesiance Jto Girikai and 
in the pestle as Om obesiance to Ba!apry§ and Om obesi- 
ance to Ayuadha (16—17). Similarly in the broomstick 
the two latter gods, should be worshipped, and the god of 
love in the bed (18). Then having offered the oblation to 
the god of the house-hold, the worshipper who had. taken 
the vow, together with his son and the preceptor should 
take their meals served in golden plates, or in vessels made 
of lotus leaves, without speaking a word (19), The leaves 
of Bata, Acvatha, Arka, Batabi^ Sal, and Vallatak trees 
should not be used in making such vessels. Then he should 
rinse his mouth with water, offering watery oblations to 
his five Pran winds as follows— Pran Svaha (oblation 
to the wind at the heart) • Om Apana Svaha (oblation to 
the wind about the anus). Om Samana Svaha (oblation 
to the wind about the naval). Om Udan Svaha oblation to 
the wind at the head). Om By ana Svaha (oblation to the 
wind which flows through the whole body* And again after 
having kindled up this fire of hunger, he should offer similar 
oblations to the five supplementary winds of his body such 
as Naga^ Kurma, Krikara^ Devadatta and Dhananjaya. 
Then after having finished his meals, he should drink the 
finishing draught of water, and again offer watery oblations 
to his five principal vital winds as before by reading aloud 
the mantra which runs as Amrit Upasiaranamasij and 
perform the chullaka rite by uttering the mantra which 
runs as Amriiapidanamast (20—24). 


The God said Now I shall describe to you the process 
of iavesUng a divine image with the holy thread which 



crowns the performance of all other religious ceremonies in 
respect of merit, and which is usually grouped under the 
two catigories of Nitya and Naiinittik according as the same 
is undertaken out of a disinterested motive or for the fulfil- 
ment of any definite object (l). The investure is to be 
performed either in the month of Asar, Sraban or Vadra, 
on the eighth or the fourteenth day of the fortnight, both 
light and dark, or on the first day of one of the above- 
mentioned fortnights during the five months from Asara 
to Karticka, the images which are usually invested 
with such threads, being those of the fire god, Brahma, 
Ambica, Ganesha, Naga, Skanda, the sun-god, Shuli, Durga 
Yama, Indra, Govinda, the god of lovt?, Camvu and other 
eaters of the celestial ambrosia. Gold, silver, and copper 
were the metals used in making those threads in the Golden 
(Satya) and the successive ages, cotton and silk threads and 
fibres of the lotus stem are what they should be made of 
in the present Kali Yuga {2—4)- The deities who reside in 
and preside over the nine component strings of the holy 
thread are, the pranava mantra Om, the moon, the fire-god, 
Brahma, Naga, Guha, Hari, Survesha and another. A holy 
thread of the uttama class should be composed of fifty-* 
nine strings of thread, while those of the Madhyama and 
the JSatnsa class should be made of half or a quarter oum* 


ber of strings of the former, or a holy thread of the ntismM 
class might be made of eighty-one strings of thread, one 
of the Madhyama class of fifty strings, and one of the 
Kanyasia class of thirty-eight strings of thread only. Tim 
Granthi or the binding knots should he lied at equal 
interstices {5-^}* The breadth of eatire hofy thread 
being twelve, eight or four fingers according to the cUms the 
same would belong to, or would be made equal to ibe hreiidlh 
of the faiic emblem In length the holy thread AmiA 
he made to re^fa down to the pe^stai cl the image, or 
a equal to qtmrter erf entire iao|^ tuM ^ p o dc st ai 


aGNI pur ana m. 

combined, washed with the Sujnta {9). The knots should 
be tied up from the left and consecrated with the 
mantra sacred to the Aghora manifestatipn of the god 
Shiva, and dyed with the paste of saffron and sandal by 
reading aloud the mantra known as the Purusha Sukta 
(10). In the alternative the thread might be coloured 
with a composition, of musk, Rochana, camphor, turmeric 
and Gairic {yellow clay) pasted together and the knots 
should be made to number ten pr as many as there 
would be the number of strings in it (li). "The in- 
terstices between the knots should measure one, two or 
four fingers respectively or as much as would be compa- 
tible with a decent aspect of the entire combination, the 
knots being named as Prakriti (nature). Pourasi (appertain- 
ing to the subjective principle of the universe), Beera 
(Heroine, or the principle of valour). Aparajita (invincible- 
ness), Bijaya (victory) Jaya (gladness of conquest), Ajita, 
(unconquerableness), Sadashiva (everblissfulness), Manomani 
(the opening up of mind, or the expansion of the intellect), 
ahd Sarvamuki (facing all, or omniscience), after the attri- 
butes they represent, the eleventh and the succeeding knots 
being known as the Suva or the Blissful (12— -13). 

In the alternative the knots of the sacred thread should 
be made to number fifteen, or one for each of the manifes- 
tations of the god or in other words the knots of the holy 
thread sliould number as many as there are known revealed 
forms of any particular god, whose image would be invoked 
with the same, the number of knots Jn the case of the 
ftnage of Guru or Gana being seven only (14). Or one 
knot should ibe tied for each of the warders or the presiding 
deities of the angular quarters of the heaven, and a boly 
thread in^he case of a falic emblem should measure from one 
to nine cubits in length (15). The number of knots in a 
boly thread of the Bridka class should number twenty 
eight in all« the number prescribed for the other two classes 



%eing eighteen arju eigat respectively and the breadth of 
ihe knots or of the entire holy thread would, in all instances, 
•commensiirate with the breadth of the phalic emblem. On the 
seventh or the thirteenth day of the fortnight, the preceptor, 
pure in. body and mind, and having performed his daily 
devotional rites, should decorate the temple with flowers 
and pieces of gay coloured cloth in the evening, (17) ; and 
worship the sun god on the hallowed ground after having 
duly taken possession of the same according to the rites 
. of Vuparigraha dealt with before, and after having duly 
performed the special form of Sandhya worship prescribed 
for the occasion and especially the rite of offering watery 
oblations (Tarpana) (18). The preceptor should then recite 
the pranava mantra, rinse his mouth, and perform the 
rite of Sakalikaran spoken of before (mentioning the 
names of the different parts of the body coupled with the 
mantra particularly sacred to each), wash the threshold o€ 
the temple with water consecrated with the mantra of 
weapon, and start the worship in the eastern side of the 
adytum, proceeding to its other parts as follows :~^'Haai 
obeisance to the door known as the Cantikala (phase of 
peace), Ham obeisance to the phase of knowledge, Ham 
obeisance to the pbase^of non-actioB, and Ham d^esiance 
to like door known as the phase of existence or beings 
The warders of the god should be worshipped at the top* 
aides of those doors, two at each as follows Obefeance to 
Nandi, obeisance to Mafaakala. I bow down unto tbe warder 
Vringi I make obeisance to Gana. Obeisance to the warder 
Vrisatfa* I fall at the feet of the warder Skanda, and lastijf 
as " I make obeisance to Chanda (19—22). In the event 
of the ceremony having been undertaken oat of a dim* 
terested motive, the preceptor after hanng worshipped 
warder gods at the sides of the temple door, and after bavi^E 
ptmied tbe material principles of his body aad perfomad 
the rke known as tite Vartajafe sbodid place in hood 



of the god the special Argha or the offering (23)* After 
having washed the phalic ecnblemi he should purify his hand 
with flowers and bunches of Kusha grass consecrated with 
the Bridmantra, and make the same permeated with the 
essence of Shiva, place it on his head, and contemplate him- 
self as identical with him, the first cause and who is the 
omniscient one, and accordingly whose effulgent self is the 
chief factor in the sacrifice. The preceptor, holding the 
sword of true knowledge in his hand, should meditate upon 
the god. Subsequent to that he should go to the south west 
corner of the sacrificial shed fully purified with all the 
necessary rites of purification, and lay down t^rein the 
washings of the Argha, the composition known as the 
Panchagavya and all other articles essential to the sacrifice. 
After having laid them down with his face turned towards 
the north, the preceptor should collect together the stems 
of Kusha grass lying scattered on the sacrificial platform, and 
spread them out in the small jar in the south eastern corner 
thereof (24 — 28). The gods presiding over the human house- 
holds should be worshipped in the south western corner of the 
sacrificial shed, the goddess Laksmi at its door, and after 
that the pitcher placed on all sorts of sacrificial seeds facing 
the west. (29), Then the bull riding god, together with the 
goddess bestriding a lion and the Vardhini (sacrificial jar) 
should be worshipped with the Pranava mantra, and 
in the pitcher the god Shiva should be worshipped with 
his attendants, and the divine weapon in the Vardini 
(30). In the different quarters of the heaven, the presi- 
ding deities such as Indra, etc., together with the gods 
Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, sboaid be worsfaij^ped, and 
the preceptor having taken in, bis hand the Vardini, which 
should be carried behind the pitchers, should read out the 
mandate of the god Shiva; and the ground should be im-^ 
pressed with the mark of an unbroken jet of water by utter- 
ing the principal Mantra of the god This mark or 



water-girdle should be considered as a weapon guarding 
agaiust the advent of all dangers that might befala the 
worshipper (33). Thus. the god should be worshipped in the 
firmly placed cushion, imaginarily spraed over the pitcher 
placed there, and after that the weapons of the god in the 
Vardinv located with the Pranava {Mantra (Om) (34). The 
union of the two emblems of creation should be brought 
about by showing the Mudra known as the Linga Mudra« 
Then the sword of ^knowledge should be dedicated to the 
consecreated pitcher and the merit of rehearsing the princi- 
pal Mantra to the god, with a tenth part of which the protec- 
tion should be read out in the Vardini, the god Hara having 
been worshipped previous thereto with the composition 
known as the Panchagavya and the god Ganesha in the 
north western angle of the heaven (35—36). Subsequent 
to that the fire sacred to Shiva and made permeated 
with his essence should be bathed and worshipped 
in the sacrificial fire-receptacle and the sacrificial por- 
ridge duly purified by offering the oblation known as the 
Sampata oblation, should be divided with a Kusha grass 
into three parts, respectively ^consecrated to the god, the 
fire god, and the soul, out of which the two former should 
be offered to the god Shiva and the fire god, the portion 
consecrated to the soul having been kept apart (37 — 38). 
The stick for cleansing the teeth should be offered in 
the east to the god by repeating the Mantras of arrow and 
armour respectively, together with a piece of clay either on 
the south or on the west by reading aloud the Mantras such as 
the Aghara and the Shika Mantra (39). In the nortiii the water 
consecrated to Bamana should be offered from the left side 
by repeating either the Hrtd or the Sadyajata Hanbrai and 
likewise the scented water in the north east with the bead 
(40). The composition known as the Panchagavya together 
with Palaiha and iotns flowers should be cast all round sy»d 
flowers should be ^ered in the ni^ ei^em qusnler of 



the globe, and the substance kuown as the Rodiana 
dye) in the south east (41). Similarly the substance 
as the should be offered in the south corner of the 

mystic diagram and all the essential articles of the 
lioma ceremony should be offered in four equal d:visions 
in the north west with the stems of Kusha grass and by 
uttering the Sadyajata mantra (42). Then an anchorite's 
stick, a rosary, a waist cloth, and an alms bowl together with 
coHyrium, and a stick for applying the same, saffron, oil, a 
comb, a prepared betel leaf and a mirror should be presented 
to the imaged god in the front of the worshipper. The 
substance known as the Rochana (yellow dye) should be 
offered to the god and presented on the north side of the 
image, a cushion, a pair of shoes, a bowl, a pair of cloth and 
an umbrella having been previously dedicated for the satis- 
faction of the image god Icana in the north east by uttering 
the mantra held sacred to that particular manifestation of 
Mafaadeva^ {43“44)* The sacrificial porridge containing 
a quantity of clarified butter should be offered to the god 
in the east, with perfumes, etc. 

Then the holy threads purified by having been immersed 
in the washings of the Argha offering should be brought 
near the sacrificial fire hy repeating the Sanhita mantras 
( 45 ~ 46 )» Then the worshipper having covered the sajne 
with a piece of hyde of the black antelope, should medi- 
tate upon the eternal blissful one who without knowing 
any change or modification in himself, divided the eternal 
time into months and years and witnesseth all that takes 
place in tf^e universe, and is the protector of all created things^ 
Then the holy thread should be purified by uttering twenty- 
one times the Sanhita mantra coupled with the Sati and 
Hati ones (47—48). Subsequent to that, the room of wor- 
ship should be girdled with threads ; and perfumes, etc., 
should be giv'en to the sun-god after having previously 
worsbipped^im therein. Then the worshipper should duly 

hCm PURANAftt. 


riftse his mouth and perform the Nyasa ceremony and 
worship in succession in the pitcher of water consecrated 
to Shiva the gods' Vastu with his weapon^ the goddesses sucfr 
as Nanda, etc., the Lokapalas, the god Ganesha, the goddess 
Vardani the preceptor and the sou!, by mentioning the name 
of each (49—50)* Subsequent to that ha should hold the 
holy thread smeared with the paste of the drugs known as 
the Sarvousadi^ and perfumed with the fumes of burnt 
flowers and green grass in the cavity of his two blended palms^ 
and read aloud tbe piayer as follows— salutation to 
thee. Oh for removing all short comings on my part in per- 
forming this ceremony, I invoke the boon of compensating 
regulation, born of thee* I have worshipped thee, O thou God, 
who art the abode of all soul and non-soul. Dost thou crown 
my undertakings with success. I bow unto thee, Oh Shamvn 
at all times, and with my whole soul. Be pleased with me. I 
invite thee, O god, with thy goddess and attendants and the 
god Ganesha and the Lokapalas accompanied by the gods of 
the mantras, with a view to invest thee with the holy thread 
to-morrow morning, and I shall fulfill tbe vow 1 have taken^ 
O lord, at thy command” (51—55)- Having thus invited the 
god the worshipper should perform the rite of AmrtiiiarM 
by taking in the breath wind, and repeat the principal mantra * 
of tbe god near the phalic emblem and dedicate the merit 
thereof to the same, after which he should bid adieu to the 
god after having made the final obeisance to him, repeated 
the principal mantra, and sung the hymn in his praise 
^^6 — Then having performed the homa ceremony in 
the Shivanal (fire permeated with the essence oi Shiva) 
with a third part of the sacrificial porridge, thrice the obla- 
tions should be given to the inmates of the diflerent qnarUira 
of the heaven, together vdth the Matris, the Viitas, the presW- 
ing deities of tbe firmaments, the Rudras, andthe K^etfapab% 
and to the celestial elephants also guarding the diiferent anglea 
of the sky, as oblation and obeisance (namas) to the Rndra^ 



oblation and obeisance (Svaha) to the Kshetrapalas and so on 
(58-— 59)* After having performed the rite of Ackaman (rite 
of rinsing the mouth with water) the investor of the thread, 
should proceed on with the Homa ceremony supposed to 
remedy all defects that might have lurked in the perform- 
ance of the same; and the final oblations should be cast 
into the sacrificial fire, as Oin Bhu Svaha, Om Bhuba, 
Svaha, etc,, after which the fire should be made secure as 
it were in the receptacle, and the four oblations should be 
cast into the same as follows— Om, oblation to the fire-god 
with obeisance, Om oblation to Soma with obeisance, 
Or,: oblation to Soma and the fire god with obeisance, and 
las Jy as Om oblation with obeisance to the fire god, who is 
the creator of the sacrifice (60 — 61), T^en the union 
should be brought about of the gods respectively located 
in the mystic diagram and the sacrificial fire receptacle. 
Then the holy thread should be kept in a vessel made of 
bamboo and consecrated with the Astra, Hridaya, and the 
Kala mantras ; and the Hrid, armour and weapon mantras 
should be located therein together with the mantra of 
armour, and worshipped with the sis: esi^ential articles 
of worship by repeating the Pranava mantra Om. Then the 
vessel containing the holy thread should be girdled with 
strings of thread, and the worshipper in a spirit of humble 
devotion should dedicate the same to the lord of the 
universe for safe custody (62-^5). Subsequent to that he 
should make gifts of two theological works, and place the 
holy thread at the feet of the preceptor, in a spirit of contrite 
supplication (66). After that he should come out of the 
room and perform the rite of Achaman and worship in the 
three mystic diagrams cleansed with a solution of cow-dung, 
the Gomposition known as the Panchagavya, the sacrificial 
porridge, and the sticks for cleansing the teeth. Then 
having again rinsed the mouth with water and kept up a 
v^tl wtib songs and hymns up to a very late hour in 



the night, his inner self being stuffed as it were uuh the 
mantras* The worshipper should lie down fasting near 
the image, contemplating the god, and sleep on a mattress 
made of Kusha grass. In this way a man should undertake 
the cereYnony, lying fasting and self-controlled on a bed of 
ashesi even if his prayer were for the cessation of a recur- 
rence of births (67—69). 


The God said Early in the morning, the worshipper 
having bathed and performed his daily sandhya worship,' 
should enter the sacrificial *sbed with all bis passions and 
lower propensities entirely subdued. Then having decked 
the phalic emblem, he should take hold of the holy thread 
and pla^e the same in a hallowed vessel situate at the north 
east coitler of the mystic diagram previously laid out (1—2). 
Subsequent to that he should bid farewell to the god Shiva* 
and -having removed the flowers, etc., from the body of the 
phalic emblem, should again perform the two rites of Anhik 
(daily prayer) on the hallowed ground as before (3). Then 
the gods, Aditya, Dikpalas, the sacrificial pitcher, Isbana, 
Shiva and the fire god should be fully worshipped according 
to the practices usually observed in the course of Naimiitii 
worships ; and the tarpan rite with the mantras together 
with the rite of expiation of sin should be performed 
hundred and eight times with the Shiva mantras, after which 
the final oblations shcmld be gradually cast into the fire 
(4—5). Then the holy titread should be offered to the smm 
god, wd then after the aakaman^ to the warder gods, Ae 



Dikpalas^ the sacrificial pitcher, and to the Vardini (6U 
The worshipper having seated near the phalic emblem should 
present the holy thread to the soul, the God Gana, the 
preceptor, and to the fire god (9). Subsequent to that he 
should worship the god Shiva in the principle of soul or 
knowledge which is anterior 'to and underlies the principle 
of nature, protected and domineered over by Brahma the 
god of creation, by reading out the following prayer. ** I 
have performed, O God, this sacrifice as commanded by thee, 
who art the soul of the eternal time, according to the best 
of ray light and knowledge, and according to the rules as 
seemed best to my understanding. Dost thou accept this 
holy thread permeated with thy essence O Shamvu t and 
make whole and complete whatever has been impurely, 
improperly and incompletely done by me in the course of 
the sacrifice. Om fulfil and make complete this my vow of 
sacrifice. Om obeisance to the lord of vows (8 — 10). Then 
the god: should be again worshipped with the holy thread 
in the principle of knowledge which is precedent to the prin** 
ciple of universal destruction, and over which the essence of 
the god Vishnu presides, by .repeating the principal mantra 
of the god. Similarly the god should be again worshipped in 
the principle of Shiva which is lorded over by the principle 
of destruction, by uttering the Skivanta mantra ; and the 
holy thread should be deposited therewith on the phalic 
emblem or the image of Shiva who controls all the forces or 
principles moving the universe. The holy thread should be 
invested with Che principal mantra ending with the layanta 
mantra of the god, where the? investor performs the cere- 
mony with a view to attain salvation, the mantras which 
shouM be used on the occasion where the investor under- 
takes the vow for the fulfilment of any definite object, are 
as follows Om Ham obeisance to Shiva who presides over 
the principle of soul, Om Hum obeisance to Shiva who is 
the lord of the principle of knowledge, Om Hum, obeisance 



to Shiva who presides over the principle of Shiva, and Om 
Mourn obeisance to Shiva who is the lord of all the principles 
which govern this Universe (il — 15). Having made obeisan- 
ce to ’ the holy thread, the investor, O Bramhan, should pray 
as follows : — ** Thou art the only means of salvation, Oh God, 
to all the created beings {16}. Thou art the only abiding 
principle in whom the universe resides. Thou art the goo 
of gods, Oh lord, who by pervading all hearts dost witness 
the acts of all the created nacure. By deed or thought or 
speech I have no other being to resort to save thy eternal 
self- Make whole and complete, Oh lord, whatever has been 
done defective and incomplete by me every day whether 
in regard to the mantra, practice, article or prayer in connec- 
tion with this sacrificial ceremony- Pardon all my omissions, 
Oh God, and make me pure and free of sin. Thou, who art the 
absolutely pure, lord of the gods — thou who hast purified the 
universe with all its fixed and moving inmates, pardon all my 
short-comings and defective acts. — ^Thou who art now reveal- 
ed as the holy thread. Make one, Ob God, whatever in the 
course of the sacrifice, be scattered and separate through 
my folly, or whatever has been made defective through my 
ignorance or folly, and make them stiched together as if with 
a single thread by your gracious will.’* Thus having read 
the prayer and dedicated the merit of reciting the mantra 
to the god and made obeisance to him, he should take the 
vow of a three or four month*s penance as directed by his 
spiritual guide — 22). Then having made obeisance to 

the preceptor, the votary should approach the receptacle of 
the sacrificial fire, and cast into the same the four skeins of 
the holy thread for the purpose of investing therewith, as 
it were, the god Shiva located in the sacrificial fire. The 
god in the fire should be worshipped with flowers, burning 
incense sticks, and pinches of san-dried rice, after whidk 
lioly threads with oblations should be presented to the 
Rudras. The god Shiva be bid adieu with m 




obeisance, the Homa for the expiation of sin {Prayaschitia 
homa) should be performed, the final oblations should be 
gradually cast into the fire, the sacrificial hre should be 
propitiated with oblations of sacrificial porridge, and the 
god (Shiva) located therein should be bid farewell 
(23—25). The Homa ceremony should be perfom%d with 
the Vyahriti mantras as follows — Om Bhu svaha^ Om 
Bhuba svaka^ etc., and the going away of the god of fire 
should be obstructed, as it were, by putting in his way the 
goddess Nzsthura, Th^n the four oblations should be offered 
to the fire and the other gods, and tlie four oblations .with 
the four holy threads should be given to the presiding 
deities of the different quarters of the firmament ; and an 
other holy thread to the books of Siddhanta to commensurate 
with the entire length of the latter (25—27). Om Hum 
oblation to the region known as the Bhu^ Om Ham oblation 
to the region known as the Bkuha\ Om Ham oblation to the 
region known as the Sva. Om Ham oblation to the regions 
of Bhu^ Bhuba and Sva. Having performed the Vyahriti 
homa with ’the above mantras, the four oblations should be 
offered as Om Ham oblation to the fire god. Om Ham 
oblation to the god Soma^ Om Ham oblation to Soma and 
Agni combined. Om Ham oblation to the fire god-who is 
the creator of the sacrifice. The preceptor should be 
worshipped as the god Shiva, without any distinction what- 
ever, with clothes and ornaments, etc., and all the merits of 
the other annual sacrifices performed at the instance of 
the investor of the holy thread, should be made over to 
him {28—29), who should be invested with the holy thread 
by uttering the mantra which runs as the god said with 
whom the preceptor is pleased, etc,” Then the Bramhins 
should be fed and the gifts of clothes etc,, should be made 
lo them in a spirit of humility and devotion, by reading 
aloud the mantra «Be pleased with this my gift, Oh ye the 
evet blissM one who art llie overlord of the gods.*' The 



investor should bathe early in the morning and perform his 
daily rites of prayer and worship, and take leave of the god 
Shiva after having worshipped him and the holy thread with 
the eight scented flowers as previously described (30—32). 
Then having performed the rites of the Nitya and the 
Naimiitik worship in full, the god Shiva should he con- 
templated as located in the flame of fire and accordingly 
worshipped therein. Subsequent to that the hoina for the 
expiation of sin should be performed. After that oblations 
of clarified butter should be cast into the fire by reading 
the mantras of weapon, and lastly the final oblation should 
also be offered in the same. A man who would a|k for enjoy- 
ment and pleasures, should make over the merit of perform- 
ing the sacrifice to Shiva^ saying “Let this my act take fruit, 
Oh lord, while those who would want salvation, should 
dedicate the merit thereof to the god by saying “ Let not the 
performance of the present sacrifice, Oh God, bind me as a 
chain to the cycle of recurring existences (33^35). The 
uaion of the god Shiva located in the sacrificial Are with the 
blissful one ensconsed in the solar plexus of the investor of 
the thread, should be brought about ; and the essence of fire 
should be attracted therein, after which the physical embodi* 
ment of the latter should be taken leave of and put out (3&). 
Then having rinsed his mouth, the votary should enter the 
sacrificial shed and make the water of the pitcher permeated 
with the essence of Shiva who should be bid farewell 
simultaneously therewith (37). Similarly the Lokapaias 
should be taken leave erf, and the holy thread having beea 
removed from the body of the phalic emblem, should be 
put upon the image of the Chanda manifestatbo of that 
deity together with flowers, etc., who should be duly 
worshipped sul^quent thereto. In the alternative the 
god Chanda might be duly worshipped on tbe sacrificial 
sand-cushion as directed before by reading aloud tbe 
following prayer. May any defect in my perfonning this 


AGNr puranam; 

annual sacrifice be remedied by thy gracious will, Ob 
Chanda } Having thus spoken to the god, the votary should 
hid him farewell with an obeisance, and again worship the 
god Shiva after having removed the flowers and other articles 
of worship from the body of the imaged Chanda. . A man 
living within a radius of forty miles of his spiritual guide, 
should be deemed as free of all sins and impurities, and un- 
dertake the rite of investing the holy thread in his company^ 
though he might live as remote as stated above 


The God said:— Hear me, O Brahman, describe the 

process of investing the image of the god with the fibres of 

the Damanak tree. Once on a time the fire of anger of the 

god Shiva brought to being a spirit known as Bhairava, who 

conquered and harrassed all the gods ; whereupon the god 

Shiva cursed and converted him into a Damanak tree. Hav- 


ing been propitiated, the god said, 0 Bhairab, those would 
worship thee in thy vegetable existence, would get all sorts 
of merit, and my word would not be otherwise. O Brahman, 
all the rites described in the preceding chapter should be 
duly performed ; and on the seventh or the thirteenth day 
of the fojrtnight, the investor accompanied by his friends and 
relatives, should approach and invoke the tree according to 
the words of the god Shiva as follows “ Stay here, O tree 
who hast been created out of the gracious pleasure of the 
god. I shall take thee home with a view to employ thee in 
the divine work {l— 4 ). The tree should be invited home 
and the Adivasa ceremony should be duly performed in the 



After having duly worshipped the su-.-god, ."-snlcar 

cf firs, the root of the tree planted in a 


of Jay ?hnL’;d put the west side of ihe p;;alic ernb:ea, 
Jv- f!;em or. t!^e left or on the head of the I'lrga, Dhatri 
its fiorth, tlse torn leaves on the soutli, and its dower ar^ 

eaat. The flowers and roots should ije 3rowed in a bo^ 
and the god Shiva should be worshipped on the north- 
east The five articles of worship held in the cavity of 
the blended palms, should be placed nn the head, and the 
god should be invoked as follows (5—8). I have inviied 
thee, 0 thou god of gods, in the early morning. May I attain 
the fruit of practising this penance and nniay all my acts in 
connection with the same, be whole and complete by thy 
gracious will (9).'' Then the holy thread kept in the vessel 
should be covered over with the principal mantra of the 
god. The votary should bathe early in the morning and 
worship the lord of the universe with perfumes and 
flowers^ etc. Then having performed the rites of his 
daily and incidental worship and ceremonies, he should 
worship the Damanak tree. Then he should hold in the cup 
of his united palms the three oblations in succession 
which should be offered as Om Ham oblation to tshana who 
is the lord of the principle of knowledge, Om Ham oblation 
to Ishana who domineers over the principle of bliss, the fourtb 
oblation having been offered with the mantra which runs as 
** Om Houm obeisance to the supreme god (Maheshvara) who 
wields a trident in his hand. Make whole and conaptelei 
Oh lord, this sacrifice and fulfil the object for which llie 
same has been undertaken.” Then having worshipped the 
fire god, Shiva and the preceptor, the god should be invoked ' 
as follows Make complete, Oh lord, by curtaUing or bf 
making good as the caseNmay be, whatever has been done 
by me in excess of or whs^ver falls shmt of the proper 
standard of ceremonies in connection with the sacrifice. 
Make whole this my ceremony of juve^ng your ims^ 



with the fibres of the Damanaka tree. A man who performs 
this ceremony goes to heaven by the merit which he acquires 
when the Damanak tree begins to bloom in the month 
of Chaitra (10—13). 


The God said;— Now I shall describe to you, O 
BrahmanX the rite of spiritual initiation which destroys 
all sin and enables the soul to break through the bonds o£ 
illusion and inequities (i). That sort of initiation should be 
only deemed as deserving the epithet which begets true know<* 
ledge in the initiated who are divided according to their 
respective capacities into three different classes such as the 
(i). Bignatakala (those who are cognisant of the beati- 
tudes and the Pralayakala (those who have reached a 
psychic altitude from which those attributes can be made 
cognisant of) and the Samala (those whose psychic percep- 
tion is clouded with mala or mental dirt), only these three 
classes being enjoined to* be favoured with an initiation in 
the Shastras (2). The disciples who belong to the first of 
the above three classes are bereft of all mental impurities, the 
second class is marked by an immunity from all sinful acts, 
and the third class of disciples can hold communion by 
prayer witti the ’ region from which the divine attributes 
become perceptible. The imtiatioo in its turn admits of 
two distinct divisions as well, the Nitadkara (devoid of a 
bold or receptacle) and the Sadhara (possessing a mantra 
or an image, as it were, as a peg to hang upon}. 

The initiation which is independent of any particular 
image or mantra form of initiation which 



the disciples of the 'first two classes shottid be favoured 
witfai while the Sadkara form of initiation is meaot for a!L 
In the foroier fixt, the worship of Shamvu alone brings 
about the wakening of the son! by striking the inner maot 
as it we-e, with a sort of irresistible psychic velocity, and 
accordingly the mind does not stand in need of working 
up its own elevation, by niedftating upon any particular 
mantra, or an attribute of the godhead, the recepients of 
such an initiation being presumed to be considerably ad« 
vaoced in the spiritual plane* In the contrary in the 
Sadikarana sort of initiation, the god Shamvu becomes 
merged as it were in the slmpe of the preceptor, and a 
piercing souKenergy is evoked and becomes operative in 
the disciple by rending asunder the veil of illnsion* Thus 
the spiritual initiation admits of being divided into font 
distinct classes such as the Niradhara, Sadhara, Saheeja 
(initiation by imparting a particular mantra to meditate 
upon} and the Beejarahha (initiation marked by the absence 
of an} such mantra). A Sabeeja form of initiation can be 
administered only in the case where the disciple has proper 
control over his passions and propensities ; while the Nirfaeeja 
form should be adapted only in those cases where the 
disciples through the looseness of any moral’screw smnewherc 
in his heart, is incapable of putting bis animal nature under 
proper curb and rein. However an initiation of the latter class 
gives to its receirient the right of performing the Nitya and 
NaimityA rites and ceremonies {3*"^)* *^ 1 ^*^*^ SddMk^tM 
soft of initiation is lor those oiity who are deeply attarfmd 
and devoted to thew pce^ptors, the iViVAegfiS form hmag 
allowable only in cases where tte &dpies possess 
like those of my two sm» (lO)* The AfowdWtow feraa 
inkiation makes ks iecepietits eatitfed to perfaim *0 
Nkya or disinterested rites of sac^^ oefy, or oo^ Am© 
ceremonks the p^fmrteaace whereof does not odd to 
the merk of the p^MWi lAoso i»#erfww«« 



takes away from nis virtues as a positive moral deiin* 
quency. Thus the forms of spiritual initiation may be 
grouped under two distinct categories, each marked by its 
own characteristic features. One is full of penances and 
ceremonials and is ushered in by its iudispensibie .adjuncts 
of mystic diagram and the sacrificial fire receptacie, the 
other holds sway only over the region of mind and is based 
upon the knowledge of truth (ll— 12). The preceptor 
who has got the right to administer any form of spiritual 
initiation should administer the same in the following 

In the oeginning I shall speak about the form of 
initiation which is known as the Skanda Diksci (13)* The 
preceptor seated on his cushion and holding the Argha 
offering in his palm, should worship, the warder gods at 
the threshold of the sacrificial shed after having performed 
the rite of his daily prayer and worship, and on having 
removed^ the pernicious spirits who usually dis- 
turb the performance of a sacrifice. Subsequent to 
that he should perform the rite of nyasa by uttering the 
mantra of weapon, and purify the materia! principles of 
his body by uttering the mantras enjoined to be repeated on 
the occasion. Then the special Argha offering should be 
dressed up composed of sessamum orientale, rice, sun-dried 
rice, Kusba grass, green grass, white mustard seeds and 
thickened milk with barley, all sprinkled pver with water. 
The articles easential to the ceremony should be purified 
by washing them with the washings of the above special 
Argha offering, and the preceptor should impress the ridge 
of , 1 ^ nose with the characteristic tiiak mark. The purifica* 
^4 worship of his seif and his own cushion should be 
made aa laid down before. Then the composition known 
as the Panchagavya^ fried paddy, sandal, seeds of white 
mustard, the sacred a^ies, bunchy of green grass, sqp -dried 
rieet ^4 the slmns of |he grass, etc*, to bp 




made use of in the coarse of the be 

purified by repeating the mantras peculiar to the occasion 

ly). Then the grains of fried paddy which had been 

scattered and purified as before, should be consecrated with 
the mantra of weapon and sticks of incense should be 
lighted up and waived before them. Subsequent to that 
they should be sprinkled over with water consecrated by 
the mantra of weapon and covered over, as it were, with 
the mantra of armour previously explained. Then the 
stems of green grass which should be knotted up in die 
forms of various weapons, and which are potent enough in 
warding off all evils, should be stowed in thirty-six 
different bunches, each measuring a tala in length. Then 
the Astra mantra of the god Shiva should be repeated! 
over the sword of knowledge, and the preceptor should 
locate within himself the effulgent image of the supreme 
blissful one, — ^who is the receptacle of the universal 
creation and the only wished for being as far as the 
worshipper is concerned,—- bereft of all illusion ; and decos 
himself as identical with his divine self (i 6 — '20). Sitiise- 
quent to that he should tie up the turban round his bead, 
and decorate his body with ornaments, etc. He should be- 
smear his right arm with the paste of scented sandal asd 
make his head permeated with the essence of the god Shiva 
in the following way. The worshipper should locate withm 
his head the effulgent image of the god revealed in the fora of 
the sun by repeating the weapon mantra sacred to ^iva, aod 
consider himself as iodeotkal with Shiva the oeater 
(21—33)* Then he should meditate npoa the god whs 
resides in the mystic sacrificial di^|»m as the vntaeas aC 
adl fr^hteons deeds, as the pifot«t©r of the saciifioe a &e 
sacrificial pitcher, as the tea^ieat of the Horn eblite 
in &e smxificad fire, aad as Ae libaatoc Iraa the beads of 
flesh a the dimapte; atd aasider Juaseif as adesM 
witfa Us «v»e te« RadsaU* that aotioo fixed « Mi hM*t 




(24— 25), Then the mao, holding the sword of knowledge 
in his head and facing the south west angle of the heaven, 
cleanse the ground of the sacrificial shed with the composi- 
tion known as the Panchagavya together with the washings 
of the Argha offering (26). The stems of Kusha gra&s should 
be carefully examined and tied up in separate knots, 'which 
should be subsequently scattered around and then gathered 
up (27). The cushion should be spread out with them in the 
north-east angle of the heaven, the gods presiding over 
households and the goddess Lakshmi having been worship- 
ped in the south-weastern angle of the heaven and at the 
door of the sacrificial shed respectively (28). 

In the west, Purayanti, who is the presiding deity of the 
sacrificial shed, should be worshipped with gems by uttering 
the Hrid mantra (29). The worshipper with his face turn- 
ed towards the west, should worship the god Samvu in the 
pitcher situate at the north-east corner of the sacrificial shed 
over a cushion of paddy, and containing water, gems and a 
piece of cloth over its mouth. Similarly the goddess Sakti 
should be Worshipped to the south thereof, the goddess 
Vardhini who strides a lion and who is revealed in the 
form of sword in the west ; the gods who are the guardian 
deities of the different angles of the firmament of whom Indra 
is the first and Vishnu is the last, in their respective regions, 
and the cushion as well as the weapons, of the gods together 
with the animals they ride upon, should be worshipped with 
the Hrid mantra by mentioning the name of each. Then 
tlie sacrificial Jar should be carried round behind the pitchers, 
and an unbroken jet of water should be sprinkled over the 
baHowed ground by way of circumbulation. The niandate 
of the god Shiva should be readout to the guardian deities 
Ifd the heaven followed by a repetition of principal Mantra 
sacred to that divinity, and the Jar together with the sacri- 
fici^ pitcher should be duly consecrated and held in tbejr 
^ace* Subsecpeni to that the Igod Sfiankar should be 



worshipped with his attributes and attendants on the steady 
cushion, as it were, placed over the afore said sacrificial 
pitcher, and his weapon in the Vardhini as follows ; — 

Has obeisance to the cushion of the weapon, Hum Fut 
Om Om obeisance to the image of the weapon. Om Hum 
Fut obeisance to the weapon known as the Pashupata. 
Om Om obeisance with Fut to the heart. Oin Srim obeisance 
with Hum to the head., Om Yam obeisance with the Hu7ft 
Fut mantra to the tuft of hair on the crown. Om Gam 
obeisance with the Hufn Fut mantra to the armour, and Om 
Fut obeisance with the Hum Fut mantra to the weapon. 
The weapon should be meditated upon as a god possessing 
four faces and looking fierce with his jaw of ragged teeth 
effulgent as a million of suns, and weildxng a mace, a club 
a spear and a sword in his four hands (30 — 35). The 
union of the two opposite emblems of creation should be 
brought about by exhibiting the ling mudra, and the pitcher 
should be touched with the small finger and the Vardhini 
with the clenched fist, and the sword of knowledge should 
be presented for protecting the mouth of the pitcher. The 
mantra, which serves the purpose of the principal mantra 
sacred to Shiva should be repeated hundred times in the 
sacrificial pitcher, and with a tenth part thereof the pro- 
tection is to be given to the Vardhini as follows ; — Cautiously 
guard, Oh thou god, who art the lord of the universe and 
the protector of all sacrificial ceremonies, this my sacrificial 
shed. The god Chaturbahu (the four handed one) vrtio is the 
inmate deity of the Pranava mantra should then be nmrsWp- 
ped, together with the god Gana in the north-western eoraer 
of the ^ed, and the god Shiva over the sand cosbioa ^ Md 
then the sawficial fire-receptacle should be vocsliipped wilb 
the Argha offering (3^— 40)^ In an abstracted ^0 
the worshipper should stow on his right and left band sides Itfe 
artscks ^sentialrto the sacr^ce such as the stichsof sacrifiifcl 
treeS|. Ku^a grass aad (4 sHorif d 



be purified as before, together with the fire-receptacle, fire, 
ladle, aad the clarified butter and contemplate the god 
Shiva in the sacrificial fire and then meditate upon the great- 
ness of the god Urdhavaktra (42). Then he should perform 
the Sritinyasa rite in the image of the god in the sacrificial 
pitcher and in the body of the disciple and also in the sacrificial 
fire cushion, according to the rules of practising the nyasa. 
Then repeating the Banhibeej, the Homa oblations should be 
offered to the phases of beatific knowledge which are known 
as Hiranya, Kanaka, Rakta, Krishna, Suprava, Atirikta, and 
Bahurupa, occupying the different angles of the body of the 
fire {44 — ^45). In the sacrifice undertaken with a view to ap- 
pease the anger of a particular god, or to confer any special 
boon on the person at whose instance the same would be 
performed, the Homa oblations should be composed of thick- 
ened milk, sugar, and honey etc., while they should be made 
of Ptnyaka, powdered barley, and decoctions of rice, in the 
sacrifice performed with the object of harming an enemy of 
the performer (46— 47), An angry and insulted person should 
offer oblations of salt, Rajika, whey, mustard oil and thorn by 
uttering the vasya mantra for wreaking vengence upon the 
iosultor, while a person bent on attracting or securing the 
affections of a woman or on gaining mastery over the mind 
of another person should perfom the Homa with the obla- 
tions of Bandhuk and Kinisuk Sowers (48-— 49). In lust 
for gain or empire, the offerings should consist of PAtal and 
Champaka flowers or of Bal frmts, and with lotus flowers 
and eatables respectively where the sacrifice is made with 
a ww to attain a paramount sovereignity or wealth (50). 
Bnncbes of green grass should be cast into the sacrificial 
fire where the object of the performer is the cure of any 
obstinale tiie offerings of Pryangu, Malati and Mango 

Sowers and Jvarantafc being held as imparting sway- over 
aft the crewed nature ($0* A homa ceremony performed 
wHh^tiie Mcitaiijaya inanlra giants mmiwty from deatb^ wldle 



simply in the vessel of porridge girdled round the neck with 
a piece of cloth. Subsequent to that the vessel should be 
placed over the oven situated at the right side of the precep- 
tor and which would have its aperture facing the west, and 
which should be previously consecrated, the mantra of 
egoism mentally projected into the same. The two rfdes 
of the oven should be contemplated as made up of piety 
and impiety and over which the Atma mantra had been 
Tepeated. The vessel should be cleaned with the washings 
of clarified butter and the mantra of weapon should be 
repeated over the same. By repeating hundred times the 
•Prasad mantra, the grains of shyama grass, etc., should be 
cast into the clarified butter previously purified with the 
mantra of weapon 62). F-ive handfuls of the above 
s^eds should be thrown into the clarified butter in the 
case, where the initiation would be given to a single disciple 
only* In case where there would be more than a single 
disciple, a. •half handful of Shyama seed should be taken for 
each additional one. The above seeds should be protected or 
covered over, either with the mantra sacred to the fire god, 
or with the mantra of armour, and the porridge should be 
cooked in the Same of the sacrificial fire, by uttering the chief 
of the mantras which are sacred to the god Shiva. Subse« 
quent to that, a <ladlefu! of clarified butter should be 
•melted in the low fire of the oven by uttering the Sanhita 
mantras followed by the term Svaha, and cast into the vessel 
of the sacrificial porridge. Then the vessel should be pat 
over the stems of consecrated Kusha grass by repeating 
■the Weapon mantra, and the plaster of clay would he pat over 
4ts body by 'ottering the; praiiava ‘mantra Om, and by once 
•reading aloud 'the S^htta mantras, the disci^ having 
cast oblatioms on the cushions of piety, etc., situated at the 
east of the mystic di^nun around the rec^acle lor the 
sacrificial fire by uttering the Hrid mantra. The vesad 
would thus be cod m bavi^ received a cod pbntcr 



the one performed with the offerings of sessamum orientale 
confers prosperity. The ceremony of propitiation known as 
the Rudra Shanti should be undertaken for general benedic- 
tion or for the propitiation of angry gods and astral influences 
in genera! (52). 

Oh Brahman \ now I shall describe the process of 
performing the Homa which should be performed in connec- 
tion with the rite under discussion. Eight hundred oblations 
should be cast into the sacrificial fire by uttering the 
prhicipal mantra sacred to the god and offerings to the 
nuiiber of a tenth part thereof to the divine adjuncts. The 
Tarpana ceremony should be performed by repeating the 
abovesaid principal mantra after which the final oblation 
should be cast into the fire as laid down before (53). Then 
for the purpose of ushering in the disciple, as it were, and for 
bringing in auspicious omens by removing the evil opesj 
the preceptor should rehearse himself the mantra known as 
the Pratishisya mantra. Two hundred oblations should be 
cast into the fire with the principal mantra as previously 
directed. The rite of tarpana should be performed once 
with the eight astra or weapon mantras preceded by the 
principal one and followed by the term Svaha. The Dipana 
or the rite of lumination should be performed by uttering the 
mantra which runs as Om Hrum Hroun Hring Shivaya svaha, 
and the rite of tarpana with the mantra Om Houm Shivaya 
Svaha (54 — 56). Then having washed the pot or the 
vessel for cooking the sacrificial porridge with waters 
permeated with the essence of Shiva, and plastered the same 
over with the paste of sandal, a girdle of consecrated Kusha 
grass (both stem and leaf) with the astra and the armour 
mantra tied round the neck of the same for the 
proper preparation of the porridge (57—58). Then in the 
cushion placed with the armour mantra over the semi-lunar- 
sfaaped mystic sacrificial diagram, the god Shiva should be 
worshipped with the Sowers of sentiment or with flowers 



its body. The Sampata offering should be given with a 
ladleful of ^^clarified butter, and the purification is to be 
brought about by reading the Sanhita mantras followed by 
the word Vousat ; and the porridge|should be taken out of the 
vessel, '^he ceremony of Amritikaran (act of trausformiDg 
the porridge into ambrosia) should be performed by exhibit- 
ing the Dhanu mudra) and the porridge should be made cool 
by placing the vessel on the sacrificial sand cuslnon {63 — 70). 
The porridge should be divided into three parts, one for the 
disciples, one for the fire god, and one for the Lokapalas 
and which should be dedicated to them by uttering the Hrid 
mantra followed by the word namas (obeisance). The water 
for rinsing the mouth should be offered by repeating the 
same mantra, and the final oblation should be cast into the 
sacrificial fire on having made hundred offerings of clarified 
butter unto the same, by uttering the mantra enjoined to be 
repeated on the occasion. Mystic diagrams, sacred to the 
Rudras and the Matrikas, should be laid dowu to the east of 
or amidst the sacrificial pitchers sacred to the god Shamru, 
and offerings should be mentally made unto them. The 
worshipper should make himself one with the god Shiva ia the 
pitcher sacred to that divinity, and consider himself as the 
omniscient being who is the top and crown of thiaga 
and the presiding deity of the sacrifice then closed aad 
performed. He should deem himself identical with the god 
Shankar, and walk out of the sacrificial shed, full of that 
divine egoistic notion. Then he should canse the disciples lb 
be seated on the cushion spread out over the stems of Kasha 
grass previously consecreated with the pranava mrntra, aad 
placed over the mystic diagram by uttering the weapon 
Tlie disciple should put on a pair of clean whke dottles.. 
His holy thread should be clean and white, and should 
face the north, if the inkiatioa were for the pmjpmm of 
mtmning satvatioe ; whSe be shmild tmn Us fane towairis 
the east, if bis object were lo dblain ^^isure 



ment only. The preceptor should make the disciple sit 
erect on the cushion, and vein him affectionately from foot to 
the tuft of hair on his crown, while the latter should turn his 
face towards the east, in the case where the initation would be 
for the attainment of any earthly good, the order of looking 
at the different parts of the body of the disciple being in the 
inverse order, that is from tuft of hair on the crown down- 
wards, in the event of the initiation being inade for sal- 
vation of the disciple. The eyes of the preceptor would 
look entranced and widened with the teaming beams of 
affection and the divine essence of Shiva while looking at 
the disciple, who should be bathed in water consecrated 
with the weapon mantra, the rite of his ablution in water 
consecrated with the mantras peculiar to the mantrasnan 
described before, having been duly performed before that. 
Then the disciple should perform the rite oT ablution with 
the consecrated ashes, for warding off all sorts of evils that 
might befal him in the course of the sacrifice, and for 
destroying all sorts of impieties and imperfections by 
practising tne yoga known as the yoga of annihilating the 
illusion and apparently created universe, and the duly con- 
secrated ashes should be gently rubbed over his body 
— jg). Subsequent to that the disciple should be again 
sprinkled over with water consecrated with the weapon 
mantra, and for the perpose of Sakalikaran, should be touched 
with the end of a Kusha grass in the part of his body above 
the umbilicus by repeating the weapon mantra, the rite being 
kowa as the rite of Marjan or cleansing (So). Similarly 
the part of his body below the navel should be thrice 
touched with the cod of the consecrated Kusha grass for the 
purpose of performing the rite of Agbamarsana (expiation of 
s^), the bonds of his physical body should thus be broken 
through by means of the above two ceremonies performed 
hy uttering the mantra of the arrow (8i). The preceptor 
should/ then locate in the body of his disciple previously 



worshipped with flowers, the god Shiva together with his 
divine cushion and attendants, by fixing his eyes upon those 
of his disciple, and by driving through the above organs 
into the soul of the latter the divine essence with which 
his own self had been made permeated with. The preceptor 
should utter the Netra (eyes) and the Krid mantra while 
thus projecting the god light of his own soul into the inner- 
being of his disciple, and make him seated on a cushion 
on the right hand side of the phalic emblem, clad in a white 
garment duly consecrated with the mantra, after having 
made him reverentially walk round the image of the above- 
said emblem of creation. The cushion should be covered 
over with a piece of white cloth and the preceptor should 
drive his own soul into the lotus of the discipIe^s heart with 
all the energy of his own psychic nature, and by exhibiting the 
raudra of destruction (Sanhar mudra) and by repeating the 
mantra of the image. Having prevented the possibility of 
its escaping from the purified body of the disciple facing 
the east, the preceptor should perform the nyasa, and worship 
the god Shiva in his head by repeating over the same the 
principal mantra of the god {82^85). The hand of the* 
disciple should be converted into a band sacred to, and 
permeated with, the essence of Shiva by telling the Shiva 
mantra, such a hand being known to translate a votary to the 
region hallowed by the feet of the god, and to supply him 
with the only means of worshipping him in this existence. 
Then the worshipper or the disciple should cast flowers upon 
the body of the phalic emblem, sing hymns while thus offer- 
ing flowers and invoking his divine presence with the 
mantras, after having removed all the impediments wMcfc 
stand in the way of worship. The preceptor should make 
obeisance to the Brahmins present on the spot and to Ike 
sacrificial jar (Bardhini) and the pitcher, md cause Ike 
disciple to be seated near the sacrifeial 6 m fadag the nmlik 
and on bis own rigbliiaiid side, aad meditale Ite 




occult nerve Susumna emerging out of the body of the 
disdple and entering into that of his own. The preceptor 
should place the consecrated Elusha grass into the right- 
hand of bis disciple, the one end of which should touch bis 
own knee-joint, the other end resting on the body of the 
phalic emblem. Then he shonld enter into the heart of the 
disciple by letting ont the breath wind while repeating the 
mantra sacred to Shiva, and come back into his own heart 
by practising the Pnraka (taking in of the breath wind) 
form of Kiunbhafca. Haring thus established a commu- 
nion between the god, the disciple and himself, the preceptor 
with the Hrid mantra riionld cast three oblations into the 
fire permeated iritfa the essence of Shiva, for ensuring the 
presence of the god, and make another hundred offerings 
unto the same for makii^ the hand of the disciple perma- 
nently permeated with the usance of Shiva. The disciple 
thus initiated becomes competent to worsip the god 
Sluva (86—93). 


The CiOD said: — O thou six-faced one hear me 
describe the process of perfonning the rite of spiritual 
inkiatioo known as the Sanskardiksha (the rite of purifying 
initiation) The god Sluva skuated both in the heart and in 
the sserttdad fire afeorid be invoked, and the union of the 
two divme manife stations respectively !oea;ced in the two 
rixmsrid Afferent places douid be broughjt about, and the 
gods ttes united shonld* be propitiatjed with tarpana 
perfomed hf ^teiisg; the Hiid and the mantnu Five 



oblations should be cast into the fire for invoking the 
presence of the god, and the new-born babe of fire should 
be touched with a flower consecrated with the mantra o£ 
weapon, the stary effulgent point of consciousness having 
been mentally located therein (1—3). Having located the 
mantra Hum in the fire by practising the Rechaka form of 
Kumbhaka, the preceptor should draw it forth by means of 
the Sanharini mudra and merge the same in his own heart 
by taking in the breath wind with a Puraka form of 
Kumbhaka. Then the abovesaid essence of fire should be 
cast into the organ of generation, as it were, of the goddess 
Bagishvari by letting out the breath wind full of tpe energy of 
the Hrid mantra and by exhibiting the mudra known as the 
Udbhaba mudra (4—5). In the smokeless sacrificial fire 
fully ablaze, the oblation should be offered with the mantra 
which runs as Om Hum Hum obeisance to the soul,” for the 
fulfilment of tthe object for which the Homa ceremony bad 
been undertaken. A Homa ceremony performed in a dull 
fire emitting smoke, fails to. bring in any success (6). A 
pleasing fire that rises circling upwards and emits a sweet 
smell, is to* be preferred in performing the Home ceremony, 
as well as the fire which touches the grouud and sends 
out sparks in contrary directions. The sacrificial fire 
should be so lighted as to possess the above characterisbcs, 
and the iniquities of the disciple should be destrc^ed 
by performing the Homa therein, which is known as the 
sin-eating Homa; or in the alternative the failings of the 
disciples might be burnt with the energy of the mantra 
sacred to the god Shiva {7—8). Hundred oblatioas by 
uttering the five principal mantra of the god, and an abwm 
with the same mantra followed by the term Voi^, sbcrfd 
be cast into the fire im deprivmg the disc^^ of Om 
attributes of the twice-lwn oaste, and foe pmUymg art 
Mm permeated#!^ ^ ^ ^ eas»^ 

Shivai and by Uie way df perfofrtng mite li« tie iteiii 



Garbhadhaoi S^mantonuyan and Namakaran^ etc.j dascribed’ 
before (See AnitVexsQ 13-17. Chapter 75.) in bis spiritual 

The rite of Garbhadhan in the present case, signifies the 
elevation and conversion of the soul of the disciple, by 
breaking through the bonds of the flesh through his own 
exertion, towards and into the sonship of the god Rudra; 
while the rite of Punsavana should be interpreted as a mani- 
festation of the soul — attributes in the initiated, unaffected 
by the workings of Maya or illusion. The spontaneous 
dawning of the true knowledge on the mind of the disciple^ 
clouded by the darkness of illusion until ^uch spontaneous 
lamination, should be known as the rite of Simantabandhan 
in the instance under discussion ; while the development and 
evolving out of the principle of absolute bliss (Shiva) within 
the disciple should be designated as the act of taking birth 
in this form of spiritual initiation— the wakening of conscious- 
ness in a human child, like the other acts described above, 
having bad its prototype in the wakening of the notion of 
personal identity with the supreme blissful one, in the soul 
of the initiated, which has become equal to the Supreme Being 
in spiritual perfection. Then the preceptor should ‘.carry 
into the lotus of his heart his own soul, manifest as an 
effulgent spark of fire, by exhibiting the mudra known as 
the Sanhar mudra ; and utter the mantra, principally sacred 
to the god, by practising the Kumbhaka Yoga, (restraining 
the breath wind while engaged in meditation) and by bring- 
ing about an union of the god Shiva and his own soul in 
his heart, and them he should retain tnerein the two abovesaid 
entities, made one, as it were, by a process of mental 
fusion (9— 15), 

Then the preceptor, well-versed in the procedure of sacri- 
-xetemonies, shhuld carry the said principal manlfa 
tdlh Ibe occult stream of his pure consciousness thresh the 



nerve ganglia, respectively sacred to the god Brahnia, etc., up^ 
to the region sacred to Shiva, by practising the Rechak form 
of Kumbhaka, performed by covering over or permeating the- 
breatb wind with the essence of the Hrid mantra and by psy* 
chi^ally projecting the same into the petals of the lotus of the 
disciple^ heart (16—17). Then he should duly propitiate 
Shiva and the fire-god ; and cause the disciple to reveren- 
tially bow down unto them, and advise him as follows:— ‘^You 
shall not blaspheme nor speak ill of the Sfaastras, nor skip 
over, while walking, the flowers and perfumed leaves with 
which any worship had been performed. You shall worship 
Shiva, the preceptor, and the fire god as long as you shall 
(18 — 19). The above vows should be given unto those who 
are by self discipline, quite capable of keeping them 5 while 
portions only of tne above vows should be given to women^ 
boys and old men, or to persons who are invalid or addictecf 
to the pleasures of the world, according to their respective 
capacities. The preceptor should then consecrate in a vessel 
the alms bowl, waist cloth and other articles essentiaita 
the due fulfilment of the vow, with the Sanhita mantras 
coupled with the term Svaha in the end and preceded 
by the Ishana or the Hrid mantra. Subsequently the pre- 
ceptor should exhibit them to the presiding deity of the 
sacrificial sand cushion, after having quickly cast into the 
fire the oblations known as the Sampata offerings* Thea 
for protection, the above articles should be kept for a 
time beneath the sacrificial pitcher, and then made over tm 
the person who had taken the vow, with the leave asd 
permission of the god Shiva, first ebtmned* Thus bjf 
means of the spiritua! imtialimi made d bome 

vows, the due fulfilmefit wh^eof is its essentiai 
and which as forming the thmae ifiscossioa b ike 
present chapter, as i6e Sansafa Dftsha (mm 

initiation^ the 

tual birth and is to be u^on ns a fpwihnl ipisii 



though competent and entitled to perform the Homa cere- 
mony unto the fire god and to receive the knowledge in- 
culcated by the Agamas.* 


The God said Now I shatl describe to you the process 
of iHumining, as it were, the principal mantra to be used in 
the course of the spiritual initiation, which has for its object 
the entire cessation of the recurring cycles of future exist- 
encci and the unfettering of the shackles of the flesh. The 
above ceremony of lumination should be performed with the 
rites of Tadan, etc. The rite of Rumination should be per- 
formed unto each of the above principal mantras by offering 
one or three oblations in the fire for each of them, the mantra 
beirig “Om, Hrun, Houm, Hrum Fut." The Nyasa rite should 
be performed as follows *‘Om, Hroun, Houm, Hrun Fut” at 
flie heart, and so on at the head, and the mouth respectively. 
In all sacrificial ceremonies undertaken with a view to injure 
the enemies of^he performer, the rite of lumination should 
be done unto each of the component parts of the abovesaid 
principal nmtra, while in the ceremonies intended to bring 
peace mid prosperity, the above rite should be performed 
by appending the mantra Vasat to the principal one. The 

• The Agffiuas' commonly known as the Tantras are so-called 
bccaase tb^ came out ctf tim moufli of the 'god Shiva, heard by his 
gpd^ss (Bri|a (the dai^ter ol the i)iOuatain),and were approved of 

die Vasudeva« ; ^ 



preceptor should offer oblalionSf in all Che instances to all 
the roads leading to salvation or the desired end; and wor- 
ship the disciple seated on the mystic cushion on his left. 
Then he should contemplate a string of thread as the 
occult sonl-nerve Susumna, and tie op the tuft of hair 
on the crown of the disciple with the one end thereof, the 
other end being let fall so as to reach down to his toe. In 
the case where the disciple asks for salvation, the thread 
should be tied round a part of his bcMly by exhibiting the 
Sanhar mudra (x— 7). The thread should be tied round a part 
of the right side of the disciple, if male, and round a part oa 
the left, if female ; the goddess Shakti having been previously 
worshipped on his or her head, as the case may be (8). Then 
having taken hold of the diread by exhibiting the Modra 
known as the Sanhar Mudra, the same should be placed oc 
the head of the disciple. The Nadi or the occult nerve of pure 
consciousness should be taken out by ntteriag the prindpai 
Mantrd, and projected into the thread fay lepeatii^ the mantra 
known as the Hrid (9}. The same should be covered over 
with the energy of the Rudra Maniiat and ; thrice Ibe ob- 
lations should be offered for invoidag the presence ot the 
soul-god by repeating the Hrid Mantra, and thrice aato the 
goddess Sliakti ( 10 ). Om Ham oheisaace to the road of 
sound, Om Ham obeisance to the road of Vavana, Om Ham 
obeisance to the road of Kala, and Om Hm obeisaAce to 
the road of Sodbya. The above ways to the desired end 
should be located in the thread ^bove described with water 
consecrated with the Mantra oi weapon; and the dmpipie 
should be bathed in tbe same. The preceptor AmM 
gently beat against tbe heart of , the dsciple witb a Corner, 
and enter into the body of ftc latter bf ** 

psychic force, while practistog^ the Redrfca farm nf Ae 
Kumbhaka by letting mA the famA mmii and^ fa tmn 
with the Mantra of 

Sowing fcom kfa own ^ 



he should pour out the Hansa bija or the occult energy^ 
which moving the heart of the latter with the rythmic 
movements of respiration, gives rise to the sound Han-sa 
(m— 13), «Om Houm Hunn Fut” is the mantra which should 
be used at the time of performing, as it were, the post natal 
rite of cleaving asunder the umbilical chord of the new- 
born ][soul in the heart ofJthe disciple. Then having covered 
the same over with the Shakti sutra or the thread of psychic 
energy, by uttering the mantra which runs as ‘*Ham Ham 
Svaba’^* the mantra “ Om Ham Ham Ham Ham, obeisance 
to the soul’^ should be projected psychically into the above 
thread, so as to pervade its entire length, the thread having 
been meditated upon as the umbilical chord of the new-born 
sool-Iife* The psychic thread should be covered over with 
the mantra of armour. Thrice the oblation should be 
offered with the Hrid mantra for invoking the presence of 
the soul-god. The thread should be embodied with the 
jprinciple of knowledge and the phase or the attribute of the 
soul-energy known- ^ the Shantyateeta Kala, or the beatitude 
beyond the state ot absolute bliss, should be looked at by 
repeating the mantra which runs as ^*Om Ham Houm 
obeisance to the phase of soul-energy beyond the state of 
pure bliss ; the other psychic principles having been located 
tbereioi and meditated upon, as having been converted into 
the essence of the mantras {I4~l6}. 

Two out of the twenty-five fundamental principles of the 
universe together with the mantra, the sixteen Varnas, the 
worlds, ffie Beejnadis,^ the letters ka and tba together 

* Wr ^ ^ vpn TOH jmi I 

am? » 

^ TO I 


3 ^^ 

With one oat of the three fundamental attributes (guna), the one 
object of sense-perception, and the primordial cause revealed 
in the form of the eternal blissful one (Sadashiva), should be 
contemplated as having been located in the phase of beatitude 
beyond the region of absolute bliss (Shantyatita Kala ) ; and the 
latter in its turn should be projected into the thread described 
above (Pasha Sutra) resplendent with its white effulgence, 
by repeating the mantra which runs as ‘*Om Houm Hum Fut’* 
to the Shantyatita Kalapasha, Thus having taken that out, 
the preceptor should place the same on the head of the thread 
abovedescribed, and cast three oblations of clarified butter 
into the fire ior ensuring the stay of the Shantyatita Kala'in 
the thread (17 — 19). Two out of the twenty-five fundamental 
principles of the universe, the two letters Kaand Tha, and the 
two Bijnadis, together with the two out of the three funda- 
mental qualities, the two mantras, tl^e one absolute cause 
situated at the occult nerve-ganglion of that name and called 
the Ishvara, the twelve terms signifying the different - 
attributes of the god (padas), the seventeen worlds, and 
one out of the five Visayas ( objects of sense-per- 
ception) should be considered as merged in the Sbanta 
Kala, which should be mentally projected into the principle 
of beatitude known as the Krishna, the god Achyuata having 
been meditated upon therein. The phase or the beatitude 
of bliss should be taken out of the latter principle by per- 
forming the rite, of Tadana and placed at the mouth of his 
occult psychic nerve. Then the preceptor should cast three 
oblations into the fire with the Atma mantras, for invoicing 
the presence of the above beatitude in that part of the thread* 
Then in the phase or the principle of knowledge located in 
the beatitude called the Atirikta, the seven tallvas or 
the fundamental principles of the universe together with the 
twenty-one beatitudes, six letters, and twenty-five 
three qualities, the object born the cause of Rudra, sfcddd 
be psychically ensconced* The preceptor shoidd meifitato 



upon the Pratislba Kala (the lordly attribute of ‘ the godhead)^ 
filled in with the six worlds, the six attributes of the god, the 
twenty beatifie glories, the four qualities, the three mantras 
and the only object born of the essence of the god Hari, after 
having performed the rite of Tadana in the phase of beatitude 
designated as the Sukla. Then having placed the sarre at the 
navi sutra (the occult nerve ganglion about the umbilicus) 
the preceptor should offer three oblations for ensuring 
the location of the same therein. Subsequent to that, he 
should locate in the Kala or the principle of non-action, the 
mantra Hrim, together with the winds pervading the occult 
nerves, and the sense-organs (both intellectual and operative) 
and the principles presiding over the workings of each of 
them, conjointly with each of the five objects of sense-per- 
ception, and the first cause contained in the Bramhanda- 
mantra, together with the Samvaras. The rite of Tadana 
(beating out) should be performed at the outset, in the remain- 
ing principles of beatitude other than those above enumerated, 
which should be located and worshipped in the thread, the 
usual oblations for ensuring, their counlinuance therein, 
having been duly offered in the sacrificial fire (20—30). 
Thus having abstracted the Kalas or the principles of 
beatitude, the preceptor should lay them down in the thread 
above described. The act of locating them should be accom- 
panied by the perfomance of the sacrifice, called the sacrifice 
with vows and penances, where the form of initation falls 
under the category called the Sabija. Other rites, over 
and above those already described, should be undertaken 
with a vieMt to keep intact the corporeal body of the dRs- 
ciple, until the mantra would take fruit )?ind produce the 
wished for beatitudes. (31—32)*. The mantra which is the 
epithet of the occult soul-!ight< should be meditated upon 
in the principles of beatific knowledge (Kalas) described 
above, the rites of tarpana propitiation) alnd luminaitoit 

tkfen performed with the same, and the 


having been offered with the Atma-mantra, Uhree times 

“Om Ham oblation with obeisance to the noose of 
the phase, of beatitude beyond that of absolute bliss.” 
The rite of Tarpana (propitiation) should be performed 
with the preceding mantra, Om, Ham, Ham, Ham, Fat, 
Oblation with obeisance to the noose (meaning the above 
said thread) of beatitude beyond that of pure bliss,” the 
rite of lamination (Deepana) having been performed with the 
above mantra, for considering the beatitudes as pervading 
the five occult nerve ganglia, through which they become 
respectively patent and perceptible (33 — 34). To that 
end, the thread should be smeared with clarified butter 
coloured with saffron, and the god Shiva with his attendants 1 
should be worshipped therein, with the “Vala” mantra fol- 
lowed by the mantra *^Hun Fut,” by piercing through the 
occult nerve ganglia in due succession. The preceptor should 
concentrate his vital energy on his own heart, and only 
confine his life-energy to that part of his body while taking 
liold of, and tying the thread by, uttering the following mantra. 

** Houm, Ham, Hun, Fut,” I take hold of the Shyantatitakala 
(phase of beatific knowledge beyond that of pure bibs) 

• and tie up the same round my body. The above mantra 
should be repeated while Accepting, taking hold of, and 
tying ‘the above thread, which stands, as it were, for 
the bonds of the world (36). The seated preceptor should 
place the above thread on the shoulder of the disciple (if 
male) for completing the rite, and hundred times offer the 
*^Hoina” oblation with the principal mantra for expiating 
all sins of the disciple. The Homa ceremony sbodd ^ 
performed in a covered saucer, in the case where the dtsapie^ 
is of the male-sex, and on an ov^urned, saucer in the case 
of a female disciple {37—38). The thread should be covered 
over with the essen^ ol the Hrid mantra, mid wor^ipped wi^ 
the same, on havmg hden made pilfe bj mcsh^ping the 



god Shiva and his attendants, and by offering the Sampata 
oblations spoken of before. Then the thread should be 
placed beneath the sacrificial pitcher ; and the mantra of 
protection from hterms should be read out to the same. 
Flowers should be given in the hands of the disciple, and the 


sacrificial pitchers should be worshipped, after which the 
preceptor would walk out of the sacrificial temple, after having 
caused the disciples to be seated o.n the three mystic diagrams, 
previously described on the hallowed ground. The disciple 
should sit facing the northern quarter of the firmament, if 
the initiation were for the object of enjoying an immunity 
from the recurring cycles of existence; while they should 
turn their faces towards the east, if the initiation wen 
made for enjoyment of comforts only, both in this life an*‘i 
hereafter (39—42). At the outset, the preceptor shonlc 
perform the ceremony of the ChuIIak Homa with three obla- 
tions of the composition, known as the Panchagavya, ai?d 
after that with three or eight mouthfuls of the sacrificial 
porridge, uncontaminated by the touch of the teeth, the same 
having been made permeated with the essence of the Atma 
mantra repeated over them. Such oblations should be covered 
over with Palasha and Pippal leaves respectively, according as 
the ceremony would be performed for attaining salvation or for 
obtaining comforts. The Samvojan oblatiq^, (oblations of 
repast) should be offered, by repeating the Hrid mantra ; and 
the preceptor should rinse his mouth with water conse- 
crated with the same mantra. The sticks or stems of sacri- 
ficial trees should be given with the Hrid mantras, for serving 
the purpose, a^ it were, of tooth-brushes, and hundred and 
eight times the principal mantra should be told, for making up 
and atoning for any defect or deficiency of procedure iQ 
petforaaiog the sacrifice. TJien the merit of performing 
the above rites shpuld be assigned to the presiding deity of 
the sacrificial sand..cushioB, wfaoni thse, preceptor should snb- 
sequently bid adieu, and go on with the worship of the god 



Cbandeslivar, and worship the sacrificiai porridge over the 
consecrated fire, after having removed the flowers, etc., with 
which the god Chanda had been worshipped (43—47). After 
that,* the preceptor should worship the Lokapalas and the 
sacrificial pitchers, and only take leave of and then 

bid a<]ieu to the god Gana and the fire-god, in the event 
of their having been retained on the periphery of the outer 
mystic circle of the sacrifice. Then oblations in small quanti- 
ties should be given to the Lokapalas, on the periphery of iht 
above circle ; and the preceptor bathed in the consecrated 
water or with hallowed ashes, should then enter the temple of 
sacrifice, and cause the disciples, if house-holders, to be laid 
down on a mattress of Kusa grass, with their heads turned to*, 
wards the north ; while those who would be monks, should lie 
down on a bed of ashes, with their heads turned towards the 
south. Then the preceptor should bathe the disciples, who 
bad tied up the tufts of hair on their crowus in knots, with 
the astra and the seven Manavak mantras, and walk out 
of the temple subsequent thereto. 

*'Ora Hili, Hili, Swaha (oblation with obeisance^ to the 
mace-wielding-god.” The preceptor should eat the sacri.- 
ficial porridge, containing the composition known as the 
Panchagavya, and then having cleansed his teeth and rinsed 
his mouth with water, lie down on the bed over which 
the Pavaman-mantra had been previously repeated, and 
meditate upon the rites performed in connection with the 
sacrifice. This is the rule which should be adapted in the 
Adhivasa, preliminary to the ceremony ef spiritnsd initia* 
lion (48—53)* 


The God said Then early in the morning, the 
preceptor should bathe and perform his daily rites of praj^er 
and worship. Dreams of curd, ginger, meat, and wine, in the 
night preceding the day of ceremony, should be held as the 
most auspicious ones, while dreams of riding on elephants or 
horses, or the dreani of a piece of white cloth by the preceptor, 
should also be looked upon as harbingers of good. The 
preceptor dreaming in sleep by as if he is bathing or anointing 
his body with oil, should be regarded as auguring evil, which 
should be remedied with a Homa ceremony, perlormed with the 
Aghora-mantra (i — 2). The preceptor should enter the sacri- 
ficial shed, after having finished his two daily rites of sandhya 
worship, which he should perform according to the rules of 
incidental (Naimittika) sacrificial ceremonies. He should 
rinse his mouth with water, purify his own soul and the part of 
his forearm, known as the Shivahasta, locate in his inner 
being the presiding deities of the different angular points of 
the sky, such as Indra etc., and worship them in the sacrificia! 
pitcher turn and turn about. The God Shiva should be wor- 
shipped both on the mystic diagram, and on the sacrificial sand- 
cushion, and the fire-god should be worshipped with oblations ; 
and the rite of mantra tarpana should be performed until the 
final oblation would be offered. The inauspiciousness of 
the two latter sorts of dreams, should be removed and atoned 
for by casting hundred and eight oblations of clarified butter 
into the fire, accompanied by the mantra of weapon pre- 
ceded by the mantra Hum. The preceptor should then 
perform the rite of luminating the mantra, and offer oblations 
(Antarvali or oblations presented on the intervein ing space) 
on the sacrificial ground, comprised between the sacrificial 



pitchers and the sand-cushion, for lighting the hallowed fire 
upon. Subsequent to that he should ask the permission of 
the god to usher in the disciple, and then walk out of the 
temple. All the rites and ceremonies described under the 
Samaya Diksha, should be performed ; the mystic diagram 
should ,be laid down on the ground as thereunder averred. 
The oblations of clarified butter, known as the Sampata 
(oblations which are supposed to lay down the foundation 
of the Homa), should be cast into the fire with the end 
of the'^consecrated Kusha grass which should be looked upon 
as the umbilical chord of the latter. The preceptor should 
thrice offer oblations lin to the fire, by uttering the principal 
mantra for ensuring the safe location of the above ; prototype 
of the umbilicus during the continuance of the sacrifice, 
and take in hand, the thread known as the Pasha-sutra, 
after having worshipped the. god Shiva, invoked and 
located in the sacrificial pitcher (3—9). Then the above 
Pasha-sutra should be tied round and hung down from the 
tuft of hair on the crown of the disciple, who would remain 
standing on the right hand side of the preceptor, so as to 
reach down to the toe of the former. In the case where the 
disciple would be initiated with the sole object of working 
out his own salvation, the thread should be tied, by viewing 
it whileSrehearsing mentally the Chidmantra; its entire length 
ha\ing been contemplated as full of the essence of all the 
knowable Bhuvanas or the worlds of perception, the principle 
of non-action (Nibri‘.i) having been located therein. The 
preceptor should mentally recite hundred and eight times, 
the names of the gods ;Kapala, Aja, Buddha, Bajradeba 
Pramardan, Bivuti, Abyaya, Shasta, Pinaki, the lord of heaven 
Agni, Rudra, Hutashi, Pingala, Khadaka, Hara, JvalanalJa- 
hyana, Babhru, Bhasmantaka, Kshapantaka, Yamya, Mrftjr®- 
hara, Dhata, Vidhata, Karjaranjaka, Kala,* Dbaroaa, Adbam^ 
Sanyukta, Viyogaka, Nairita, Marana, H^ta, Kruradri^i, 
Bhayanaka, Urdbaashakha, Biropaksa, Dhiinira», 



Danstra, Vala^ Ativala, Pashakasta, Mahavala, Shveta^ 
Jayabhadra, Dirghavahu, Jalantaka, Badabasya, and Vima 
(the ten latter gods being the ten different manifesta- 
tions of the sea god Varuna) together with those of 
Shighra, Laghu, Vayuvega, Sukshma, Tilcshna, Kshpantaka, 
Panchantaka, Panchashikha, Kapardi, Meghavahant*, Jata- 
Makutadhari, Nanaratnadhara, Nidhisha, Rupavana, Dhanya, 
Srumyadeha, Prasadakrit, Prakasha, Laksmivan, Kamarupa, 
Vidyadhara, Gnanadhara, Sarvagna, Vedaparaga, Matrivritta, 
Pingaksha, Vutapala, Valipriya, . Sarvavidyavi'J* Suka- 
Dakshahara, Ananta, Palaka, Dhira, Pataladhipati, Vrisha, 
Vrisadhara, Virja, Grasana, Sarvatomukha, Lohita (the ten 
latter being the ten manifestations of Rudra seated on the 
hoods of snakes), Shamvu, Vivu, Gana, Adhyaksa, Traksa, 
Tridashavandita, Sanhar, Bihara, Lava, Lipsu, Vichakshana, 
Atta, Kuhuka, Kalagni, Rudra, Hataka, Kusmanda, Satya, 
Vishnu, Bramha, (these eight being the manifestations of 
Rudra occupying the interior of the caldron of the universe). 
The preceptor should also contemplate the names of the 
Bhubanas together with those of the gods Bhabodvaba 
Sarvavuta, Sarvavutasukhaprada (Grantor of fielicity to all 
beings) Sarvasannidhyakr it (the ail-pervading one), and 
Bramha, Vishnu, Rudrakar (creator of ;the Indian trinity of 
godhead) as follows. Oh Thou worshipped one existing 
before all ! Om Oh Thou who dost witness the evolution of 
the universe, and all incidents happening therein ( Om Thou 
who art the destroyer of Rudra or the principle of universal 
dissolution. Om Thou who art revealed in the sun 
(Patanga). Om Thou who art the sound, the essence of 
all things and beings, and the eternal blissful one, and the all 
pervading life-pulse of the universe, who dost g ^ant all boon 
to all beings, and who art the creator of Bramha, Vishnu, and 
Rudra. I make obeisance to thee, 0 Shiva (the blissful one)* 
Ona obeisance and obeisance to thee (10 — 26). 

Then, 0 Skanda, in the thread Of the Pasha-sutra above 



described, the principle of non-action (Nivritti) should;! be 
contemplated, as impregnated with the twenty-eight.beatific 
states, together witl) the mind which fills the universal expanse 
of ether, and also with the eight letters of which the Sadya, 
Hrid, Astra and Netra, Mantras are composed. The letter 
‘Ma’ of the Sanskrit alphabet, which is the emblem of the 
mystic seed of the universe, together with the occult nerves 
Ida and Pingala, and the vital winds known as the Pran and 
the Apan, the two organs of smell and generation, togelLcr 
with the principle of earth matter, which is characterised by 
the proper sensible of smell, and the five proper sensibles of 
smell, touch, etc., should also be contemplated as merged in 
the above principle of non-action located in the thread, 
which is emblematic of the bond of this life (Pasha-Sutra) 
should be filled in, by an act of psychic abstraction, with 
the principle of essential matter ( Prilhvi-Maudal ), which 
is of an amber hue, and a square shape, chequered with elec- 
tric flashings and extending over eighty millions of miles of 
space. In this zone of essential matter should be considered 
as lying concealed, the wombs of the different forms of 
existences, the first being the source from which flows out 
the existence ol the celestial beings, then the four fold 
arrangements, Irom which emanate the creeping crawling 
things of the earth (sarishripa), then the womb of bird life 
and that of bovine species, and then the womb through which 
the mammals are brought to being, each succeeding one 
evolving out of its anterior species in due order of evolatioo. 
The fifth form of womb is that to which the imraoverdiles 
of nature owe their origin, the sixth form being that ia 
which the- non-humans, such as the R^^kshas, the Ptshach^, 
the Yakshas, and the Gandharvas, etc., take their iMrtli. The 
seventh form of womb, is that in which the Yamas t^ their 
birth ; the eigblh form being known as the Bramhayoni. The 
eight essential principles relating to the earth matter, tr^ether 
with thisir respective iccei^les, should he coatemplatedl 

42 - ■ 



as having bscn located in the above principle of non- 
action. The absolute dissolution of the universe, which 
means the disintegration of the universal nature, together 
with the sensations of pleasure and pain, which are the out- 
come of intellection, and the god Bramba who is the first 
cause, and to whose waking state is due the continuance 
of the universe, should also be located in the principle of 
non-action mentioned above, which should be coupled with the 
Mantra particularly sacred to it, and running as Om Ham 
Hum Ham Hum Fut to the thread which stands for the beati- 
tude of non-action ” Then the preceptor should draw it forth 
fay practising the Puraka form of Kumbhaka, and by^ exhibit- 
ing the Ankushamudra, the mantra which would be repeated 
on the occasion being “ Om Ham obeisance to the Nivritli 
Kala Pasha.” Then he should carry up the same through 
the occult nerve-ganglia situate at the lower part of 
his body, by exhibiting the Sambarmudra and .repeating 
the Mantra which runs as ”Om Hum Ham Hrum Hum 
Fut to the Nivrittikalapasha ” (thread of the beatitude of 
non-action). Then the same should be projected into 
the receptacle for the sacrificial fire, by exhibiting the 
Mudra known as the Udbhavamudra, and also by repeating 
the abovesaid Mantra. The Nivrittikala thus located in 
the fire-hole, should be worshipp«^d with the above Mantra, 
and therein the oblation should be cast unto the same, with a 
view to ensure its continuance. The Tarpana should be 
performed by offering three oblations. The god ferahroa 
should be invoked with the Mantra Om Ham obeisance to 
the god Brahma and the following prayer should be read 
aloud 4FQh Brahman 1 I initiate this disciple in this world 
over which you hold sway. May he attain salvation. Dost 
thou be propitious. Oh lord t” The god of fate should be thus 
spoken to, after which the preceptor should invoke the 
goddess Vagbhvari with the Hrid-Mantra, who is the deity of 
protection and makes herself manifest in the forms of 


331 ‘ 

knowledgei volition nnd action, and who possesses the six 
divine attributes, and is the sole cause of the universe. The 
goddess should be worshipped in the following way. The 
principal Mantras wh^ch are preceded ^by the Hrid-Mantras 
and coupled with the Hum Fut Mantra in the end, and which 
had bee^ previously stirred up in the womb of the goddess 
Vagishvari, should be psychically projected into the heart ol 
the disciple. The preceptor, well-versed in the procedure of 
these sacrifices, should then penetrate into his innerself by 
one stroke of his soul-energy, unite the effulgent point of 
consciousness of the latter located in the beatitude of 
non-action, with the other beatific principles (Kalas), and 
divide the same with the principal Mantra ** Om Ham Hum 
Has Hum and also by repeating the Mantra which 

runs as “ Om Ham SVaha, and by exhibiting the Samharmudra 
after having practised a Purak form of the Kumbhaka. 
(27-— 40). Then he should draw it out by repeating the Atma- 
Mantra Om Hum Hum Hum obeisance to the soul) and 
merge the same in bis own pure consciousness. Then be 
should bring about an union of' his own soul and the god 
and the goddess. Then he should rouse up the same, 
practise the Rechaka form of Kumbhaka, and carry up the 
stream of his pure consciousness, through the occult nerve- 
ganglia respectively sacred to the god Bramha, etc., up to 
the cav!*‘y of the brain sacred to the god Shiva, tie should 
locate the same, in ks upward course, in all the prindples 
which give rise to the different existences, sudi as the serpent^ 
theAves, the mammal etc., contained in bk vnaer-bel^ 
which is tiie Microcosm of the Universe, and finaliy merge 
the same In the womb of the fire goddess Vagishvari, by 
exhibiting Udbhavamudm from tho left The locmiovi 
of the soul in the principle% qK>ken of in the premhng 
line, Am&A be made the prec^ior, with a view to 
perfonn die rke of Gaifehadhaa to the newiy-born soul cbM 
in the disciple, so as to lore^ the piOG«m oi evofmimi, or . 



so that he mignt not u under the need or gv. *g through 
the necessary cycles of existence, before he could enter the 
door of salvation. The stream of soul-energy thus evoked, 
should be worshipped with the Mantra Ham Ham Ham 

obeisance to the soul ; and five times the rite of Tarpana 
should be performed unto it with the ^ame Mantra. In all 
other principles of birth, the psychic body of the disciple 
should be purified. The rite of Punsavan should not be 
performed in the present instance, as the psychic body is 
not characterised by any distinctive mark of sex. The 
rite of purification of the body of the soul-child in its 
successive births in the different wombs of existences, such 
as the non-human and the divine, etc., in its gradual 
progress towards salvation, should be made with the Siras- 
Mantra; and likewise the preceptor should perform unto 
him, the rite of postnatal ceremony in those of its psychical 
re-birthS| with the same Mantra as the above. The preceptor 
should contemplate the mantra sacred to the god Shiva, and 
also She respective regions occupied by the material garbs 
of the soul-child, in its successive re-births described above. 
Its objects of sense perception should be meditated upon by 
repeating the Mantra of armour, and its senses by repeating 
the Mantra of weapon ; while its appearances, false know- 
ledge, sins, and cessations of beings, should be contemplated 
by uttering the Mantra which is sacred to the soul and known 
as the Atma-Mantra {41-— 47). The ears should be made 
pure with the essence of the Shiva Mantra, and the purifica- 
tion of the component principles should be made by repeat- 
ing the Hrid-Mantra. Five oblations should be offered five 
times In succession, in the course of Garbhadhan and other 
rit^s described above ; and the extinction of the sinful acts 
of disciple should be made with the essence of the Mantra 
of Maya (illusioa}* Similarly the chain of hankerings and 
prop^nsittes, which binds him to his successive mundane 
existea^Si should be broken with the essence of a similariy 


3 i 3 

repeated Maya Mantra. Hundred limes the oblation should 
be offered in honour of the goddess of releasci and subse- 
quently the fetters that bind him to that particular existence^ 
should be caus^^d to fall off, by permanently damming up 
the current of his impieties. Five times five, the oblations 
should he cast into the sacrificial fire, accompanied by the 
Mantra of Weapon, ending with the Mantra Svaha thereto 
appended. Seven oblations should be offered to the bonds of 
life, such as illusion, etc., by repeating the Mantra of Weapon, 
which should be severed with the sword of knowledge, as 
an ordinary string of thread is cut in two, with a steel 
knife, by repeating the Mantra which runs as Om Honi 
Hun Fut to the beatitude of salvation.” With his both hands 
the preceptor should unloose the thread, tied round the body 
of the disciple. He should repeat the Shara Mantra, while thus 
untying the thread, lay it down in a circle in the sacrificial 
laddie, full of clarified butter. The thread shotdd be imagined 
as burnt and reduced to a^s, by repeating the Astra^ oa 
the former, and the Kabalastra Mantra on the latter occa^oo 
(48 — 52). Five oblations should be cast into the fire for 
guarding against recrudescence of the evils* of life. The 
Pryaschitta (the rite of expiation of sin committed through 
undue performance of the sacrifice) should be performed, 
and eight oblations should be cast into the fire sobsequeiil 
thereto .by repeating the Mantra which runs as “OmHas 
to the weapon (Astra) Hum Fut.” Then the god of fate 
should be invoked, and worshipped^ and the rke d Taipaoa 
should be done in his hosour (53). 

Then the soven^nity of the god BraaAai AoM he re* 
turned to him by offeriog ttrec ohiaitiocis as 
Ham, O Bramhan, whom »^ad aad toocfa camot dosci&e m 
perceive, take these lAlalioo*. ! oBcr them to yew.** * The 
preceptm Arnold inform Mdi the m a nd at e of the god Skim 
t^the folhmiag^eqt :~**0 3fealiama| ttii dfafiipi e thengh 
formerly possessed of a mal;erttd body mid Immeotcd by ii» * 



cravings and desires in common with all other animals^ have 
burnt down all his sins and impieties. Bind him not again with 
the cycles of necessary existence, thoogh he still lives in a 
region of which you are the;supreme God. Then the preceptor 
should bid farewell to the above god, gradually fill in the 
right occult nerve below his spinal chord, by restraining his 
breath-wind in Kumbhaka, exhibit the Samhar Mudra, and 
unite his own soul with the Universal One which would 
thereby look like the disk of the full moon in the beginning of 
an eclipse. 

The preceptor should locate the same in the thread by 
practising the Recbaka form of Kumbhaka, and worship the 
drops of ambrosial water contained in the vessel of offering, 
and place the same on the head of the disciple. Then the 
god and the goddess should be bid adieu, and the final obla* 
tion should be offered, by uttering the Shara Mantra with the 
term Vousat appended thereto. Thus the beatific principle 
of non-action, (Nivritti Kala) should be purified in the form of 
spiritual initiation, made with the object of merging the 
disciple :a the Supreme being. (54 *--58} 


union 6f the two classes of tfie fundamental prin** 
df^es of tiie ttnivmrse^ borii {Hire and impure (Hmited and ab- 
sotoe), should be broi^tedHHtt by repeiting the Mantra "Om 
mm Hrum Hara. In the bearific quality or state known as 
the &it preceptor riumld contemplate as merged 

foBcnrii^ ai^ dkinitiest tiie essen^ 

drtues of mtoTi %ht| Af, ttie five senmUe* id 



touch, taste, etc., the senses, the principle of cognition, the 
essential virtues (such as the Satva, Raja and Tama), and the 
egoistic knowledge (which make ujp the twenty<four out of 
the twenty-Bve fundamental principles of the universe, 
known os the twenty-6ve Mahatanmatrabhutas) together with 
the Furusha or the subjective reality. The preceptor should 
imagine as merged in the above said Kala, the letters of the 
alphabet beginning with ‘ Kha’ and ending with * Ya,’ the 
fifty six Bhuvanas, and the equal number of Rudras who 
domineer over the same (i-~>'4). The names of the fifty- 
six Rudras are as follows >(t) Amaresh, (2} Pr^haba, (3) 
Naimisha, (4) Puskara, (5} Padi, (6) Dandi, (7) Bhavabbuti, 
( 8 ) Nakulesha, (9} Harisb, Chandra, (10) Srisbmia, <ii) 
Anvisba, (12) Asratikesha, (13) Mahakala, (14) Madbyama, 
(15) Kedara, (16) Bhairava, (these forming the second 
group of the eight Rudras), (17) Gaya, (18) Kurukshetnt, 
(19} Kala-nadi, (20} Vimala, (21) Attahasa, (33) Bfa- 
heodra, (23) Bhima, (24) Vasuvapada, (25) Rndrakoti. <26) 
Raviyukta, (27) Mahavala, (28) Gokarna, (29} Bhadrakarna, 
(30) Svarnaksa, (31} Sthaou, {32} Ajesba, (33) Sarvagna, (34) 
Bhasvar, (35) Sudanantara, (35) Suvahu, (36) Martani{»^ (37} 
Vishala, (38) Jatila, (39) Roudra, (40) Piagalaksha, (41} Kula- 
danstri, (42) Vidura (43) Gboca (44) Prajap^a, (45) Hnta> 
shaoa, (46) Kamrupi, (47) Kala, (48) Kama, (49) Bfasqraaafca, 
(50) Matanga, (51) Pingala, (52} Hara, (53) Dhatitsangafca,' 
(54) Sankhukaraa, (55) Vidbaaa, <56) Srikaata^ (57} Cfaaadta- 
sekhara, these closing the list of the Rn^as. 

Now I shall desmbe the attribates or the giocies of dm 
god, who should be woe^i^ed and invoked with epithets 
derived from each of them asftdhnm thnw iff prnrartimj; 

one! Om, Ohthou,whokiio»estaeaiiafeorfani!Oni^C%th8« 
nU^conqueriag one! Oh than aoaeco «f heat and 

motioD I Am,. Oh thou, the iaiSwitn saoeon of %ktl Oh 
thou tile oaiy sobjective cetdiif { Oh then ■n nil i rd in the 
fie| dm, CHt^en Ite dtami 


burning on«, without ever being reduced to ashes or without 
losing anything by combustion ! Om, Oh thou who knowest 
no beginning ! Om, Oh thou One amongst multiplicity j Om, 
Oh thou D*hu, Dhu I Om, Oh thou who dost underlie this 
terrestrial globe { Om, Oh thou on whom rests the heavenly 
region of Bhuba ! Om; Oh thou in whom the region of Sva has 
its abodd j Oh thou who art the deathless one ! Oh thou 
who dost come out of the universal dissolution | Oh thou 
the blissful one ! Oh thou all j Oh thou the absolute soul i Oh 
thou the l^d of godsj Oh thou the Supreme deity [ Oh thou 
lord dfj^ood will ! Oh thoji the supreme heat and light, the 
pre^xtaiug deity of \ifoga i Oh Muncha, who art the first cause, 
thfi all, and the all-pervading one ! These are the thirty two 
attributes of.^odhead. The essence of the three Mantras of 
Vamadeva,' Suiva, and Shikha, should be meditated upon 
arlxertneaung the abovesaid Pratistha Kala, together with 
tfe^/twdoccttlt psychic nerves respectively known as the Gan- 
dha^i'imdthe Susumna, and the vital winds called the Samana 
aud the U(^na- With his psychic energy, the preceptor 
should make the abovesaid phase of beatitude, endowed with 
the sense-organs of taste and reproduction of the species. 
The fundamental substance, lorming the real and underlying 
sabstratum of the phase, would be the sentiments only, while 
the attributes which would form therein the proper objects of 
sense-perception, would be the proper sensibies of sight, 
bearing, touch, and taste. The white sphere-shaped mandat 
would be the shape of the region of the beatific phase under 
dtscnssipn ; and the lotus Sower, with the attributes it signi- 
fes, would be ks distinctive emblem (£—15)* Dream should 
be known as the only state of consciousness in that 
{^ase ; and the god Garudadhvd|a, With the attributes of god- 
bead he is the emhkm ol, should be looked upon as the only 
cause o 4 all effects happening therein. Then the precepjtot . 
should meditate upon ^ thiead as impregnated wjth t^e 
abovesaid Pratistha Kala (beatitude of prosperity), filled in 



miidi all the Bhavanas before described, and cany that into 
his own body by repeating the Mantra of the soul, and ret^ 
the same within himself, blended, |as it were, with the stream 
of p^hic energ/'flowing in his occult soul-nerve. 

Subsequent to that, he should draw it forth from the 
occult nefire-ganglia, situate within the lower part of bis body, 
by practising the Purak form of Kumbhaka, and by exhibiting 
the Mudra known as the Ankusha (mace) mudra, while men- 
tally repeating the Mantra “ Ota Ham Khim Ham to die 
noose of the Pratistha Kala Om Fut Svaba.” Then he should 
take the latter out of the occult soul-nerve, by exhibiting the 
Samhar Mudra; and retain the same in the lower part of his 
heart, by practising the Kumbhaka and by simultaneously 
repeatihg therewith, the Mantra Om Ham Hrun Hram Hmn 
to the Pratistha Kalapasha Hnu Fut. Then he should 
project the same into the sacrificial pitcher, by practising 
die Rechaka form of Kumbhaka, and by repeating the 
same Mantra. Thus having worshipped ^tbe same with the 
above Mantra, three oblations should be cast into Ube fire 
with the Mantra coupled with thelterm Svaba in the end, tat 
ensuring the continuance of the Kala in the sacrifidal 
pitcher. The god Vishnu should be subsequently invoiced 
and worshipped; and the rite of Tarpana should be per- 
formed in his honour. .The god should be payed a* 
follows:— “Oh Visban, who d(»t preside 'over the phase oi 
fc f at i*"*** about to be purified and made patent in the 
disdple. I shall initiate him in this thy kingdom. Be gra- 
Oh lord! so that .be may enter the door irf salva- 
tion. Then as before, the ^d Vagishvar and the godrkss 
V^ishvsuri should be invoked, wotsUpped, and pib|^iafeed 
with the tftes erf Tarpana ; alter which the {weceptec AoM 
gently tow* the heart of the disc^de by At 

Mantras' “Om. Ham, Ham, Ham, Fut;" ai^ eal*r iafea 
the Iqr repeating the :*ovesa»d Maatra. *1*6 pea- 

<^itor Aoald sever the atring of pwe txmwmstmt 

33 * 


in the above'said thread with the Mantra of weapbn. 
Then he should draw it into his own heart, by repaying 
the Hrid-Mantra coupled with the term Svaha in the end ; 
and lodge the same in his own soul, by repeating the Mantra 
of the soul, preceded by the Astra Mantra, and followed by 
the term namas'; the Mantra thus formed, would'read as 
"Om, Ham, Ham, Ham, obeisance to the soul (Atmani. 
namas). Then ithe union of the god and the goddess 
should be brought .about; and the seed of soul should be 
cast into the womb of the goddess Vagtshvari, by exhibiting 
the Udbhavamudra from the left ; t^ Mantra being "Om, 
Ham, Ham, Ham, obeisance to the soul.” The Hrid-Mantra 
shonld be repeated for endowing the soul-child, as it were, 
with a distinct form and shape. The postnatal ceremony 
of the above child, should be performed by uttering the 
Siras-Maotra. Its possession should be determined by 
repeating the Shikha-Mantra, its ' objects of enjoyment 
being offered with the essence of the Mantra of armour. 
The component principles of the new-born soul-child, should 
be purified^ by uttering the Hrid-Mantra ; and the rite of 
GmbhAdhana should be done untO'him as before. Hundred 
cftteions fshould be offered wiffi the Mantra of Release, 
for unloosening, as it were, the bonds of the world. Ilins 
having unfettered the disciple, tbe'preceptor should cut ^ 
thread with a knife, over which the Kala-Mantras had been re- 
peated; the Mantra of weapon having been repeated hundred 
times before that. The Kala-Mantra which should be repeated 
on the occasion, being " Om, Hrim the noose having been 
ma^fe permeated with the beatitude of Pratistba. Hun Put 
Then the noose or the thread, described above, should be 
up IQ a knot, by repeating the Mantra of weapon is 
deathbed in the precedk^j^jpter, Aen placed in the cavity 
cff A«:aacrifidai laddie, full^’dmified butter, and cast into 
tihe 4ct with an oblation. The lOda^ Mantra-sbould be 
xeai dtt the teller occemn, and fire dxhdkms donld be 



cast into the fire, for' guarding against the fresh cropping 
up of the shoots of illusion. Then the ceremony of ex> 
piation of sin, should be performed with oblations cast 
eight times into the sacrificial fire, with the Astra*Mantra 
as Om Has Hun Fat to the weapon.” The God Hrishi* 
kesha should be .invoked with the Hrid>Mantra. The god 
should be worshipped, and the Hte of Tarpana should be 
dpne unto him. The sovereignty of the god Vishnu over 
the region in which the beatitude under discussion is located, 
and which had been borrowed by the preceptor at the outset 
of the sacrifice, [should be returned to him. The Mantes 
which should be repeated on the occasion, being Om Ham 
accept this dowry of sentiment. Oh lord.” Then the Mandate 
of the god Shiva dould be read over to the god wfaidi is 
to the following ^ect. "Oh lord, the initiated disdple, 
though possessed of a material body, and formerly subject 
to the ills of life, in common with the lower animals have 
reduced bis former iniquities to ashes. Bind him not to tLe 
i^hain of re-birth. Then the preceptor should bid farewell to 
the god Vishnu by exhibiting the samharmudra, and unite bis 
own soul with the universal One, which would look like the 
disk of the moon in the middle part a lunar eclipse, amd 
merge the same in the thread, representing Uie bond of the 
v^ld. Then the god and the godde^ should be tdkeo 
leave 'of, and the sacrificial fire-god should be worsdnpped 
v^h flowers, etc., and the final obl^ion should be cast into 
the fire- Thus the beatific phase known as the PndiSfla 
Arnold be purified (16—31). 


The God said The union of the Vidya Kafa 
ij^^JPrachina Kala should be made, as before described, by 
littering the Mantra Om Houm Kshim. I shall now euu- 
merate. Oh Bramhan, the tattvas or th^ fundamental prin- 
ciples which should be located in the beatitude of know- 
ledge (Vidyakala). Tliey are the principles of Raga (attach- 
ment), Suddha Vidya (pure knowledge), Nyati (fate), and 
Maya (illusion), which together with the two mentioned 
above are seven in number. The letters 'Ra,^ *La/ *Va,* and 
the three which are known as the emblems of the six 
different branches of learning (Sat Vidya), should also be 
projected into the abovesaid phase of beatitude. I shall 
saw describe the twenty one padas (terms) which should 
also be located in the same (1—^3). 

Om bbeisance to the god Shiva, who is the lord of all 
created things. Ham to the god Ishana at my head;~tb the 
Tat-purusba at my face Aghora at my heart, to Bamadeva 
at my anus, and to the god who is revealed in the lorm of 
Sadjeyata, who pervades my entire body. Om obeisance to 
the mysterious of the mysterious. Om obeisance to the pro- 
tector of the universe. Om obeisance to the deathle^ one. 
Om obeisance to the lord of all. Om obeisance to the god 
who is resplendent as the light. Om obeisance to the god 
of gods. Om obeisance to the source of all thoughts and 
sentiments. Om obeisance to the god who pervades this 
universal expanse of ether. 

Now I shall enumerate the names of the Bhovanas and 
ibe Rudras who preside over the ^ame, and describe their 
nature. The names of the Rudras,. Oh Bn^man, are as 
hSms >««Bamadeva (the god of irascible^ mUure). Sarvabfaa* 


34 » 

vodbhava. (The god from whom all get their birth), Bajra- 
deha (the thunder-bodied One). Prabhu (lord), Dhata (the 
weilder of fate^ Krama ; (order), Vikranaa (power), Suprabba 
(the resplendent One), Vatu (the agile One), Prashanta (the 
supreme pacified One) Paramaksara -^he Supreme know- 
ledge). Shiva (the blissful One), Sashiva (the One possessed 
of the Supreme benediction), Babhru (the yellow light), 
Aksaya (the being who knows no loss or waste). Shambha 
(the begetter|of peace), A^risturupa (the eternal being, the like 
of whom has not been found), Adrista-nama (the invisible 
One). Rupabardhana (the promoter of beauty), Manonraona 
(expander of mind), Mahavtrja (the mighty One), Chitrangada 
(the variegated one) Kalyaoa (the blissful One), Mantra 
(the controller of mind), Ghora (the dreadfni One). Amara 
^ (the immortal One). In the abovesaid phase of beatitudet 
the preceptor should meditate upon the two occult psyddc 
nerves known as the Vusha and the Hastijihva, and llie 
vital winds called the Vyana, Naga^^d the Pravanjaaa 
described before. The only object o£ sHSC-p^rcept|on . 
which should be contemplated in the ^>oye32^ pnnciple 
of beatitude, is what is perceived through the sense of s^lit. 
The principle of beatitude under discussion, should be 
regarded as the region where the sens^ of sight, and the 
sense-organ of locomotion, are only operative, the attribnlei^ 
which act upon the organism, being the proper senstblei of 
sound, touch and sight only. The state of conscioiisnen% 
which prevails in this particular region of beatific bliss, is the 
state of absolute psychic sleep which is bereft of all dr eams , 
or false knowledge. The god Rudra shc^d be looked upon 
as the cause which has brought to being this paiticdar 
region of beatitude, and the preceptor i^nld me^^e upon 
alt the Bhuvanas as located in this beatiSc fnindpfe of faioir- 
ledge (4—10). The stirring up and seweace the bemiic 
principle, thus psychically lurpjected into the heart of the dis* 
opfey idiould be made by Ite pcecep^t by peoetoiipg hdo 



the same as before described; and he should take that out ot - 
the heart of the disciple, by bringing into action the psycUc, 
energy of his own being. The preceptor sJhonId then locate 
the same in bU own soul, and subsequently project the same 
into the receptacle for the sacrificial fire, after having . 
addressed the new*born souMife. The god and the goodess 
should be invoked and worshipped, and the preceptor would 
wake up the new-born soul in the heart of the disciple, with 
the Mantra spoken of above, take hold of and merge the 
same in bis own soul, and subsequently cast the same into 
the womb of the goddess Vagishvari (the goddess of spMch) 
by repeating the Dvadasbanta Mantra, and by exhibiting the 
Udbhavamudra from the left (iz-mi4). He rite qf Cmrbiia'' 
dban and the postnatal purification should be performed unto 
the new-born soul child. He region dftts stay and operation 
should be determined. The ears and the compoaent 
principles of the discipIe^s body should be purified, and 
hundred oblations should be offered to Miscriti the goddess 
of release) according to rules laid down before ; and the 
ceremony of Mala-karma should be performed with the 
Maya Mantra, border that the chain that binds the disciple 
to the recurring series of existences, might fall off. He 
thread tied round die body of the disciple, should be‘ 
severed with a knife; and the dynamical energy of evil 
in the disciple, should be brought to a dead halt in the 
way described in the preceding Chapter. The thread or 
tiie noose should be severed, gathered up in a kao|, and 
placed in the sacrificial laddie, full of clarified butter, and 
then reduced to ashes as directed before. The rite of 
mqiiation of sb should be then performed.- The god Rndra 
should be invoked and worshipped, and the sensibles ef' 
right and smell riiould be assigned to him with the Mantra, 

*’ Om Hrim, (Mi Rud^ take this dowry of the proper sen- 
tSdks of ri^ and sradi.” He mandate of the god SbamUm 
steiild be oit to tiie Rudras, and the pneceptor i^old 


bid them adieu after worship. The preceptor should takt 
the priuciple of knowledge out of his own soul, and locatf 
the same in the t|iread or noose standing for the bond of 
existence. Then he should concentrate bis whole self on the 
soul-point in the head of the disciple, and bid farewell to the 
god and his goddess. The 6nal or the oblation closing the 
sacrificei should be cast into the sacrificial fire, and the rite 
of making up any deficiency in performing the same, sboultf 
be undertaken as directed before. Thus the phase or the 
principle of beatific knowledge (Vidya Kaia) should be 
purified. (15—21.)